Thursday, 20 October 2016

Effect of Tamarindus indica leaf powder on plasma concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron in fluorotic cows

Research (Published online: 21-10-2016)
13. Effect of Tamarindus indica leaf powder on plasma concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron in fluorotic cows - Pinaki Samal, R. C. Patra, A. R. Gupta, S. K. Mishra, D. Jena and D. Satapathy
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1121-1124

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1121-1124

Aim: The main objective of the study was to determine the deleterious effect of fluoride on plasma trace minerals of fluorotic cattle and to evaluate the effect of Tamarindus indica leaf powder toward correction of the same.
Materials and Methods: A total of 30 cattle exhibiting chronic sign of fluorosis and 10 healthy cattle from nonfluorotic area were incorporated in this study. Fluorotic cattle were divided into three equal groups consisting of 10 cattle each. Group I from fluoride free area served as healthy control. The Group II received no treatment and served as disease control. Groups III and IV were supplemented with tamarind leaf powder at 15 g and 30 g/day with feed for 60 days. Plasma mineral status was evaluated after 60 days of treatment with double beam atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
Results: Statistical analysis of data revealed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in mean plasma copper (Cu) (0.344±0.007 ppm), zinc (Zn) (0.692±0.06 ppm), and iron (Fe) concentration (1.100±0.01 ppm) in fluorotic cattle in comparison to healthy cattle (0.58±0.010, 2.342±0.04, 1.406±0.04 ppm, respectively). Significant (p<0.05) increase in Cu, Zn, and Fe was recorded after supplementation of tamarind leaf powder to the fluorotic cattle.
Conclusion: It was concluded that fluorotic cattle might be supplemented with T. indica leaf powder with feed for the correction of the decreased level of certain plasma minerals.
Keywords: cattle, fluorosis, micro-minerals, tamarind leaf.

Wednesday, 19 October 2016

Comparison of radiography and ultrasonography in the detection of lung and liver cysts in cattle and buffaloes

Research (Published online: 20-10-2016)
12. Comparison of radiography and ultrasonography in the detection of lung and liver cysts in cattle and buffaloes - Ashwani Kumar, Narinder Singh Saini, Jitender Mohindroo, Balbir Bagicha Singh, Vandana Sangwan and Naresh Kumar Sood
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1113-1120

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1113-1120

Aim: Echinococcosis is the major cause of lung and liver cysts in ruminants. This study compared usefulness of radiography and ultrasonography (USG) in the detection of lung and/or liver cysts in sick bovine animals. The study also worked out cooccurrence of lung and liver cysts, and whether these cysts were primary cause of sickness or not.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 45 sick bovine (37 buffaloes and 8 cattle) suffering from lung and liver cysts. A complete history of illness and clinical examination was carried out. Lateral radiographs of chest and reticular region were taken. In radiographically positive or suspected cases of cysts, USG of the lung and liver region was done. Depending on the location of cyst and clinical manifestations of the animal, the cysts were categorized as primary or secondary causes of sickness.
Results: Using either imaging technique, it was observed that 46.7% of the animals had both lung and liver cysts, whereas 33.3% had only lung and 20% had only liver cyst. Cysts were identified as primary cause of sickness in 31.1% animals only. For diagnosing lung cysts, radiography (71.1%) and USG (62.2%) had similar diagnostic utility. However, for detecting liver cysts, USG was the only imaging tool.
Conclusion: The lung and liver cysts, depending on their number and size may be a primary cause of sickness in bovine. Radiography and USG are recommended, in combination, as screening tools to rule out echinococcosis.
Keywords: bovine, echinococcus cyst, liver, lung, radiography, ultrasound.

Tuesday, 18 October 2016

Production performance of finisher broiler fed with cocoyam-corm meal as partial energy replacement for maize

Research (Published online: 19-10-2016)
11. Production performance of finisher broiler fed with cocoyam-corm meal as partial energy replacement for maize - Christian Paul P. de la Cruz
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1107-1112

