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10. Prevalence of Theileria annulata in dairy cattle in Nyala, South Darfur State, Sudan
Ismail A. Abaker, Diaeldin A. Salih, Lima M. El Haj, Rawia E. Ahmed, Manal M. Osman and Awadia M. Ali
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1475-1480
Aim: This study was conducted in dairy cattle in Nyala, South Darfur State, during the period from June to September 2015, to study the prevalence of bovine tropical theileriosis.
Materials and Methods: Apparently, healthy cattle of different age groups, different breeds, and from both sexes were randomly selected from seven locations. Three age groups of cattle were selected, group one <1 year old, group two 1-3 years old, and group three older than 3 years. These cattle were indigenous and cross (Friesian X zebu). A total of 150 blood samples were collected for blood smears, blood in EDTA tubes, and serum samples as well as ticks infesting cattle. Three diagnostic techniques were used such as blood smear, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results: Of 150 samples, 11 (7.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.1-5.5) were positive for Theileria spp. piroplasms in the blood smears, 70 (46.7%, 95% CI: 35.7-57.7) were positive for Theileria annulata antibodies in the IFAT, and of 100 samples, 39 (39%, 95% CI: 46.6-31.4) were positive for T. annulata using PCR. The prevalence of T. annulata was higher in indigenous breed than cross cattle by the three diagnostic techniques. The highest prevalence of T. annulata was recorded among cattle older than 3 years old. There were three genera and ten species of ticks found feeding on cattle. These were Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus annulatus, Hyalomma dromedrii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma rufipes, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma truncatum, Amblyomma variegatum, and Amblyomma lepidum.
Conclusion: The study concluded that tropical theileriosis is prevalent among dairy cattle in Nyala. H. anatolicum was found in very low numbers, suggesting other ticks may play a role in the transmission of the disease. Molecular characterization of T. annulata is recommended for accurate mapping of the disease and evaluates the magnitude problem of tropical theileriosis in South Darfur region.
Aim: The objective of this study was to examine the carrier status of theileriosis among apparently healthy cross-bred jersey cattle population of Odisha using conventional blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Materials and Methods: A total of 34 apparently healthy cross-bred Jersey lactating cows were considered in this study. Blood samples were subjected to microscopic examination after staining with Giemsa stain and PCR based molecular diagnosis using two sets of primer, i.e., N516/N517 and TorF1/TorF2 specific for Theileria annulata and Theileria orientalis, respectively.
Results: Examination of blood samples revealed presence of theileria parasites to a magnitude of 20.59% for T. annulata, 8.82% for T. orientalis, and 2.94% for both.
Conclusion: Molecular diagnosis was found to be much more sensitive than conventional method for diagnosis of theileriosis. T. annulata was found to be the predominant species affecting the exotic cattle. T. orientalis was detected in apparently healthy cows.
8. A comprehensive study on seroprevalence of bluetongue virus in Haryana state of India
Sushila Maan, Anuj Tiwari, Deepika Chaudhary, Anita Dalal, Nitish Bansal, Vinay Kumar, Kanisht Batra, Aman Kumar, Naresh Kumar Kakker and Narender Singh Maan
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1464-1470
Aim: The aim of present study was to determine seroprevalence of bluetongue virus (BTV) in Haryana state of India.
Materials and Methods: A total of 803 serum samples, 408 of cattle and 395 of buffalo origin, respectively, were collected from different villages of Haryana. Sampling was done randomly to obtain unbiased results. The samples were evaluated by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of BTV antibodies.
Results: Overall seroprevalence of BTV antibody in cattle and buffaloes for all 21 districts of Haryana state was found to be 75.49% and 92.91%, respectively. The prevalence of BTV in different agroclimatic zones ranged between 72-77% and 90-94% for cattle and buffalo, respectively. In buffaloes, the BTV seroprevalence was comparatively higher than in cattle.
Conclusion: The study showed that BTV is circulating in cattle and buffalo populations in the Northern part of India.
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incorporating the by-products complex of date and apricot on the fattening performance of the New Zealand breed of rabbits, to reduce the economic costs of the food formula.
Materials and Methods: A total of 288 young New Zealand rabbits aged 35 days were divided into four equal groups each containing 72 animals and into sub-groups of 6 rabbits per cage, depending on the rate of substitution of corn by date rebus and of soybean meal by apricot kernel meal (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%).
