Tuesday, 6 December 2016

Studies on alterations of clinical and hemato-biochemical parameters before and after treatment in calves naturally infected with theileriosis

Research (Published online: 07-12-2016)
8. Studies on alterations of clinical and hemato-biochemical parameters before and after treatment in calves naturally infected with theileriosis - J. P. Kachhawa, Surender Kumar, Ankita Sharma, A. P. Singh and Anil Ahuja
Veterinary World, 9(12): 1381-1385

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1381-1385

Aim: The aim was to determine hemato-biochemical alterations and to determine the better treatment of theileriosis in naturally infected calves.
Materials and Methods: A total of 74 Holstein crossbred calves below 6 months of age, of either sex were included for present investigation in Bikaner. Based on the clinical examinations and laboratory results, 20 calves included for hemato-biochemical studies (before and after treatment) and divided into two groups (having 10 calves each).
Results: The clinical examination of these calves revealed weakness, ticks infestations, high fever above 104°F, pronounced swelling of prescapular, prefemoral, parotid lymph nodes, loss of elasticity of skin, anemia, lacrimal discharges, pulpy cornea, tachycardia, and dyspnea. There was highly significant decrease (p<0.01) in hemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume and total leukocyte count, serum glucose, total protein, globulin and albumin level and highly significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase level as compared to healthy control animals in Group I and II. The animals of Group II treated with buparvaquone along with single blood transfusion shows better recovery then animals of Group I treated with bupavaqone and hematinic.
Conclusions: Significant changes were found in hemato-biochemical parameters in theileria affected calves before treatment as compare to healthy control calves. Significant improvement was observed in hemato-biochemical parameters in buparvaquone and single blood transfusion treated calves as compare to another group, so it is concluded that buparvaquone and single blood transfusion is better combination for treatment of theileriosis.
Keywords: blood transfusion, buparvaquone, calves, hemato-biochemical, theileriosis.

Effect of Aegle marmelos and Murraya koenigii in treatment of delayed pubertal buffaloes heifers

Research (Published online: 06-12-2016)
7. Effect of Aegle marmelos and Murraya koenigii in treatment of delayed pubertal buffaloes heifers - Mohan M. Baitule, A. P. Gawande, Umesh Kumar, S. K. Sahatpure, Manoj S. Patil and Mansi M. Baitule
Veterinary World, 9(12): 1375-1380

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1375-1380

Aim: This study aims to study the estrus induction, ovulation, and conception rate of delayed puberty in buffaloes heifers by feeding a herbal plants Aegle marmelos (bael/bili/bhel leaf) and Murraya koenigii (Curry leaf).
Materials and Methods: Totally, 24 buffalo heifers with delayed puberty were selected for the present study and divided randomly in four equal groups (n=6). Before experiment, all animals were dewormed with albendazole at 10 mg/kg body weight to prevent them from the stress of parasitism. In the present experiment, four group taken and Group I (n=6) treated with A. marmelos, Group II (n=6) treated with M. koenigii, Group III (n=6) treated with mixture of A. marmelos and M. koenigii and fed for 9 days. Group IV (n=6) considered as control and fed with concentrate only. The blood samples were collected from all the animals on day 0 (before treatment), 4, 9 (during treatment), on the day of estrus and day 8 after the onset of estrus. The 10 ml blood was collected from the jugular vein of all the experimental animals for estimation of serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and progesterone (P4). The estrus response, ovulation, conception rate along with serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and progesterone level were determined by the standard protocol.
Results: From Group III 4 heifers, from Group II 3 heifers, and from Group I and IV (Control) 2 heifers each, exhibited the estrus. The estrus response was recorded as 33.33%, 50.00%, 75.00%, and 33.33% in Group I, Group II, Group III, and Group IV, respectively. In treatment Group III, serum calcium found significantly more (p<0.05) on day 8 post-estrus as compared to other groups at a similar interval. Inorganic phosphorus and progesterone show no significant difference between groups. The ovulation and conception rates are comparatively better in Group III (75%) buffalo heifers than other groups.
Conclusion: Herbal supplementation of A. marmelos and M. koenigii in combination, as well as M. koenigii alone, were found effective in fertility improvement in delayed pubertal buffalo heifers by increasing ovulation and conception rate.
Keywords: Aegle marmelos, buffaloes heifer, conception rate, Murraya koenigii, estrus, ovulation.