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1107-1112

Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Gabing San Fernando (Xanthosoma spp.) corms as partial carbohydrate replacement for maize in finisher broiler production.
Materials and Methods: The completely randomized design was utilized to investigate the effects of three finisher poultry diets prepared in varying amounts of cocoyam-corm meal set at 0% (control), 25%, and 50% (experimental) replacement levels.
Results: There were no significant differences (p≥0.05) as to mortality and body weight measurements between control and experimental groups. Similarly, the mean weights of selected internal organs and condemnable carcasses among treatment groups did not show any significant differences (p≥0.05). In terms of the average feed intakes, birds from 50%-cocoyam group had the highest mean value and were found to be statistically different (p≥0.01) from both control and 25%-cocoyam groups. However, feed conversion ratio did not significantly differ (p≥0.05) among three groups. Higher feed costs were associated with the 50%-cocoyam treatment diet, which was only consistent with higher feed inputs. Thus, the group fed with 50%-cocoyam meal had significantly higher total mean production costs (p<0.005) per bird, when other expenses were taken into account. The production costs for the group given 25%-cocoyam meal did not significantly differ (p≥0.05) from the control group.
Conclusion: Partial replacement of maize with cocoyam-corm meal at 25% level was acceptable since inclusion at this level did not adversely affect the production performance of finisher broilers in terms of growth rate, mortality rate, and feeding efficiency. The use of cocoyam meal as nonconventional and alternative carbohydrate source in poultry diet presents positive economic implications, especially to smallhold farmers from the developing countries, like the Philippines.
Keywords: broiler, cocoyam, feed-conversion ratio, Philippines, poultry, Xanthosoma.

Certain hormonal profiles of postpartum anestrus jersey crossbred cows treated with controlled internal drug release and ovsynch protocol

Research (Published online: 18-10-2016)
10. Certain hormonal profiles of postpartum anestrus jersey crossbred cows treated with controlled internal drug release and ovsynch protocol - Dayanidhi Jena, S. Das, B. K. Patra, S. S. Biswal, D. N. Mohanty and P. Samal
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1102-1106

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1102-1106

Aim: The study was conducted to determine the serum levels of certain hormones in post-partum anestrus cows following treatment with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and Ovsynch protocol.
Materials and Methods: A total of 30 postpartum anestrus cows were divided into three equal groups after thorough gynecoclinical examination. The Group 1 animals received an intravaginal progesterone device on day 0 and 2 ml of prostaglandin F (PGF) on day of CIDR removal (7th day), Group 2 cows were treated with ovsynch protocol (gonadotropinreleasing hormone [GnRH]-PGF-GnRH) on day 0, 7 and 9, respectively, and Group 3 cows were supplemented with mineral mixture and treated as control. The serum estrogen, progesterone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine concentration were estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit and absorbance was read at 450 nm with Perkin Elmer Wallac 1420 Microplate Reader.
Results: There was a significant increase in progesterone level in Group 1 after withdrawal of CIDR as compared to other two groups. However, the estrogen assay revealed a greater concentration in Group 2 against Group 1 on day 7 of sampling. However, there was no significant difference for serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) irrespective of treatment protocols and days of sampling.
Conclusion: Treatment with CIDR based progesterone therapy and drug combinations may affect the reproductive hormonal balance like estrogen and progesterone, which is inevitable for successful return to cyclicity and subsequent fertilization and conception. However, as far as serum T3 and T4 concentration concerned it may not give an astounding result.
Keywords: controlled internal drug release, ovsynch, postpartum anestrus.

Morphological and molecular identification of the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii(Acari: Ixodidae) vectors of Rickettsioses in Egypt

Research (Published online: 18-10-2016)
9. Morphological and molecular identification of the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii(Acari: Ixodidae) vectors of Rickettsioses in Egypt - Hend H. A. M. Abdullah, Amal El-Molla, Fayez A. Salib, Nesreen A. T. Allam, Alaa A. Ghazy and Sobhy Abdel-Shafy
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1087-1101

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1087-1101

Aim: Rickettsioses have an epidemiological importance that includes pathogens, vectors, and hosts. The dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii play important roles as vectors and reservoirs of Rickettsiae. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Rickettsiae in ixodid ticks species infesting dogs and camels in Egypt, in addition to, the morphological and molecular identification of R. sanguineus and H. dromedarii.
Materials and Methods: A total of 601 and 104 of ticks’ specimens were collected from dogs and camels, respectively, in Cairo, Giza and Sinai provinces. Hemolymph staining technique and OmpA and gltA genes amplification were performed to estimate the prevalence rate of Rickettsiae in ticks. For morphological identification of tick species, light microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used. In addition to the phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA, Second internal transcript spacer, 12S rDNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit-1, and 16S rDNA were performed for molecular identification of two tick species.
Results: The prevalence rate of Rickettsiae in ticks was 11.6% using hemolymph staining technique and 6.17% by OmpA and gltA genes amplification. Morphological identification revealed that 100% of dogs were infested by Rsanguineus while 91.9% of camels had been infested by H. dromedarii. The phylogenetic analyses of five DNA markers confirmed morphological identification by LM and SEM. The two tick species sequences analyses proved 96-100% sequences identities when compared with the reference data in Genbank records.
Conclusion: The present studies confirm the suitability of mitochondrial DNA markers for reliable identification of ticks at both intra- and inter-species level over the nuclear ones. In addition to, the detection of Rickettsiae in both ticks’ species and establishment of the phylogenetic status of R. sanguineus and H. dromedarii would be useful in understanding the epidemiology of ticks and tick borne rickettsioses in Egypt.
Keywords: hard ticks, light microscope, phylogenetic analysis, polymerase chain reaction, Rickettsiae, scanning electron microscope.

