Friday, 26 August 2016

Proteinuria reduction after treatment with miltefosine and allopurinol in dogs naturally infected with leishmaniasis

Research (Published online: 26-08-2016)
18. Proteinuria reduction after treatment with miltefosine and allopurinol in dogs naturally infected with leishmaniasis - Daniela Proverbio, Eva Spada, Giada Bagnagatti de Giorgi and Roberta Perego
Veterinary World, 9(8): 904-908

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.904-908

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in proteinuria in dogs naturally infected with visceral leishmaniasis, following treatment with miltefosine (MLF) and allopurinol.
Materials and Methods: Medical records of 40 dogs with leishmaniasis, treated with 2 mg/kg MLF every 24 h PO and 10 mg/kg allopurinol every 12 h for 28 days were reviewed. 20 dogs were included in the study, and clinical staging was performed following guidelines of the Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) Working Group, and dogs were categorized for proteinuria according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) staging system. Clinical score, indirect fluorescent antibody test titer, serum total protein, gamma globulin (IgG), serum creatinine and urea concentration, and urine protein creatinine ratio (UP/C) were recorded at the time of diagnosis before the start of therapy (D0) and at the end of 28 days of therapy (D28).
Results: Following the CanL Working Group staging, all 20 dogs were classified as the clinical Stage C (Clinical disease) before and after the cycle of treatment. Before the cycle of therapy, dogs were categorized according to the IRIS staging system, as: 9/20 non-proteinuric (NP), 7/20 borderline proteinuric (BP), and 4/20 proteinuric (P). After treatment, 12/20 dogs were NP, 7/20 were BP, and 1/20 was P. There was a significant change in UP/C values before and after one cycle of treatment with MLF. In detail, after 28 days of therapy, 2 of 9 NP dogs became BP, 3 of the 7 BP dogs became NP, and 2 of the 4 P dogs became NP.
Conclusion: This study showed a significant decrease in UP/C values occurred after one cycle of treatment with MLF and allopurinol in dogs naturally affected with CanL. This suggests that MLF does not increase proteinuria, and the use of MLF could be considered for the management of dogs with leishmaniasis, particularly in those with impaired renal function at the time of diagnosis.
Keywords: canine leishmaniasis therapy, proteinuric kidney disease, renal function, urine protein creatinine.

Tuesday, 23 August 2016

Studies on the effectiveness of oral pellet vaccine in improving egg production and egg quality in desi chicken

Research (Published online: 24-08-2016)
17. Studies on the effectiveness of oral pellet vaccine in improving egg production and egg quality in desi chicken - T. Lurthu Reetha, J. Johnson Rajeswar, T. J. Harikrishnan, K. Sukumar, P. Srinivasan and J. John Kirubakaran
Veterinary World, 9(8): 900-903

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.900-903

Aim: To study the effect of Newcastle disease (ND) oral pellet vaccine in egg production and egg quality in desi chicken.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. A total of 48-day-old desi chicks obtained from a private hatchery in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, were maintained under cage system of rearing up to 52 weeks of age as per standard management practices. All the 48 chicks were divided into six groups having eight chicks in each group were subjected to different treatment regimes. All the birds were challenged at 52 weeks of age with 0.5 ml dose of 104.0egg infectious dose 50 virulent ND field virus. 10 eggs from each group were randomly collected during the last 3 days of 8 weeks interval period from 28 to 52 weeks of age and were used to measure the egg quality parameters. The production performance of each group was assessed at 4 weeks interval period from 25 to 52 weeks of age.
Results: In all the six treatment groups with respect to egg production, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Similarly, in egg weight, egg shape index and specific gravity, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 28 to 52 weeks of age.
Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that the administration of ND oral pellet vaccine to desi chicken does not affect the egg production performance, egg weight, egg shape index, and specific gravity of egg.
Keywords: effectiveness, egg production, egg quality, desi chicken, oral pellet vaccines.

Monday, 22 August 2016

Effect of feeding different dietary levels of energy and protein on growth performance and immune status of Vanaraja chicken in the tropic

Research (Published online: 23-08-2016)
16. Effect of feeding different dietary levels of energy and protein on growth performance and immune status of Vanaraja chicken in the tropic - Shahla Perween, Kaushalendra Kumar, Chandramoni, Sanjay Kumar, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Manoj Kumar and Amitava Dey
Veterinary World, 9(8): 893-899

