Friday, 23 September 2016

Enzyme histochemistry of cecal lymphoid tissue during prenatal period of buffalo

Research (Published online: 24-09-2016)
15. Enzyme histochemistry of cecal lymphoid tissue during prenatal period of buffalo - Kritima Kapoor and Opinder Singh
Veterinary World, 9(9): 1006-1011



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1006-1011



Aim: This study was designed to elucidate the histoenzymic distribution of enzymes, i.e., phosphatases, oxidoreductases, dehydrogenases, and diaphorases in cecal lymphoid tissue during its development in the prenatal period.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on cecum of 15 buffalo fetuses ranging from 16 cm curved crownrump length (CVRL) (100 days) to 100 cm CVRL (full term). The fetuses were categorized into three groups based on their CVRL.
Results: In Group I, the distribution of enzymes was uniformly weak in developing villi-like projections in cecum and completely absent from submucosa. In Group II, the enzymes showed a moderate to strong activity in epithelium lining tunica mucosa which progressively decreased as the fetus progresses toward late gestational age. However, the intense activity of enzymes was observed in developing lymphoid tissue in this group. In Group III, distribution of enzymes reduced in tunica mucosa of cecum with advancing age, whereas the intense activity was noticed in the developed lymphoid tissue complex.
Conclusion: The distribution of enzymes was completely absent from submucosal region in cecum of Group I as there was no lymphoid tissue development at this age. In Group II, the enzymes showed a moderate to strong activity in epithelium lining tunica mucosa which progressively decreased toward late gestational age but an intense activity was observed in developing lymphoid tissue. In Group III, distribution of enzymes reduced in tunica mucosa with advancing age with intense activity noticed in the developed lymphoid tissue complex.
Keywords: buffalo, cecum, histoenzyme, lymphoid tissue, prenatal.

The expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element modulator in rat sertoli cells following seminal extract administration

Research (Published online: 23-09-2016)
14. The expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element modulator in rat sertoli cells following seminal extract administration - Muslim Akmal, Tongku Nizwan Siregar, Sri Wahyuni, Hamny, Mustafa Kamal Nasution, Wiwik Indriati, Budianto Panjaitan and Dwinna Aliza
Veterinary World, 9(9): 1001-1005



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1001-1005



Aim: This study aims to determine the effect of seminal vesicle extract on cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element modulator (CREM) expression in rat Sertoli cells.
Materials and Methods: This study examined the expression of CREM on 20 male rats (Rattus norvegicus) at 4 months of age, weighing 250-300 g. The rats were divided into four groups: K0, KP1, KP2, and KP3. K0 group was injected with 0.2 ml normal saline; KP1 was injected with 25 mg cloprostenol (Prostavet C, Virbac S. A); KP2 and KP3 were injected with 0.2 and 0.4 ml seminal vesicle extract, respectively. The treatments were conducted 5 times within 12-day interval. At the end of the study, the rats were euthanized by cervical dislocation; then, the testicles were necropsied and processed for histology observation using immunohistochemistry staining.
Results: CREM expression in rat Sertoli cells was not altered by the administration of either 0.2 or 0.4 ml seminal vesicle extract.
Conclusion: The administration of seminal vesicle extract is unable to increase CREM expression in rat Sertoli cells.
Keywords: cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element modulator, seminal vesicle extract, Sertoli cells, spermatogenesis.

