Saturday, 24 June 2017
Epidemiological study of tick infestation in buffalo of various regions of district Khairpur, Pakistan
Research (Published online: 24-06-2017)
19. Epidemiological study of tick infestation in buffalo of various regions of district Khairpur, Pakistan
Farzana Abbasi, Imtiaz Hussain Raja Abbasi, Tahmeena Fakhur Nissa, Zohaib Ahmed Bhutto, Muhammed Asif Arain, Rab Nawaz Soomro, Farman Ali Siyal and Sarfraz Ali Fazlani
Veterinary World, 10(6): 688-694
AbstractAim: The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological infestation and identification of Ixodidae and Argasidae ticks species in buffalo of different parts of district Khairpur, Pakistan.
Materials and Methods: A total of 720 Water buffaloes from three tehsils (subdivisions) were selected randomly and examined from organized and unorganized dairy farms for tick infestation in district Khairpur, Pakistan. This epidemiological survey was conducted during April to September 2015.
Results: The overall mean population and preferred site of tick attachment to infested animals, in Gambat, Sobhodero, and Kot Diji tehsils, were observed on different body parts. The primary body area of infestation by ticks (head, thorax, abdomen, udder, and tail) ranged from highest in tail and udder part compared to lowest in the abdomen, head, and thorax. In all study areas, the infestation was higher (p<0.05) in tail and udder than other parts of the body. In all the study areas, the overall highest population was found in the month of July. In addition, we first time identify four new species of ticks (Hyalomma anatolicum, H. anatolicum excavatum, Hyalomma Ixodes excavatum, and Ixodes ricinus) in district Khairpur, Pakistan.
Conclusion: Results of this study provide additional information of epidemiological tick infestation, and will be helpful for evolving effective control policy for the management of tick infestation in study district.
Keywords: Argasidae, buffalo, identification, Ixodidae, population, prevalence, ticks, tick infestation.
Th1/Th2 balance and humoral immune response to potential antigens as early diagnostic method of equine Strongylus nematode infection
Research (Published online: 24-06-2017)
18. Th1/Th2 balance and humoral immune response to potential antigens as early diagnostic method of equine Strongylus nematode infection
Faten A. M. Abo-Aziza, Seham H. M. Hendawy, Amira H. El Namaky and Heba M. Ashry
Veterinary World, 10(6): 679-687
AbstractAim: The aim of this study was to investigate the early diagnosis of strongyle infection based on early changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokines beside the diagnostic accuracy values and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting profiles using prepared strongyles antigens.
Materials and Methods: A total of 73 donkeys had a mean age of 4-32 years old were parasitologically examined for strongyle infection. The early changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokines were determined, and the diagnostic accuracy values and SDS-PAGE and western blotting profiles were performed using prepared strongyles antigens; crude somatic Strongylus vulgaris (CSS), excretory-secretory S. vulgaris (ESS), crude somatic Cyathostomins (CSC), and excretory-secretory Cyathostomins (ESC).
Results: The results revealed highest 437.04% and lowest 37.81% immunoglobulin G (IgG) in high and low egg shedder groups when using ESC and CSS antigens, respectively. Antibodies index for ESS and CSC were significantly higher in moderate egg shedder group while that for ESS and CSC, ESC was significantly higher in high egg shedder group. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)/interleukin-4 (IL-4) balance in S. vulgaris infected donkeys was approximately equal in apparently healthy, low and high egg shedder groups while TNF-α < IL-4 in moderate egg shedder. In Cyathostomins infected animals, TNF-α/IL-4 balance was approximately equal in apparently healthy group while it was low in moderate and high egg shedder groups. The diagnostic accuracy showed that the higher specificity (46.6%) and prevalence (95.40%) were recorded by CSS and ESC antigens, respectively. However, SDS-PAGE and western blotting profiling proved that the band at molecular weight 25 kDa is exhibited by CSS antigen.
Conclusion: Combination of detecting level of TNF-α/IL-4 balance, CSS antigen and IgG concentration is good tool for appropriate diagnosis of such infection. More advancement research must be done concerning Th1/Th2 balance and cross-reactivity of S. vulgaris and Cyathostomins spp. at the base of serological and molecular investigation.
Keywords: cytokines, interleukin-4, Strongylus, Th1, Th2, tumor necrosis factor alpha.
Monday, 19 June 2017
Effect of different concentrations of soybean lecithin and virgin coconut oil in Tris-based extender on the quality of chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen
Research (Published online: 20-06-2017)
17. Effect of different concentrations of soybean lecithin and virgin coconut oil in Tris-based extender on the quality of chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen
A. A. Tarig, H. Wahid, Y. Rosnina, N. Yimer, Y. M. Goh, F. H. Baiee, A. M. Khumran, H. Salman, M. A. Assi and M. Ebrahimi
Veterinary World, 10(6): 672-678
Materials and Methods: A total of 24 ejaculates were collected from four bulls via an electroejaculator. Semen samples were diluted with 2% VCO in Tris-based extender which consists of various concentrations of SL (1, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75%). A 20% egg yolk in Tris used as a positive control (C+). The diluted semen samples were divided into two fractions; one for chilling which were stored at 4°C for 24, 72, and 144 h before evaluated for semen quality parameters. The second fraction used for freezing was chilled for 3 h at 4°C, packed into 0.25 mL straws and then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. The samples were then evaluated after 7 and 14 days. Chilled and frozen semen samples were thawed at 37°C and assessed for general motility using computer-assisted semen analysis, viability, acrosome integrity and morphology (eosin-nigrosin stain), membrane integrity, and lipid peroxidation using thiobarbituric acid reaction test.
Results: The results showed that all the quality parameters assessed were significantly (p<0.05) improved at 1.5% SL concentration in chilled semen. Treatment groups of 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75% SL were higher in quality parameters than the control group (C+) in chilled semen. However, all the quality parameters in frozen-thawed semen were significantly higher in the C+ than the treated groups.
Conclusion: In conclusion, supplementation of 1.5% SL in 2% VCO Tris-based extender enhanced the chilled bull semen. However, there was no marked improvement in the frozen-thawed quality parameters after treatment.
Keywords: bull semen, cryopreservation, quality parameters, soybean lecithin, virgin coconut oil.