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18. Pseudopregnancy in goats: Sonographic prevalence and associated risk factors in Khartoum State, Sudan
Areeg Mohamed Almubarak, Naglaa Abd Elhakeem Abass, Majdi Elnaim Badawi, Mohamed Tagelddin Ibrahim, Abdelhamid Ahmed Elfadil and Rihab Mohamed Abdelghafar
Veterinary World, 11(4): 525-529
Aim: This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of pseudopregnancy in goats and to investigate potential risk factors associated with the condition in Khartoum State.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from March 2015 to February 2016. A total of 378 female goats which presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sudan University of Science and Technology, for routine ultrasonographic pregnancy diagnosis were examined. Ultrasound scanning was performed using a real-time scanner equipped with dual-frequency (3.5-5 MHz) curvilinear transducer.
Results: The results showed that the prevalence of pseudopregnancy in goats in Khartoum State was 10.6%. Risk factors such as general body condition (χ2=5.974; p=0.05), age (χ2=11.760; p=0.0129), type of estrus (χ2=12.794; p=0.000), and previous reproductive performance (χ2=13.397; p=0.020) showed significant association (p≤0.05) with the occurrence of pseudopregnancy in the univariate analysis. Breed (χ2=12.627; p=0.082), milk yield (χ2=5.951; p=0.114), type of feeding (χ2=1.721; p=0.190), season (χ2=2.661; p=0.264), locality (χ2=7.66; p=0.264), parity number (χ2=0.451; p=0.767), and rearing system (χ2=1.593; p=0.451) were not significantly associated with pseudopregnancy.
Conclusion: The prevalence of pseudopregnancy in goats in Khartoum State was 10.6%. Pseudopregnancy in goats is significantly associated with age, type of estrus, general body condition, and previous reproductive performance. This study showed for the first time that pseudopregnancy is a real reproductive problem in goats in Khartoum State.
17. Isolation, identification, and serotyping of Avibacterium paragallinarum from quails in Indonesia with typical infectious coryza disease symptoms
Agnesia Endang Tri Hastuti Wahyuni, Charles Rangga Tabbu, Sidna Artanto, Dwi Cahyo Budi Setiawan and Sadung Itha Rajaguguk
Veterinary World, 11(4): 519-524
Background and Aim: Infectious coryza (IC) or snot is an infectious upper respiratory disease affecting chickens and birds, including quails, and it is caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum. The symptoms of IC are facial swelling, malodorous nasal discharge, and lacrimation. This study aimed to isolate, identify, and serotype the A. paragallinarum of snot in quails and to determine the sensitivity and resistance to several antibiotics.
Materials and Methods: Nine quails from Yogyakarta, Indonesia with typical snot disease symptoms were used in this study. The nasal swab was obtained and directly streaked onto a chocolate agar plate and blood agar plate (BAP), then incubated in 5% CO2 at 37°C for 24-48 h. Staphylococcus spp. was cross-streaked onto the BAP to show the satellite growth. The observation of the morphology of the suspected colony, Gram staining, and biochemical tests (catalase test, oxidase test, urease test, peptone test, and carbohydrate fermentation such as maltose, mannitol, lactose, and sorbitol) are done to identify the species of bacteria. This research also detects the serovar of A. paragallinarum using hemagglutination inhibition test. The antibiotic sensitivity tests were also performed using several antibiotics against five A. paragallinarum isolates that were cultured on Mueller-Hinton Agar and added with antibiotic discs, then incubated in 5% CO2 at 37°C for 24-48 h.
Results: Five isolates out of nine suspected isolates (55.5%) were A. paragallinarum. The growth of isolates from quails did not depend on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) (NAD-independent). Sensitivity test was done using the five identified A. paragallinarum isolates, results showed that they were 100% sensitive to amoxicillin (AMC) and ampicillin (AMP); 100% resistant toward amikacin (AK), erythromycin (E), gentamycin (CN), and tetracycline (TE); 80% resistant toward kanamycin (K) and trimethoprim (W); 60% resistant toward chloramphenicol (C); and 20% toward enrofloxacin (ENR). The antibiotics that have an intermediate sensitivity (in between sensitive and resistant) were ENR and K, 80% and 20%, respectively. Three out of five A. paragallinarum isolates were identified as serovar B of A. paragallinarum using HI test.
Conclusion: Five out of nine isolates (55.5%) from quails with typical IC disease symptoms identified as A. paragallinarum and sensitive toward AMC and AMP. Three out of five A. paragallinarum isolates were identified as serovar B.