Wednesday, 21 September 2016

Occurrence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamases producing Escherichia coli in foods of animal origin and human clinical samples in Chhattisgarh, India

Research (Published online: 21-09-2016)
13. Occurrence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamases producing Escherichia coli in foods of animal origin and human clinical samples in Chhattisgarh, India - Bhoomika, Sanjay Shakya, Anil Patyal and Nitin Eknath Gade
Veterinary World, 9(9): 996-1000



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.996-1000



Aim: To assess the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) (blaTEMblaSHV, andblaCTX-M) genes in Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat, chevon meat, raw milk, and human urine and stool samples collected from tribal districts of Chhattisgarh, viz., Jagdalpur, Dantewada, Kondagaon, and Kanker.
Materials and Methods: A total of 330 samples, comprising 98 chicken meat, 82 chevon meat, 90 raw milk, and 60 human urine and stool samples, were processed for isolation of E. coli. Isolates were confirmed biochemically and further tested against commonly used antibiotics to know their resistant pattern. The resistant isolates were tested for ESBL production by phenotypic method followed by characterization with molecular method using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction technique.
Results: Overall 57.87% (191/330) samples were found positive for E. coli, which include 66.32% (65/98) chicken meat, 46.34% (38/82) chevon meat, 81.11% (73/90) raw milk, and 25% (15/60) human urine and stool samples. Isolates showed the highest resistance against cefotaxime (41.36%) followed by oxytetracycline (34.03%), ampicillin (29.31%), cephalexin (24.60%), cefixime (16.75%), and ceftazidime (13.08%). Phenotypic method detected 10.99% (21/191) isolates as presumptive ESBL producers, however, molecular method detected 3.66% (7/191), 2.09% (4/191), and 0.00% (0/191) prevalence of blaTEMblaCTX-M, and blaSHV, respectively.
Conclusion: The present study indicates a high prevalence of E. coli in raw chicken meat, chevon meat, and milk due to poor hygienic practices. The antibiotic susceptibility test detected the presence of the resistance pattern against ESBL in E. coli isolated from raw chicken meat, chevon meat, milk, and also in human clinical samples is of great concern. The appearance of E. coli in the human food chain is alarming and requires adaptation of hygienic practices and stipulate use of antibiotics.
Keywords: blaTEMblaSHVblaCTX-MEscherichia coli, extended-spectrum β-lactamases.

Sunday, 18 September 2016

Histopathological and immunohistochemical approaches for the diagnosis of Pasteurellosis in swine population of Punjab

Research (Published online: 18-09-2016)
12. Histopathological and immunohistochemical approaches for the diagnosis of Pasteurellosis in swine population of Punjab - Payal Bhat, Nittin Dev Singh, Geeta Devi Leishangthem, Amninder Kaur, Vishal Mahajan, Harmanjit Singh Banga and Rajinder Singh Brar
Veterinary World, 9(9): 989-995



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.989-995



Aim: Infectious porcine bronchopneumonia, caused by Pasteurella multocida, is a widespread disease of major economic significance. Thus, the aim of the present study was to diagnose swine Pasteurellosis using gross, histopathological, and immunopathological approaches in the swine population of Punjab and to compare the efficacy of immunohistochemical (IHC) techniques with conventional diagnostic techniques.
Materials and Methods: A total of 71 adult swine lung samples showing gross pneumonic changes were collected along with the associated lymph nodes to carry out the study. The collected samples were then processed for histopathological and IHC studies.
Results: Out of the total 71 lung samples, 26 samples were found to be suspected for Pasteurellosis as per the microscopic changes observed, and out of these 26 samples, 16 cases were confirmed to be positive for Pasteurellosis by IHC. Varied macroscopic changes noted in lungs were pneumonic patches with consolidation of many lobes, congestion, and focal hemorrhages. Main lesions associated with lymph nodes were its enlargement and hemorrhages. Histologically, the lung showed fibrinous and suppurative bronchopneumonia, multifocal suppuration, thickening of septa with fibrin combined with cellular infiltration and edema. The higher IHC expression of P. multocida was seen in the bronchial epithelium besides in alveolar and bronchial exudate. Moreover, on comparing the histopathological and IHC scores which were calculated on the basis of characteristic microscopic lesions and number of antigen positive cells, respectively, a significant positive correlation (r=0.4234) was found.
Conclusion: It was concluded that swine population of Punjab is having P. multocida infection. The gross and histopathological lesions can be helpful in the preliminary diagnosis of Pasteurellosis but needs to be supplemented by other immunodiagnostic tests. Moreover, IHC technique proved to be a specific, reliable, precise, and rapid technique to supplement these conventional methods of diagnosis for Pasteurellosis.
Keywords: histopathology, immunohistochemical, Pasteurellosis, scoring.