Diagnosis and management of bovine babesiosis outbreaks in cattle in Punjab state

Research (Published online: 06-12-2016)
6. Diagnosis and management of bovine babesiosis outbreaks in cattle in Punjab state - Mandeep Singh Bal, Vishal Mahajan, Gursimran Filia, Paramjit Kaur and Amarjit Singh
Veterinary World, 9(12): 1370-1374

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1370-1374

Aim: The aim of the present study was to diagnose severe outbreaks of bovine babesiosis in Punjab state, in the year 2015 and to suggest control and preventive measures to animal owners.
Materials and Methods: Mortality of animals was recorded in two cattle herd comprising a total of 465 cattle in Sangrur (n=125) and Faridkot (n=340) districts. There was a history of purchase of animals at one farm. 23 blood samples were collected from diseased (n=15) and healthy animals (n=8) for hematological analysis, parasitological, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnosis. Ticks were also collected from animals for identification.
Results: Out of 465 cattle at risk, 28 were critically ill and 14 died of disease with morbidity, mortality, and case fatality rate of 6.02%, 3.01%, and 50.00%, respectively. Clinical signs and necropsy findings were suggestive of babesiosis. Ticks collected from both the outbreaks were identified as Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Thin blood smears from infected animals (especially with clinical sign of hemoglobinuria) were found positive for Babesia bigemina organisms; however, molecular diagnosis (PCR) further confirmed the disease. Animals were successfully treated with diminazene aceturate, hematinics, and antipyretics.
Conclusions: Two fatal outbreaks of babesiosis in cattle were diagnosed with application of conventional parasitological, hematological, and molecular diagnostic techniques. PCR was found to be far more sensitive in detecting the disease, especially in latent infections. Animal owners were advised to follow quarantine measures before mixing new animals in the herd and strategic acaricidal treatments for effective tick control.
Keywords: Babesia bigemina, cattle, outbreaks, parasitological diagnosis, polymerase chain reaction.

Sunday, 4 December 2016

Phylogenetic analysis of glycoprotein B gene sequences of bovine herpesvirus 1 isolates from India reveals the predominance of subtype 1.1.

Research (Published online: 05-12-2016)
5. Phylogenetic analysis of glycoprotein B gene sequences of bovine herpesvirus 1 isolates from India reveals the predominance of subtype 1.1. - S. S. Patil, A. Prajapati, D. Hemadri, K. P. Suresh, G. S. Desai, G. B. Manjunatha Reddy, B. M. Chandranaik, S. Ranganatha and H. Rahman
Veterinary World, 9(12): 1364-1369

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1364-1369

Aim: This study was conducted for the isolation and molecular characterization of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) isolated from the nasal and vaginal swabs collected from naturally infected cattle showing clinical symptoms of the respiratory disease.
Materials and Methods: Isolation of BoHV-1 virus performed on clinical samples collected from 65 cattle from five states of India. The BoHV-1 isolates were further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for glycoprotein B (gB) genomic region. PCR amplification was performed using previously published gB gene-specific primer pairs. gB PCR amplicons obtained from all isolates were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was performed using software.
Results: A total of 12 samples were found positive in cell culture isolation. 11 isolates showed the visible cytopathic effect on Madin-Darby bovine kidney after 72 h. Partial sequence analysis of gB gene of all isolates revealed 99.0-100% homology between them. All isolates showed 99.2-99.8% homology with Cooper stain.
Conclusion: BoHV-1.1 is the predominant circulating subtype of BoHV in India, and all isolates have homology with Cooper stain.
Keywords: bovine herpesvirus 1-1, glycoprotein B, India, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, phylogenetic analysis, sequencing, subtype 1.1.

Saturday, 3 December 2016

Molecular and epidemiological updates on cystic echinococcosis infecting water buffaloes from Egypt

Research (Published online: 04-12-2016)
4. Molecular and epidemiological updates on cystic echinococcosis infecting water buffaloes from Egypt - Ibrahim Abbas
Veterinary World, 9(12): 1355-1363

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1355-1363

Aim: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) represents a serious parasitic disease at both animal and public health levels. The majority of reports negated the CE infection in buffaloes from Egypt; however, one study illustrated their infection with G6 genotype (camel strain). The present work contributed to update the epidemiological and molecular knowledge about CE infecting this economically important animal for better understanding of its role in maintaining the Echinococcus life cycle.
Materials and Methods: A total of 120 slaughtered water buffaloes at Mansoura abattoir, Dakahlia province, Egypt, were inspected for the existence of hydatid cysts. Cysts location and fertility were examined. Five out of 27 revealed cysts were tested molecularly using both cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen subunit 1 (nadh1) genes.
Results: Low prevalence (4.2%) as well as considerably low fertility rate (14.8%) of buffaloes CE was noted. G1 genotype (common sheep strain) was revealed from the five examined cysts. At the level of nadh1 partial sequences, a globally singleton G1 haplotype was reported.
Conclusion: This the first report about the G1 infection in buffaloes from Egypt. This study proposed the minimized role of this animal in echinococcosis transmission. These findings could provide preliminary data for the local control of this disease.
Keywords: buffalo, Echinococcus, Egypt, genotype, prevalence.

