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18. Comparison of four polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection of Brucella spp. in clinical samples from dogs
Eduardo J. Boeri, Maria M. Wanke, Maria J. Madariaga, Maria L. Teijeiro, Sebastian A. Elena and Marcos D. Trangoni
Veterinary World, 11(2): 201-208
Aim: This study aimed to compare the sensitivity (S), specificity (Sp), and positive likelihood ratios (LR+) of four polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection of Brucella spp. in dog's clinical samples.
Materials and Methods: A total of 595 samples of whole blood, urine, and genital fluids were evaluated between October 2014 and November 2016. To compare PCR assays, the gold standard was defined using a combination of different serological and microbiological test. Bacterial isolation from urine and blood cultures was carried out. Serological methods such as rapid slide agglutination test, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, agar gel immunodiffusion test, and buffered plate antigen test were performed. Four genes were evaluated: (i) The gene coding for the BCSP31 protein, (ii) the ribosomal gene coding for the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region, (iii) the gene coding for porins omp2a/omp2b, and (iv) the gene coding for the insertion sequence IS711.
Results: The results obtained were as follows: (1) For the primers that amplify the gene coding for the BCSP31 protein: S: 45.64% (confidence interval [CI] 39.81-51.46), Sp: 95.62% (CI 93.13-98.12), and LR+: 10.43 (CI 6.04-18); (2) for the primers that amplify the ribosomal gene of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region: S: 69.80% (CI 64.42-75.18), Sp: 95.62 % (CI 93.13-98.12), and LR+: 11.52 (CI 7.31-18.13); (3) for the primers that amplify the omp2a and omp2b genes: S: 39.26% (CI 33.55-44.97), Sp: 97.31% (CI 95.30-99.32), and LR+ 14.58 (CI 7.25-29.29); and (4) for the primers that amplify the insertion sequence IS711: S: 22.82% (CI 17.89 - 27.75), Sp: 99.66% (CI 98.84-100), and LR+ 67.77 (CI 9.47-484.89).
Conclusion: We concluded that the gene coding for the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region was the one that best detected Brucella spp. in canine clinical samples.
17. Antimicrobial peptides of buffalo and their role in host defenses
Khangembam Victoria Chanu, Dimpal Thakuria and Satish Kumar
Veterinary World, 11(2): 192-200
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are highly conserved components of the innate immune system found among all classes of life. Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), an important livestock for milk and meat production, is known to have a better resistance to many diseases as compared to cattle. They are found to express many AMPs such as defensins, cathelicidins, and hepcidin which play an important role in neutralizing the invading pathogens. Buffalo AMPs exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Similar to its natural form, synthetic analogs of buffalo AMPs are also antimicrobial against bacteria and even fungus making them a good target for the development of therapeutic antimicrobials. In addition to its antimicrobial effect, AMPs have been demonstrated to have a number of immunomodulatory functions, and their genes are responsive to infections. Further, induction of their gene expression by external factors may help in preventing infectious diseases. This review briefly discusses the AMPs of buffalo identified to date and their possible role in innate immunity.
16. Identification and antibiogram pattern of Bacillus cereus from the milk and milk products in and around Jammu region
Umar Yusuf, S. K. Kotwal, Sanjolly Gupta and Touqeer Ahmed
Veterinary World, 11(2): 186-191
Aim: The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence, identification, and antibiogram pattern of Bacillus cereus from 215 samples of different milk and milk products in and around Jammu region.
Materials and Methods: In the present study, 215 samples of milk, rasgulla, burfi, rasmalai, kalaari, paneer, ice cream, and pastry were collected and analyzed for the isolation of the B. cereus using PEMBA, and antibiogram pattern was observed for all the milk and milk products.
Results:B. cereus was detected in 61/215 samples with an overall prevalence of 28.37%. Biotyping revealed predominantly 5, 7, and 2 biotypes in raw milk. Burfi and ice cream revealed 2, 3, 5, and 7 biotypes. Rasgulla had 2, 3, and 5 biotypes; paneer and rasmalai had biotypes 2 and 5, while kalaari revealed biotype 5. Antibiogram pattern revealed that isolates were highly sensitive to gentamicin (100%), intermediate to ampicillin (40.98%), tetracycline (31.14%), erythromycin (29.50%), and amoxicillin (26.22%), and high resistance against penicillin G (100%). Adulteration of starch was detected in 16.66 % raw milk samples. All starch positive samples were positive for B. cereus. However, 12 starch negative samples also yielded B. cereus.
Conclusion: From this study, it was concluded that highest prevalence of B. cereus was found in ice cream. Several isolates of B. cereus showed toxigenic activity, so the presence of B. cereus in milk and milk products may be of public health hazard. The antibiogram pattern of B. cereus isolates showed sensitivity to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and resistance to penicillin-G and cephalexin. The presence of B. cereus in milk and milk products showed a strong association besides establishing the fact that starch adulteration can be indicative of the presence of B. cereus.
15. End-threaded intramedullary positive profile screw ended self-tapping pin (Admit pin) - A cost-effective novel implant for fixing canine long bone fractures
Mitin Chanana, Adarsh Kumar, Som Prakash Tyagi, Amit Kumar Singla, Arvind Sharma and Uiase Bin Farooq
Veterinary World, 11(2): 181-185
Aim: The current study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical efficacy of end-threaded intramedullary pinning for management of various long bone fractures in canines.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in two phases, managing 25 client-owned dogs presented with different fractures. The technique of application of end-threaded intramedullary pinning in long bone fractures was initially standardized in 6 clinical patients presented with long bone fractures. In this phase, end-threaded pins of different profiles, i.e., positive and negative, were used as the internal fixation technique. On the basis of results obtained from standardization phase, 19 client-owned dogs clinically presented with different fractures were implanted with end-threaded intramedullary positive profile screw ended self-tapping pin in the clinical application phase.