Saturday, 17 September 2016

Differential response of immune-related genes to peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acid challenge in vitro

Research (Published online: 17-09-2016)
11. Differential response of immune-related genes to peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acid challenge in vitro - Sourabh Sulabh, Bharat Bhushan, Manjit Panigrahi, Ankita Verma, Naseer Ahmad Baba and Pushpendra Kumar
Veterinary World, 9(9): 983-988



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.983-988



Aim: To study the effect of Staphylococcus aureus cell wall antigens, peptidoglycan (PGN) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) challenge on immune cells present in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
Materials and Methods: In this study, efforts have been made to investigate the effects of three combinations (10+10, 20+20 and 30+30 μg/ml) of PGN and LTA obtained from S. aureus. These antigens were used to challenge the bovine PBMCs. After 6 h of incubation quantitative, real time-polymerase chain reaction was used to study toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) and major cytokine mRNA expression in bovine PBMC challenged with three different antigen blends.
Results: The results indicated that mRNA level of interferon gamma is influenced by the expression of TLR-2 gene. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and IL-8 genes showed a maximum response at a dose of 10 μg of PGN and 10 μg of LTA challenge per ml of culture medium. The outcome also suggests that both IL-10 and IL-8 followed the expression pattern of TNF-a.
Conclusion: A dose of 10 μg of PGN and 10 μg of LTA per ml of culture medium was found to be most suitable for challenging PBMC.
Keywords: expression, lipoteichoic acid, mastitis, peptidoglycan, peripheral blood mononuclear cell.

Friday, 16 September 2016

Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella spp. from water sources in Tamale, Ghana

Research (Published online: 16-09-2016)
5Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella spp. from water sources in Tamale, Ghana - Frederick Adzitey, Charles Kwaku Nunana Ashiagbor and Haruna Abu
International Journal of One Health, 2: 24-28



  doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2016.24-28


Abstract

Aim: This study investigated the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella species isolated from drinking water sources in Tamale Metropolis.
Materials and Methods: Isolation of Salmonella species from 275 different drinking water samples (25 each from dam, well, rain, and bottle, 35 from tap, 40 from water trough, and 100 from sachet) was done using a slightly modified method of the Bacteriological Analytical Manual of the Food and Drugs Administration, USA. 34 Salmonella species isolated from the water samples were examined for their susceptibility to nine different antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. The study was carried out from July 2014 to January 2015.
Results: The overall prevalence of Salmonella species was 4.36% (12/275). Dam 16.00% (4/25) and well 16.00% (4/25) water samples were the most contaminated source, followed by rain water (stored) 12.00% (3/25) and tap water samples 2.86% (1/35). There were no significant differences among water samples which were positive for Salmonella species (p>0.05); however, dam and well samples that were positive forSalmonella species differ significantly (p<0.05) from bottle water, sachet water, and water trough samples, which were negative for Salmonella species. The 34 Salmonella isolates were highly resistant to erythromycin (E) (100%) and vancomycin (VA) (94.12%). Few isolates exhibited intermediate resistances to ceftriaxone (CRO) (17.65%), gentamicin (CN) (17.65%), tetracycline (14.71%), chloramphenicol (C) (5.88%), ciprofloxacin (CIP) (2.94%), and amoxicillin (AMC) (2.94%). Salmonella isolates also exhibited six different antibiotic resistant patterns (VA-E, VA-E-AMC, VA-E-CRO, VA-E-C, VA-E-CRO-AMC, and VA-E-AMC-CN). The resistant pattern VA-E (with multiple antibiotic resistance index of 0.22) was the commonest.
Conclusion: This study indicated that some drinking water sources for humans and animals in Tamale Metropolis are contaminated with Salmonella species which exhibited varying resistance to various antibiotics. Therefore, consumers of water at the Tamale Metropolis are at risk of Salmonella infection from drinking water from positive water sources in the Tamale Metropolis.
Keywords: antibiotics, drinking water, public health, Salmonella species.