Ocimum sanctum Linn. stimulate the expression of choline acetyltransferase on the human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells

Research (Published online: 03-12-2016)
3. Ocimum sanctum Linn. stimulate the expression of choline acetyltransferase on the human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells -Dwi Liliek Kusindarta, Hevi Wihadmadyatami and Aris Haryanto
Veterinary World, 9(12): 1348-1354

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1348-1354

Aim: This research was conducted to identify the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (HCMECs) and to clarify the capability of Ocimum sanctum Linn. ethanolic extract to stimulate the presence of ChAT in the aging HCMECs.
Materials and Methods: In this study, we perform an in vitro analysis some in the presence of an ethanolic extract of O. sanctum Linn. as a stimulator for the ChAT expression. HCMECs are divided become two groups, the first is in low passage cells as a model of young aged and the second is in a high passage as a model of aging. Furthermore to analysis the expression of ChAT without and with extract treatments, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis were performed. In addition, ChAT sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is developed to detect the increasing activity of the ChAT under normal, and aging HCMECs on the condition treated and untreated cells.
Results: In our in vitro models using HCMECs, we found that ChAT is expressed throughout intracytoplasmic areas. On the status of aging, the ethanolic extract from O. sanctum Linn. is capable to stimulate and restore the expression of ChAT. The increasing of ChAT expression is in line with the increasing activity of this enzyme on the aging treated HCMECs.
Conclusions: Our observation indicates that HCMECs is one of the noncholinergic cells which is produced ChAT. The administrated of O. sanctum Linn. ethanolic extract may stimulate and restore the expression of ChAT on the deteriorating cells of HCMECs, thus its may give nerve protection and help the production of acetylcholine.
Keywords: choline acetyltransferase, human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells, Ocimum sanctum Linn.

Gastrointestinal nematode larvae in the grazing land of cattle in Guwahati, Assam

Research (Published online: 03-12-2016)
2. Gastrointestinal nematode larvae in the grazing land of cattle in Guwahati, Assam - Meena Das, D. K. Deka, S. Islam, P. C. Sarmah and K. Bhattacharjee
Veterinary World, 9(12): 1343-1347

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1343-1347

Aim: To know the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode larvae (L3) in the grazing land of cattle in Guwahati, Kamrup district, Assam.
Materials and Methods: Pastures were collected and examined for the presence of nematode larvae (L3) from six localities of Guwahati at monthly interval from August 2012 to July 2013. The counted larvae were then expressed as per kg dry matter of herbage (L3/kg DM).
Results: Examination of pastures revealed presence of nematode larvae (L3) in pastures throughout the year which varied from 4.5 L3/kg DM in January to a maximum of 106.33 L3/kg DM in August. The L3 of Haemonchus contortusTrichostrongylus spp., Oesophagostomum spp., Cooperia spp., and Mecistocirrus spp. were recovered from pastures. The average pasture larval burden (PLB) was 34.75±3.48 L3/kg DM. Season-wise PLB revealed the presence of 23.89±3.01, 67.54±5.41, 26.67±1.92, and 7.28±0.89 L3/kg DM during pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter seasons, respectively. Monsoon season has significant (p<0.05) effect on PLB. However, analysis of variance of different locations with respect to season revealed that there was no significant difference but season-wise it was highly significant (p<0.01). Pearson correlation of environmental variables (temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall) with PLB revealed correlation was statistically significant with rainfall (p<0.05).
Conclusion: This study reveals the presence of five nematode larvae (L3) in the pastures of Guwahati, Assam throughout the year, statistically significant during monsoon season.
Keywords: Assam, cattle, Guwahati, nematode larvae (L3), pastures.