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.893-899

Aim: The present study was conducted to observe the effect of feeding dietary level of energy and protein on growth performance and immune status of Vanaraja chicken in the tropic.
Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted for 56 days on 540 1-day-old chicks, which were individually weighed and distributed into nine groups having 60 birds in each. Each group was further subdivided into triplicates having 20 birds in each. Nine different experimental rations were formulated with three levels of protein, viz., 17%, 19%, and 21%; each with three levels of energy (2600, 2800, and 3000 kcal metabolizable energy [ME]/kg), respectively. Group Tserves as control fed with 21% protein and 2800 kcal energy as per Project Directorate of Poultry, Hyderabad given requirement. Feed consumption, live weight gain, body weight change, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated based on the amount of feed consumed every week. All the birds were vaccinated following standard protocol. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test have been performed to assess the immunity potential of birds due to dietary effect, and serum samples were subjected to HI test at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of age. Finally, economics of broiler production was calculated on the cost of feed per kg live weight gain.
Results: This study revealed that the effect of feeding different levels of energy and protein on growth parameters such as body weight gain and FCR was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) containing 19% and 21% crude protein with 3000 kcal ME/kg in Vanaraja birds. There was a gradual increase in antibody titer against New castle disease virus as the level of protein and energy increase. It is speculated that the better body weight gain corroborate health and antibody titer. Moreover, the better immune response recorded in the study might be due to better nutrient utilization and its extension toward the better immune response. Higher energy with medium protein diet positively reflects to obtain desirable performance economically.
Conclusion: It was positive inclination toward ration containing high protein and energy which influence the immune response of Vanaraja birds to obtained desirable performance economically also.
Keywords: body weight gain, economics, energy, immunity, protein, Vanaraja.

Sunday, 21 August 2016

Prevalence and pathogenesis of some filarial nematodes infecting donkeys in Egypt

Research (Published online: 22-08-2016)
15. Prevalence and pathogenesis of some filarial nematodes infecting donkeys in Egypt - A. M. Radwan, N. E. Ahmed, L. M. Elakabawy, M. Y. Ramadan and R. S. Elmadawy
Veterinary World, 9(8): 888-892

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.888-892

Aim: The primary objective of the present study is to determine the commonness of filarial parasites in donkeys in Egypt, identification of the filarial species tainting them and the delivered pathogenic impact connected with the infestation.
Materials and Methods: A total of 188 donkeys were examined for filarial infection. The blood samples and scraping of the cutaneous bleeding lesions were collected, stained, and inspected for microfilariae all through the period from March 2011 to October 2013. The adult worms were perceived in tissue samples acquired from skin scraping, testes, eyes, tendons, peritoneal and pleural cavities, and the ligamentum nuchae.
Results: On the basis of morphological identification, 163 of 188 donkeys (86.70%) were infected with Onchocerca cervicalis (82.98%),Setaria equina (31.11%), Parafilaria multipapillosa (5.32%), and Onchocerca reticulata (4.26%)There was no significant effect of the sex on the incidence of all the encounteredfilarial worms except for S. equina, where the infection rate prevailed in males versus females (40.82% vs. 35.90%)In addition, age group of 5-15 years old exhibited a fundamentally higher predominance (p< 0.05) of the recognized filarial worms versus those of ˂5 years old and >15 years old.
Conclusion: The preliminary results add to our comprehension of filarial species infecting donkeys in Egypt, their impact on animal execution and production. Accentuation must be taken for avoidance, control of filarial disease, and improvement of the management system of donkeys.
Keywords: age, donkey, Filaria, gender, prevalence.

Low-level laser therapy: Case-control study in dogs with sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis

Research (Published online: 22-08-2016)
14. Low-level laser therapy: Case-control study in dogs with sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis - Roberta Perego, D. Proverbio, A. Zuccaro and E. Spada
Veterinary World, 9(8): 882-887

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.882-887

Aim: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a therapeutic photobiostimulation with properties in reducing swelling, inflammation, and promoting tissue healing. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate LLLT in sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis in five dogs.
Materials and Methods: In each dog, one lesion was designated as the control (treated with a 0.0584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray), and one or more other lesions were treated with a gallium aluminum arsenide-laser, daily for 5 days. Lesions were scored before treatment (D0), at the end (D4), 16 days after the last laser treatment (D20), and after 2 months (D65).
Results: Comparing the treated lesion group with the control lesion group, the clinical score was similar at D0, whereas there was a statistically significant difference at D4 and D20; in the treated group over time, there was a statistically significant improvement between D0, D4, and D20. Lesion recurrence was absent in more than 50% of the treated lesions at D65. No adverse reactions were reported.
Conclusion: Given the positive results of this first clinical study, it would be interesting to extend the study to confirm the validity of this type of therapy in sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis in the dog.
Keywords: case-control study, dog, low-level laser therapy, skin, sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis.