Results: The patients, allocated randomly in two groups, when evaluated postoperatively revealed slight pin migration in Group-I (negative profile), which resulted in disruption of callus site causing delayed union in one case and large callus formation in other two cases whereas no pin migration was observed in Group-II (positive profile). Other observations in Group-I was reduced muscle girth and delayed healing time as compared to Group-II. In clinical application, phase 21st and 42nd day post-operative radiographic follow-up revealed no pin migration in any of the cases, and there was no bone shortening or fragment collapse in end-threaded intramedullary positive profile screw ended self-tapping pin.
Conclusion: The end-threaded intramedullary positive profile screw ended self-tapping pin used for fixation of long bone fractures in canines can resist pin migration, pin breakage, and all loads acting on the bone, i.e., compression, tension, bending, rotation, and shearing to an extent with no post-operative complications.
14. The effect of moderate exercise on the elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in oral squamous epithelial cells induced by benzopyrene
Anis Irmawati, Nadira Jasmin and Sidarningsih
Veterinary World, 11(2): 177-180
Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of moderate exercise on the elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.
Materials and Methods: Eighteen Mus musculus strain Swiss Webster (Balb/c) were divided into three groups (n=6). K1 and K2 had contact with water 3 times/week for 12 weeks, while the members of the K3 group swam 3 times/week for 12 weeks while carrying load weighed 3% of their body weight. After 5 weeks, they were induced with 0.04 ml oleum olivarum (K1), 0.08 mg benzopyrene/0.04 ml oleum olivarum (K2, K3) 3 times/week for 4 weeks. Immunohistochemistry assays were used to determine the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 expression. The results were analyzed using an independent t-test.
Results: The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased significantly in K3 compared to K2 (p=0.00).
Conclusion: Moderate exercise could increase the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in oral squamous epithelial cells induced by benzopyrene.
13. Seroprevalence of small ruminant caprine arthritis encephalitis lentivirus among goats from selected small ruminant farms in Selangor, Malaysia
Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse, Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus, Yusuf Abba, Veenosha Nehru Raju, Idris Umar Hambali, Innocent Damudu Peter, Abd Wahid Haron, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila and Jefri Mohd Norsidin
Veterinary World, 11(2): 172-176
Background and Aim:Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) is an important viral disease of small ruminants particularly in dairy goats with severe social and economic implication. Hence, this study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of CAE virus (CAEV) among goat population in selected small ruminant farms in Selangor and the risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from a total of 91 goats selected at random. Blood serum was harvested and used for competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test to detect antibodies against CAE virus.
Results: The result obtained showed that 8/91 (8.8%) of the goats were seropositive for CAEV. In addition, biosecurity management, source of origin and sex of the animal were observed to be important risk factors associated with the occurrence of CAE in goats.
Conclusion: The findings of this study affirmed that the seroprevalence of CAEV infection among goat population in small ruminant farms in Selangor, Malaysia, is low. However, there is need to institute strict control measures such as testing and culling positive animals or separation of infected animals from those that tested negative to the disease for effective eradication of the disease.
12. Effect of temperature (cooking and freezing) on the concentration of oxytetracycline residue in experimentally induced birds
Ezenduka Ekene Vivienne, Okorie-kanu Onyinye Josephine and Nwanta John Anaelom
Veterinary World, 11(2): 167-171
Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of varying temperatures (different cooking methods and freezing) on the concentration of oxytetracycline (OTC) residues in tissues of broiler birds.
Materials and Methods: Fifty, 5-week-old birds were purchased and acclimatized for 3 weeks while being fed antibiotic-free feed and water. Four birds were then tested for residue and in the absence; the remaining birds were injected intramuscularly with oxytetracycline at its therapeutic dose. Muscle and liver samples of the treated birds were harvested and checked for OTC residues before subjecting them to boiling, microwaving, and roasting. The three plate test was used for the residue detection.
Results: OTC was detected at both pH 6.0 and pH 7.2 but not detected at pH 8.0. Roasting and boiling significantly reduced the concentration of oxytetracycline in muscle by 53.6% and 69.6%, respectively, at pH 6.0, microwaving reduced the concentration by 49.1% but was not statistically significant. The same pattern was followed at pH 7.2 with reduction of 34.3%, 53.2%, and 67.7% for microwaved, roasted, and boiled. For the liver tissues, there was a significant reduction in the concentration for both pH: 6.0 (57.75%, 79.75%, and 89%; pH 7.2 (48.06%, 79.6%, and 88.79%) for boiled, microwaved, and roasted samples. Boiling had a greater reduction effect for muscle samples while roasting had a greater reduction in liver samples at both pHs. Freezing at -10°C had no effect on the concentration of OTC even after 9 days.
Conclusion: The significant reduction of OTC concentration by cooking indicates that consumers may not be at risk of the effects of OTC residues in meat, but microwaving meat may not reduce the concentration below the maximum residue limit if the initial concentration is very high. Therefore, routine monitoring of drug residues in farms and abattoirs is still advocated.
Keywords: antimicrobials, cooking methods, drug residue, oxytetracycline.