Wednesday, 30 November 2016

Surface plasmon resonance based biosensor: A new platform for rapid diagnosis of livestock diseases

Review (Published online: 01-12-2016)
1. Surface plasmon resonance based biosensor: A new platform for rapid diagnosis of livestock diseases - Pravas Ranjan Sahoo, Parthasarathi Swain, Sudhanshu Mohan Nayak, Sudam Bag and Smruti Ranjan Mishra
Veterinary World, 9(12): 1338-1342

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1338-1342

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based biosensors are the most advanced and developed optical label-free biosensor technique used for powerful detection with vast applications in environmental protection, biotechnology, medical diagnostics, drug screening, food safety, and security as well in livestock sector. The livestock sector which contributes the largest economy of India, harbors many bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases impacting a great loss to the production and productive potential which is a major concern in both small and large ruminants. Hence, an accurate, sensitive, and rapid diagnosis is required for prevention of these above-mentioned diseases. SPR based biosensor assay may fulfill the above characteristics which lead to a greater platform for rapid diagnosis of different livestock diseases. Hence, this review may give a detail idea about the principle, recent development of SPR based biosensor techniques and its application in livestock sector.
Keywords: biosensor, livestock sector, surface plasmon resonance.

Amelioration of Gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) induced renal toxicity by Camellia sinensis in Wistar rats

Research (Published online: 30-11-2016)
27. Amelioration of Gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) induced renal toxicity by Camellia sinensis in Wistar rats - W. L. N. V. Vara Prasad, Ch. Srilatha, N. Sailaja, N. K. B. Raju and N. Jayasree
Veterinary World, 9(11): 1331-1337

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1331-1337

Aim: A study to assess the toxic effects of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) (lindane) and ameliorative effects of Camellia sinensis on renal system has been carried out in male Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats with 18 each were maintained under standard laboratory hygienic conditions and provided feed and water ad libitum. γ-HCH was gavaged at 20 mg/kg b.wt. using olive oil as vehicle to Groups II. C. sinensis at 100 mg/kg b.wt. was administered orally in distilled water to Group IV in addition to γ-HCH 20 mg/kg b.wt. up to 45 days to study ameliorative effects. Groups I and III were treated with distilled water and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg b.wt.), respectively. Six rats from each group were sacrificed at fortnight intervals. Serum was collected for creatinine estimation. The kidney tissues were collected in chilled phosphate buffer saline for antioxidant profile and in also 10% buffered formalin for histopathological studies.
Results: γ-HCH treatment significantly increased serum creatinine and significantly reduced the renal antioxidative enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Grossly, severe congestion was noticed in the kidneys. Microscopically, kidney revealed glomerular congestion, atrophy, intertubular hemorrhages, degenerative changes in tubular epithelium with vacuolated cytoplasm, desquamation of epithelium and urinary cast formation. A significant reduction in serum creatinine levels, significant improvement in renal antioxidant enzyme activities and near to normal histological appearance of kidneys in Group IV indicated that the green tea ameliorated the effects of γ-HCH, on renal toxicity.
Conclusion: This study suggested that C. sinensis extract combined with γ-HCH could enhance antioxidant/detoxification system which consequently reduced the oxidative stress thus potentially reducing γ-HCH toxicity and tissue damage.
Keywords: Camellia sinensis, gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, kidney.

Tuesday, 29 November 2016

Honeybee product therapeutic as stem cells homing for ovary failure

Research (Published online: 29-11-2016)
26. Honeybee product therapeutic as stem cells homing for ovary failure - Erma Safitri, Thomas V. Widiyatno and R. Heru Prasetyo
Veterinary World, 9(11): 1324-1330

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1324-1330

Aim: Complexity of the method of isolation, cultivation in vitro and the expensive cost of transplantation process of stem cells, it would require an innovation to homing and differentiation of stem cells and increase folliculogenesis. The stem cells homing was achieved through the provision of food or beverages derived from natural materials like honeybee product. Through honeybee product, there will be homing of stem cells and accompany with the sources from the body itself will take place in regeneration of the ovary.
Materials and Methods: Female rats model of degenerative ovary was obtained through food fasting but still have drinking water for 5 days. It caused malnutrition and damage of the ovarian tissue. The administration of 50% honeybee product (T1) was performed for 10 consecutive days, while the positive control group (T0+) was fasted and not given honeybee product and the negative control (T0−) not fasted and without honeybee product. Observations were taken for homing of stem cells, raised of folliculogenesis, differentiation of stem cells, and regeneration of the ovarian tissue using routine H&E staining.
Results: Homing of stem cells shown the vascular endothelial growth factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor expression; enhancement of folliculogenesis was indicated by an increase of follicle dee Graaf count; enhancement of differentiation of stem cells was indicated by growth differentiation factor-9 expression; and regeneration of ovarian tissue indicated by intact ovarian tissue with growing follicles.
Conclusion: Honeybee product can be induced endogenous stem cells in regeneration of ovary failure due to malnutrition.
Keywords: honeybee product, ovary failure, stem cells homing.