16. Seroprevalence and risk factors of caprine brucellosis in Khartoum state, Sudan
Eman Mohamed-Ahmed Mohamed, Abdelhamid Ahemd Mohamed Elfadil, Enaam Mohamed El-Sanousi, Hatim Hamad Ibrahaem, Saad El-Tiab Mohamed-Noor, Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla and Yassir Adam Shuaib
Veterinary World, 11(4): 511-518
Aim: This cross-sectional study was conducted from April to July 2012 in Khartoum state, Sudan, to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in goats and to investigate potential risk factors associated with this disease.
Materials and Methods: A total of 307 serum samples were collected from both sexes of goats in four different localities and were subjected to testing for brucellosis using rose bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT), and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA).
Results: The overall seroprevalence was 11.4% (n=35) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) ranging from 7.80 to 15.0. Out of these 35 RBPT-positive samples, the positivity of 18 and 17 were confirmed by SAT and cELISA, respectively. A significant statistical variation was observed between brucellosis seroprevalences in goats purchased from local animal markets and goats that were raised at the farm. Conversely, such significant variations were not observed among the categories of other risk factors with seroprevalences ranging from 3.0% (95% CI between 0.40 and 7.20) to 16.3% (95% CI between 10.4 and 22.3). Location (χ2=9.33, df=3, p=0.02), breed (χ2=3.52, df=1, p=0.05), herd size (χ2=6.59, df=2, p=0.03), and herd expansion (χ2=5.39, df=1, p=0.02) were associated with RBPT-positive status for brucella in the two-tailed Chi-square test. In addition, Sharq an-Nil locality and goats raised at the farm had increased odds of being RBPT positive.
Conclusion: Brucellosis was detected in goats in all surveyed localities. An effort should be made to educate goat owners/herders about brucellosis as well as about the importance of vaccination.
15. Viability test of fish scale collagen (Oshpronemus gouramy) on baby hamster kidney fibroblasts-21 fibroblast cell culture
Chiquita Prahasanti, Denny Tri Wulandari and Noer Ulfa
Veterinary World, 11(4): 506-510
Aim: This study aims to examine the toxicity of collagen extracted from gouramy fish scales (Oshpronemus gouramy) by evaluating its viability against baby hamster kidney fibroblasts-21.
Materials and Methods: Collagen was extracted from gouramy fish scales (O. gouramy) with 6% acetic acid. Its results were analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and freeze-dried technique. Its morphology then was analyzed with scanning electron microscope. Afterward, 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)2.5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was conducted to compare cells with and without fish scale collagen treatment.
Results: Collagen extracted from gouramy fish scales had no influence statistically on cultured fibroblast cells with a statistical significance (2-tailed) value of 0.754 (p>00025).
Conclusion: Collagen extracted from gouramy fish scales has high viability against BHK21 fibroblast cells.
Keywords: bone graft, collagen, gouramy fish scale, viability, 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)2.5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide.
14. Genetic characterization of 11 microsatellite loci in Egyptian pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and their cross-species amplification in other Columbidae populations
Sherif Ramadan, Ahmed Dawod, Osama El-Garhy, Amira M. Nowier, Marwa Eltanany and Miho Inoue-Murayama
Veterinary World, 11(4): 497-505
Aim: This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationships of 10 Egyptian pigeon populations belonging to Columba livia domestica species using 11 microsatellite markers and to investigate the success of these markers amplification across another eight pigeon species.
Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated from feather samples of 179 pigeon samples from 10 Egyptian breeds: Asfer Weraq (n=14), Austoraly (n=20), Reehani (n=21), Messawed (n=17), Nemssawy (n=27), Otatti (n=12), Morasla (n=17), Tumbler (n=22), Halaby Asfer (n=10), and Karakandy (n=19) in addition to Japanese feral pigeons (n=30). Genotyping was done using 11 specific polymorphic microsatellite makers. Moreover, 37 samples not belonging to C. livia domestica but belonging to another eight pigeon species were genotyped. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were electrophoresed on an ABI 3130xl DNA Sequencer. The basic measures of genetic diversity and phylogenetic trees were computed using bioinformatics software.