Cardiac biomarkers and ultrasonography as tools in prediction and diagnosis of traumatic pericarditis in Egyptian buffaloes

Research (Published online: 16-09-2016)
10. Cardiac biomarkers and ultrasonography as tools in prediction and diagnosis of traumatic pericarditis in Egyptian buffaloes - Noura E. Attia
Veterinary World, 9(9): 976-982



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.976-982



Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the cardiac biomarkers and ultrasonography in prediction and early diagnosis of traumatic pericarditis (TP) in Egyptian buffaloes.
Materials and Methods: A total number of 47 buffaloes were included in the study and divided into two groups: Healthy (n=10) and diseased groups (n=37). Diseased buffaloes were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Zagazig University, Egypt, with a history of anorexia, sudden, and severe reduction of milk production with no response to a previous medical treatment some animals had edema at the dewlap and congestion of the jugulars. These animals were subjected to clinical examination, evaluation by hemato-biochemical analysis including cardiac biomarkers and sonography.
Results: The hemato-biochemical analysis revealed leukocytosis with a shift to left and hyperfibrinogenemia (indicating inflammation). Serum cardiac biomarkers including cardiac troponin I (cTnI), cTnT, nitric oxide, creatine kinase myocardial band, and lactic dehydrogenase enzyme were significantly increased in buffaloes with TP compared with control ones. Ultrasonographically, there were hypoechoic materials with echogenic fibrin interspersed in between the pericardial sac.
Conclusions: The cardiac biomarkers may be considered a useful index in the early diagnosis of TP. Moreover, ultrasonography is an excellent tool for early prediction and diagnosis of such condition.
Keywords: buffaloes, cardiac biomarkers, diagnosis, traumatic pericarditis, ultrasonography.

Thursday, 15 September 2016

Gastrointestinal helminths of Coyotes (Canis latrans) from Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa

Research (Published online: 15-09-2016)
9. Gastrointestinal helminths of Coyotes (Canis latrans) from Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa - Whitni K. Redman, Jay E. Bryant and Gul Ahmad
Veterinary World, 9(9): 970-975



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.970-975



Aim: This survey was carried out on the carcasses of 29 coyotes from Southeastern Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa to document the helminths present in the intestinal track of these carnivorous animals.
Materials and Methods: A total of 29 adult coyote carcasses were generously donated in the autumn and winter (November-February) of 2014-2015 by trappers, fur buyers and hunters of Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa. The intestine of individual animals were examined for the recovery of helminth parasites as per the established procedures.
Results: We found that as many as 93.10% of the investigated coyotes were infected with one or more helminth infections. A total of 10 different species of helminth parasites were recovered from the intestines of coyotes under investigation. Among the 10 species of helminths, 5 were identified as cestodes while the remaining 5 were nematodes. A total of 82.75% of the animals were infected with one or more species of nematodes, while 75.86% of them were colonized with one or more species of cestode parasites. The most abundant species in coyotes were Toxascaris leonina (68.95%) closely followed by Taenia hydatigena (58.62%). The prevalence of Ancylostoma caninum and Taenia pisiformis were recorded at 31.03%, followed by those of Toxocara canis and Echinococcus spp. at 24.13%, respectively. Three animals were infected with Trichuris vulpis while three other coyotes each were found to be harboring Uncinaria stenocephalaDipylidium caninum, or Hymenolepis diminuta. The presence of H. diminuta might have been the result of the ingestion of a rodent by the respective coyotes.
Conclusion: From the overall analysis of the present data and comparing it with the previous reports of various scientists over several decades, we can conclude that intestinal helminths are still very much prevalent among the coyote population in the Southeast Nebraska and Iowa area. The relatively high prevalence of the zoonotic parasite species further warrants a more comprehensive investigation with larger numbers of wild predators from the region to ascertain the possible contribution of coyotes to the disease cycle as these animals are more frequently spotted in and around the densely populated urban areas.
Keywords: cestode, coyotes, helminths, infection, intestinal, nematode.