Thursday, 18 August 2016

Molecular characterization of virulence genes of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in equines

Research (Published online: 19-08-2016)
13. Molecular characterization of virulence genes of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in equines - R. Javed, A. K. Taku, Rakhi Gangil and R. K. Sharma
Veterinary World, 9(8): 875-881

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.875-881

Aim: The aim was to determine the occurrence of streptococci in equines in Jammu (R. S. Pura, Katra), characterization of Streptococci equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus with respect to their virulence traits and to determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern of virulent Streptococcus isolates.
Materials and Methods: A total of 96 samples were collected from both clinically affected animals (exhibiting signs of respiratory tract disease) and apparently healthy animals and were sent to laboratory. The organisms were isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of Streptococcus was done directly from cultures using sodA and seM gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics such as amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin.
Results: During this study, a total 40 streptococcal isolates were obtained out of which 2 isolates were of S. equi subsp. equi, 12 isolates were from S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. In the PCR-based detection, we revealed amplicons of 235 bp and 679 bp for confirmation of sodA and seM gene, respectively. In antibiogram, two isolates of S. equi subsp. equi were found resistant to penicillin G, and all other isolates were found sensitive to amoxicillin and streptomycin.
Conclusion: The majority of streptococcal infections was due to S. equi subsp. Zooepidemicus, and thus was recognized as a potential pathogen of diseases of equines besides S. equi subsp. equi.
Keywords: polymerase chain reaction, Streptococcus equi sub sp. equi, and Streptococcus equi sub sp. zooepidemicus.

Wednesday, 17 August 2016

Studies on clinical signs and biochemical alteration in pregnancy toxemic goats

Research (Published online: 18-08-2016)
12. Studies on clinical signs and biochemical alteration in pregnancy toxemic goats - Prasannkumar R. Vasava, R. G. Jani, H. V. Goswami, S. D. Rathwa and F. B. Tandel
Veterinary World, 9(8): 869-874

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.869-874

Aim: This study was planned to reveal the clinical signs and biochemical alterations in pregnancy toxemic goats.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 20 healthy pregnant and 45 pregnancy toxemic goats and analyzed biochemically.
Results: The most significant clinical findings were observed in naturally affected goats with pregnancy toxemia included anorexia, recumbency, lethargy, opisthotonos, dropped head, periodic convulsion, sweetish fruity odor from breath, apparent blindness, bloat, grinding of teeth, and frothy salivation. In this study, the level of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) (84.23±1.44 IU/L), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) (216.01±4.07 IU/L), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (22.24±0.31 mg/dl), creatinine (2.13±0.09 mg/dl), β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) (0.46±0.83 mmol/L), and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) (1.67±0.71 mmol/L) was significantly higher whereas glucose (30.89±0.38 mg/dl) and calcium (8.10±0.20 mg/dl) levels were significantly decreased in pregnancy toxemic goats as compared to healthy goats.
Conclusion: The goats with pregnancy toxemia exhibited clinical signs include anorexia, recumbency, sweetish fruity odor from breath, apparent blindness, bloat, grinding of teeth, and frothy salivation. Biochemically, there were significantly decreased the level of glucose and calcium, and increased level of SGPT, SGOT, BUN, creatinine, BHBA, and NEFA in the pregnancy toxemic goats.
Keywords: alteration, biochemistry, clinical signs, goat, pregnancy toxemia.

Monday, 15 August 2016

Evaluation of complementary diagnostic tools for bovine tuberculosis detection in dairy herds from India

Research (Published online: 16-08-2016)
11. Evaluation of complementary diagnostic tools for bovine tuberculosis detection in dairy herds from India - Mukesh Kumar Thakur, Dharmender Kumar Sinha and Bhoj Raj Singh
Veterinary World, 9(8): 862-868