Results: Across the 10 studied Egyptian populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 19 and the average number of alleles observed was 9.091. The lowest value of expected heterozygosity (0.373) was obtained for the Reehani breed, and the highest value (0.706) was found for Morasla breed. The overall expected heterozygosity of Egyptian pigeons was 0.548. The FST coefficient which indicates fixation coefficients of subpopulations within the total population for the 11 loci varied from 0.318 to 0.114 with a relatively high mean (0.226). In our study, the FIS showed a relatively high average (0.037). The pairwise Reynolds's genetic distance between the 11 studied pigeon populations recorded lower values between Otatti and Austoraly (0.025) and between Morasla and Japanese feral pigeons (0.054). These results are supported by clustering pattern either by the neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree or by a Bayesian clustering of STRUCTURE with the admixture method.
Conclusion: We confirm the applicability of the CliμD17, CliμT17, CliμD16, CliμD32, CliμT13, CliμD01, PG1, PG2, PG4, PG6, and PG7 microsatellite markers among Egyptian domestic pigeons and across other pigeon species using cross-species amplification method. The information from this study should be useful for genetic characterization and for developing conservation programs of this important species.
13. Radiographic prediction of metallic foreign body penetration in the reticulum of cows and buffaloes
Shanib Mehraj Makhdoomi, Vandana Sangwan, and Ashwani Kumar
Veterinary World, 11(4): 488-496
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the role of radiography in the standing (right and left) and recumbent (right) lateral positions for the detection and prediction of metallic foreign body penetration in the reticular wall.
Materials and Methods: A total of 41 bovines (23 cows and 18 buffaloes) having at least one sharp metallic foreign body (>1 cm) detected on reticular radiographs were investigated, and their extent of penetration in the reticular wall was confirmed on the left flank laparorumenotomy.
Results: Of total sharp metallic foreign bodies retrieved on rumenotomy, the maximum percent were detected on the right recumbent radiographic view (75.00% in cows and 57.14% in buffaloes) compared to the right standing (54.38% in cows and 40.42% in buffaloes) and left standing (51.06% in cows and 27.08% in buffaloes) radiographic views. The presence of gas pocket or nodule adjoining a foreign body, faintly visible foreign body, foreign body that appeared partially or completely out of the reticulum, and foreign body that appeared parallel, into, or directed toward the diaphragm indicated a high probability in the prediction of penetrating foreign body in the left standing (100%) followed by the right recumbent (85.71% in cattle and 90% in buffaloes) and right standing (94.74% in cattle and 55.56% in buffaloes) radiographic views.
Conclusion: The right recumbent radiographic view is most reliable to detect sharp metallic foreign bodies in bovine. Buffaloes engulf more number of foreign bodies; however, comparatively, the number of completely or partially penetrating foreign bodies is high in cattle. The hypothesized radiographic parameters for the prediction of penetrability of the metallic foreign body were 100% reliable in the left standing radiographic view in both the species.
12. Molecular characterization of canine parvovirus variants (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c) based on the VP2 gene in affected domestic dogs in Ecuador
David De la Torre, Eulalia Mafla, Byron Puga, Linda Erazo, Claudete Astolfi-Ferreira and Antonio Piantino Ferreira
Veterinary World, 11(4): 480-487
Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the presence of the variants of canine parvovirus (CPV)-2 in the city of Quito, Ecuador, due to the high domestic and street-type canine population, and to identify possible mutations at a genetic level that could be causing structural changes in the virus with a consequent influence on the immune response of the hosts.
Materials and Methods: Thirty-five stool samples from different puppies with characteristic signs of the disease and positives for CPV through immunochromatography kits were collected from different veterinarian clinics of the city. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were used to determine the mutations in residue 426 of the VP2 gene, which determines the variants of CPV-2; in addition, four samples were chosen for complete sequencing of the VP2 gene to identify all possible mutations in the circulating strains in this region of the country.
Results: The results revealed the presence of the three variants of CPV-2 with a prevalence of 57.1% (20/35) for CPV-2a, 8.5% (3/35) for CPV-2b, and 34.3% (12/35) for CPV-2c. In addition, complete sequencing of the VP2gene showed amino acid substitutions in residues 87, 101, 139, 219, 297, 300, 305, 322, 324, 375, 386, 426, 440, and 514 of the three Ecuadorian variants when compared with the original CPV-2 sequence.
Conclusion: This study describes the detection of CPV variants in the city of Quito, Ecuador. Variants of CPV-2 (2a, 2b, and 2c) have been reported in South America, and there are cases in Ecuador where CVP-2 is affecting even vaccinated puppies.