Monday, 17 October 2016

Seroprevalence of brucellosis among cattle slaughtered in three municipal abattoirs of Gombe state, Northeastern Nigeria

Research (Published online: 17-10-2016)
8. Seroprevalence of brucellosis among cattle slaughtered in three municipal abattoirs of Gombe state, Northeastern Nigeria - Saleh Mohammed Jajere, Naphtali Nayamanda Atsanda, Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus, Tasiu Mallam Hamisu and Ajurojo Oluwaseun Ayo
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1082-1086

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1082-1086

Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis among cattle slaughtered at three municipal abattoirs of Gombe State, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: A total of 200 blood samples collected from slaughtered cattle of different breeds (Sokoto Gudali - 50, White Fulani - 102, Red bororo – 34, and Crossbreeds - 14), sex (males - 19 and females - 181), and from different locations (Billiri - 30, Yamaltu Deba – 50, and Gombe - 120) were screened for brucellosis using rose bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT), and microtiter agglutination test (MAT).
Results: Of the 200 serum samples analyzed, 7 (3.5%), 10 (5.0%) and 18 (9.0%) were positive by RBPT, SAT and MAT, respectively. The results showed no statistically significant association between sex and seropositivity to bovine brucellosis. However, seropositivity of bovine brucellosis was higher in females than in males. Similarly, no statistically significant association was observed between breed and occurrence of bovine brucellosis. Moreover, the prevalence of brucellosis was higher in Sokoto Gudali as compared with the other breeds. Based on the study locations, higher seroprevalence was observed in animals screened from Billiri as compared with those from other locations (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The presence of Brucella abortus antigen in the sera of slaughtered cattle in Gombe state poses a significant public health risk. Therefore, it is important to carry out further epidemiological studies on fulani herdsmen and cattle herds in the study area, in order to explore the risk factors associated with the occurrence and perpetuation of brucellosis among cattle herds, ascertain the prevalence and status of the disease among both farms and nomadic herds.
Keywords: bovine brucellosis, Gombe state, microtiter agglutination test, Nigeria, rose bengal plate test, serum agglutination test.

Saturday, 15 October 2016

Infrared thermography: A potential noninvasive tool to monitor udder health status in dairy cows

Review (Published online: 15-10-2016)
7. Infrared thermography: A potential noninvasive tool to monitor udder health status in dairy cows - M. Sathiyabarathi, S. Jeyakumar, A. Manimaran, G. Jayaprakash, Heartwin A. Pushpadass, M. Sivaram, K. P. Ramesha, D. N. Das, Mukund A. Kataktalware, M. Arul Prakash and R. Dhinesh Kumar
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1075-1081

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1075-1081

The animal husbandry and livestock sectors play a major role in the rural economy, especially for the small and marginal farmers. India has the largest livestock population in the world and ranks first in the milk production. Mastitis is the most common and expensive infectious disease in dairy cattle. The global economic losses per year due to mastitis amounts to USD 35 billion and for Indian dairy industry INR 6000 crores per year. Early detection of mastitis is very important to reduce the economic loss to the dairy farmers and dairy industry. Automated methods for early and reliable detection of mastitis are currently in focus under precision dairying. Skin surface temperature is an important indicator for the diagnosis of cow’s illnesses and for the estimation of their physiological status. Infrared thermography (IRT) is a simple, effective, on-site, and noninvasive method that detects surface heat, which is emitted as infrared radiation and generates pictorial images without causing radiation exposure. In human and bovine medicine, IRT is used as a diagnostic tool for assessment of normal and physiological status.
Keywords: cows, infrared thermography, mastitis diagnosis, udder health, udder surface temperature.

Friday, 14 October 2016

Polyadenylated tail length variation pattern in ultra-rapid vitrified bovine oocytes

Research (Published online: 14-10-2016)
6. Polyadenylated tail length variation pattern in ultra-rapid vitrified bovine oocytes - D. J. Dutta, Himangshu Raj and Hiramoni Dev
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1070-1074