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.862-868

Aim: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to know the herd prevalence and evaluate the single intradermal tuberculin testing (SITT), culture isolation, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (TB).
Materials and Methods: A total of 541 cows of three dairy farms of Bareilly and Mukteshwar were screened by SITT followed by collection of pre-scapular lymph node (PSLN) aspirates (71), milk (54), and blood (71) samples from reactor animals. These clinical samples were processed for culture isolation and direct PCR-based identification and species differentiation.
Results: Out of 541 cows screened by SITT, 71 (13.12%) animals were found positive. Mycobacteria were isolated from 3 (4.22%) PSLN aspirate but not from any cultured milk and blood samples. 28 (39.43%) PSLN aspirate and 5 (9.25%) milk samples were positive forMycobacterium TB (MTB) complex (MTC) by PCR amplification for the IS6110 insertion sequence; however, blood samples were found negative. For species differentiation, multiplex-PCR using 12.7 kb primers was conducted. Out of 28 PSLN aspirate, Mycobacterium boviswas detected in 18 (64.28%) and MTB in 8 (28.57%), whereas 2 aspirate samples (7.14%) were positive for both the species. All the five milk positive samples were positive for M. bovis.
Conclusion: Direct detection of bovine TB by a molecular-based method in dairy animals after preliminary screening was appeared to be more sensitive and specific compared to the conventional method (i.e., culture isolation). Its application in form of serial testing methodology for the routine diagnosis and thereafter, culling of infected stock may be suggested for the control programs in dairy herds. The PSLN aspirate was found to be the most suitable specimen for culture isolation and PCR-based detection of Mycobacterium spp. among live infected animals.
Keywords: bovine tuberculosis, culture isolation, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, polymerase chain reaction, single intradermal tuberculin testing.

Sunday, 14 August 2016

Pituitary-adrenocortical adjustments to transport stress in horses with previous different handling and transport conditions

Research (Published online: 14-08-2016)
10. Pituitary-adrenocortical adjustments to transport stress in horses with previous different handling and transport conditions - E. Fazio, P. Medica, C. Cravana and A. Ferlazzo
Veterinary World, 9(8): 856-861

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.856-861

Aim: The changes of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis response to a long distance transportation results in increase of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels. The purpose of the study was to quantify the level of short-term road transport stress on circulating ACTH and cortisol concentrations, related to the effect of previous handling and transport experience of horses.
Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 56 healthy horses after short-term road transport of 30 km. The horses were divided into four groups, Groups A, B, C, and D, with respect to the handling quality: Good (Groups A and B), bad (Group D), and minimal handling (Group C) conditions. According to the previous transport, experience horses were divided as follows: Horses of Groups A and D had been experienced long-distance transportation before; horses of Groups B and C had been limited experience of transportation.
Results: One-way RM-ANOVA showed significant effects of transport on ACTH changes in Groups B and C and on cortisol changes in both Groups A and B. Groups A and B showed lower baseline ACTH and cortisol values than Groups C and D; Groups A and B showed lower post-transport ACTH values than Groups C and D. Groups A, B, and C showed lower post-transport cortisol values than Group D. Only Groups A and B horses have shown an adequate capacity of stress response to transportation.
Conclusion: The previous transport experience and quality of handling could influence the HPA axis physiological responses of horses after short-term road transport.
Keywords: adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, horse, previous transport experience, social context, transport stress.

Friday, 12 August 2016

Toxoplasma infection in sheep from south of Iran monitored by serological and molecular methods; risk assessment to meat consumers

Research (Published online: 13-08-2016)
9. Toxoplasma infection in sheep from south of Iran monitored by serological and molecular methods; risk assessment to meat consumers - Belal Armand, Kavous Solhjoo, Manoochehr Shabani-Kordshooli, Mohammad Hasan Davami and Mehdi Sadeghi
Veterinary World, 9(8): 850-855

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.850-855

Aim: Toxoplasma gondii has a clinical and veterinary importance as it is known to cause congenital disease and abortion both in humans and livestock. Since the contaminated lamb is one of the sources of human infection, this study was performed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in sheep in south of Iran.
Materials and Methods: Sera and tissue samples (diaphragm and heart) were collected from 370 sheep from slaughterhouse of Jahrom. The samples were taken from both sexes and from 6 to 60 months age. Specific immunoglobulin G antibodies to T. gondii were examined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and B1 gene nested-polymerase chain reaction detection was done to survey the tissue samples.
Results: The total prevalence of Toxoplasma infection among sheep was found to be 35.94% and 34.32% based on serological and molecular method, respectively. According to serologic and molecular findings, the females were more positive than males forToxoplasma; maximum frequency of positive samples was observed in 24-36 months and the positive samples had been collected more in spring than in summer, but no statistical correlation was observed between prevalence rate and the age and sex of animals or season of sampling.
Conclusion: T. gondii is widely distributed in sheep in Jahrom with a rate comparable with other parts of Iran and the world. It suggested a widespread exposure of sheep in this region to T. gondii. Thus, consumption of undercooked or raw meat presents the transmission risk of the parasite and this might be considered as an important public health problem, mainly for high-risk groups such as the pregnant and the immunodeficient.
Keywords: B1 gene, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, meat consumers, nested-polymerase chain reaction, sheep, Toxoplasma gondii.