Sunday, 11 September 2016

First detection of canine parvovirus type 2b from diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh

Research (Published online: 12-09-2016)
8. First detection of canine parvovirus type 2b from diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh - Shalini Sharma, Prasenjit Dhar, Aneesh Thakur, Vivek Sharma and Mandeep Sharma
Veterinary World, 9(9): 964-969



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.964-969



Aim: The present study was conducted to detect the presence of canine parvovirus (CPV) among diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh and to identify the most prevalent antigenic variant of CPV based on molecular typing and sequence analysis of VP2 gene.
Materials and Methods: A total of 102 fecal samples were collected from clinical cases of diarrhea or hemorrhagic gastroenteritis from CPV vaccinated or non-vaccinated dogs. Samples were tested using CPV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting VP2 gene, multiplex PCR for detection of CPV-2a and CPV-2b antigenic variants, and a PCR for the detection of CPV-2c. CPV-2b isolate was cultured on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell lines and sequenced using VP2 structural protein gene. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis was done using ClustalW and MEGA6 and inferred using the Neighbor-Joining method.
Results: No sample was found positive for the original CPV strain usually present in the vaccine. However, about 50% (52 out of 102) of the samples were found to be positive with CPV-2ab PCR assay that detects newer variants of CPV circulating in the field. In addition, multiplex PCR assay that identifies both CPV-2ab and CPV-2b revealed that CPV-2b was the major antigenic variant present in the affected dogs. A PCR positive isolate of CPV-2b was adapted to grow in MDCK cells and produced characteristic cytopathic effect after 5thpassage. Multiple sequence alignment of VP2 structural gene of CPV-2b isolate (Accession number HG004610) used in the study was found to be similar to other sequenced isolates in NCBI sequence database and showed 98-99% homology.
Conclusion: This study reports the first detection of CPV-2b in dogs with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in Himachal Pradesh and absence of other antigenic types of CPV. Further, CPV-specific PCR assay can be used for rapid confirmation of circulating virus strains under field conditions.
Keywords: canine parvovirus, molecular typing, phylogenetic analysis, sequencing.

Saturday, 10 September 2016

Species determination using the red blood cells morphometry in domestic animals

Research (Published online: 11-09-2016)
7. Species determination using the red blood cells morphometry in domestic animals - Nezar Adili, Mohamed Melizi and Hadj Belabbas
Veterinary World, 9(9): 960-963



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.960-963



Aim: This investigation is placed in the context of continuity of a preliminary study already published; it was conducted in cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and dogs; the main aim is to reveal and develop criteria for the animal species determination based on the morphometric parameters of red blood cells.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein; and the smears were confectioned on slides immediately after the blood collection and stained according to the May-Gründwald Giemsa method. For the morphometric study, three parameters were considered which are: The diameter, the circumference, and the surface of erythrocytes; and measurements were achieved using the OPTIKATM Vision Pro software. Statistical analysis was performed by both analysis of variances and Student’s t analytical tests.
Results: The recorded data showed that the three morphometric parameters of red blood cells are higher in dogs followed, respectively, by those of horses, cattle, and sheep, whereas, the goats have the lowest ones. In addition, the obtained results allowed us to propose new reference values for the circumference and the surface of erythrocyte in considered species.
Conclusion: This investigation permit concluding that from a drop of blood it is possible to characterize the different animal species, taking into account the diameter, the circumference, and the surface of erythrocytes.
Keywords: determination, morphometry, red blood cell, species.