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1070-1074

Aim: The current study aims at investigating the polyadenylated (poly[A]) tail length of morphologically high and low competent oocytes at different developmental stages. Furthermore, effect of ultra-rapid vitrification on the poly(A) tail length was studied.
Materials and Methods: Fresh bovine cumulus oocyte complexes from abattoir originated ovaries were graded based on morphological characters and matured in vitro. Cryopreservation was done by ultra-rapid vitrification method. mRNA was isolated from different categories of oocyte and subjected to ligation-mediated poly(A) test followed by polymerase chain reaction for determining the poly(A) tail length of β actin, gap junction protein alpha 1 (GJA1), poly(A) polymerase alpha (PAPOLA), and heat shock 70 kDa protein (HSP70) transcripts.
Results: GJA1, PAPOLA, and HSP70 showed significantly higher poly(A) in immature oocytes of higher competence irrespective of vitrification effects as compared to mature oocytes of higher competence.
Conclusion: mRNA poly(A) tail size increases in developmentally high competent immature bovine oocytes. There was limited effect of ultra-rapid vitrification of bovine oocytes on poly(A).
Keywords: ligation-mediated poly(A) test, oocyte, poly-adenylated tail, vitrification.

Monday, 10 October 2016

Molecular identification of Mycoplasma synoviae from seroprevalent commercial breeder farms at Chittagong district, Bangladesh

Research (Published online: 10-10-2016)
5. Molecular identification of Mycoplasma synoviae from seroprevalent commercial breeder farms at Chittagong district, Bangladesh - Md. Inkeyas Uddin, Md. Harisul Abid, Md. Shafiqul Islam, Tofazzal Md. Rakib, Ashim Baran Sen, Shah Mohammed Ziqrul Haq Chowdhury, Md. Nurul Anwar and Kazi Md. Kamaruddin
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1063-1069

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1063-1069

Aim: Worldwide, Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is an important pathogen of poultry, especially for chicken and turkey. It causes respiratory tract infection and infectious sinusitis. The study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of MS infection with associated risk factors and identification of MS organism in unvaccinated flocks of commercial breeder farms of the Chittagong district, Bangladesh.
Materials and Methods: A total of 365 serum samples were collected and tested for MS using serum plate agglutination (SPA) test for determination of MS seroprevalence. On the other hand, tracheal swabs were collected from each seropositive flocks for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the presence of MS organism.
Results: Among the farms, the highest prevalence was found to be 69% and the lowest prevalence was 28% with the average 60%. The seroprevalence of MS infection in breeder farms was highest 70% with the flock size >10,000 birds, whereas it was lowest 57% in the flocks ranging from 4000 to 7000. According to age group, the prevalence was found highest 70% in >60 weeks age group of birds and lowest 42% in 10-19 weeks group. The seroprevalence of MS in winter season was found as highest as 64%, whereas it was found lowest 60% in the summer season. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) among the seroprevalence of MS in different breeder farms, flock size, and age groups, but there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the winter, summer, and rainy season. To confirm the presence of MS in the samples, PCR test was applied using specific primers to amplify a 214 bp region of the 16S rRNA gene of the organism. In PCR, all seropositive flocks showed a positive result for MS.
Conclusion: As the plate agglutination test result showed 100% similar with PCR result, it can be suggested that agglutination test is better than molecular and culture techniques for MS detection and it is also cheaper and less time-consuming method.
Keywords: breeder farm, Mycoplasma synoviae, polymerase chain reaction, respiratory infection, risk factors, seroprevalence.

Saturday, 8 October 2016

Determination of ceruloplasmin, some other acute phase proteins, and biochemical parameters in cows with endometritis

Research (Published online: 08-10-2016)
4. Determination of ceruloplasmin, some other acute phase proteins, and biochemical parameters in cows with endometritis - S. Kaya, O. Merhan, C. Kacar, A. Colak and K. Bozukluhan
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1056-1062

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1056-1062

Aim: The aim of this study is to determine serum ceruloplasmin levels in cows with endometritis of varying degrees of severity and to establish whether or not there is a correlation between acute phase protein (APP) levels and biochemical parameters.
Material and Methods: The study was conducted with 100 Brown Swiss cows (3-8 years of age) on days 28-32 postpartum. Cows were divided into endometritis (mild, moderate, and severe endometriosis) and healthy groups based on ultrasonography, vaginoscopy, and cytological examination. Blood samples were collected from all cows. Levels of haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), ceruloplasmin, albumin, and some biochemical parameters were analyzed.
Results: Hp, SAA, and ceruloplasmin levels were higher in cows with endometritis than in healthy cows (p=0.001), and the levels of these APPs increased as endometritis became more severe (p=0.001). Some significant correlations were found between APPs and the biochemical parameters that were analyzed. In conclusion, it was determined that ceruloplasmin levels increase significantly in the presence of endometritis and proportionate to the severity of endometritis. A significant correlation was found between ceruloplasmin levels and Hp and SAA levels.
Conclusion: It was concluded that ceruloplasmin levels can be used in the diagnosis of endometritis as an alternative to Hp and SAA levels.
Keywords: albumin, ceruloplasmin, cow, endometritis, haptoglobin, serum amyloid A.