Results: The change in weight from day 35 to 77 and the average daily gain are not significantly different, regardless of the diet. The pH and water content are proportional to the substitution rates (6.4-6.6% and 66.5-68.8%). Meat protein levels increased significantly, in particular for the 10% and 30% groups (+8.1% and 6%) while the fat and mineral content levels decreased significantly, in particular for the 30% group displaying -16% and -17%, respectively. Incorporation of dates and apricot kernel meal into the ration of rabbits reduces the cost of the kilogram of food produced of -9%, with an opportunity cost of 165 Algerian dinars (DZD).
Conclusion: The date rebus/apricot kernel meal complex can be used as an alternative to the corn/soybean meal complex at substitution rates of up to 30% without adverse effects on growth rates, feed contribution, or slaughter yield. It improves the chemical composition of the meat and reduces the cost price of the quintal of feed produced.
Keywords: agro-industrial by-product, apricot kernel meal, fattening, rabbits, rebus of dates.
6. Prophylactic and immune modulatory influences of Nigella sativa Linn. in broilers exposed to biological challenge
Essam S. Soliman, Rania T. Hamad and Amira Ahmed
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1447-1455
Background and Aim: Prophylaxis and disease prevention is an essential strategy among biorisk management in poultry farms that stimulate and maintain the birds' immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prophylactic, and immune-stimulant influence of Nigella sativa Linn. in broilers under biological stress.
Materials and Methods: A total of 250 1-day-old (ross) chicks were divided into 5 groups; four of which were supplemented with 1.4%, 2.8%, 4.2%, and 5.6% N. sativa Linn., respectively. The four supplemented groups were challenged with Escherichia coli O157:H7 1.5x108 at a 14th day old. A total of 1050 samples (150 serum, 150 swab, and 750 organ samples) were collected and examined. Results: A highly significant increase (p<0.01) in 5.6% N. sativa Linn. supplemented group in performance traits (body weight, weight gain, and performance index), biochemical parameters (proteinogram, liver enzymes, and creatinine), immunoglobulins concentration, and immune organs' weight. Meanwile, liver showed improvement of histoarchitecture without fibrosis. Heart showed a mild pericarditis with a mild degree of hydropic degeneration. Bursa, thymus, and spleen showed lymphoid hyperplasia. Conclusion: A concentration of 5.6% N. sativa Linn. in broiler's feed can improve the immune response and subsequent resistance of broilers against diseases. Keywords: Broiler, Escherichia coli, histopathology, Nigella sativa Linn., preventive.
5. Use of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) to substitute soybean meal in ruminant diet: An in vitro rumen fermentation study
Anuraga Jayanegara, Briliannanda Novandri, Nover Yantina and Muhammad Ridla
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1439-1446
Aim: This experiment aimed to evaluate substitution of soybean meal (SBM) by black soldier fly (BSF) larvae meal in a napier grass diet as performed by an in vitro rumen fermentation system.
Materials and Methods: Samples of napier grass, SBM, and BSF larvae age 1 week (BSF1) and 2 weeks (BSF2) were arranged according to the following dietary treatments (dry matter [DM] basis): T1, 100% napier grass; T2, 60% napier grass + 40% SBM; T3, 60% napier grass + 40% BSF1; T4, 60% napier grass + 40% BSF2; T5, 60% napier grass + 20% SBM + 20% BSF1; and T6, 60% napier grass + 20% SBM + 20% BSF2. The samples were determined for their chemical composition and were incubated in vitro using buffered rumen fluid for 48 h at 39°C. In vitro incubation was carried out in three runs and represented by two incubation bottles per run.
Results: Supplementation of BSF, both BSF1 and BSF2, increased ether extract, neutral- and acid-detergent insoluble crude protein contents of T3-T6 diets. The T3 or T4 diet resulted in lower ruminal ammonia concentration, in vitro DM digestibility, and in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility as compared to those in T2 (p<0.05). Diet supplemented with BSF produced lower methane emission in comparison to that of supplemented with SBM (p<0.05). Diet containing BSF2 produced lower methane and methane per digestible OM than that containing BSF1 (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Substitution of SBM by BSF in ruminant diet results in a lower nutritional value in vitro but with an advantage of lowering ruminal methane emission.
Keywords: black soldier fly, chitin, insect, methanogenesis, rumen.
4. Cryptic etiopathological conditions of equine nervous system with special emphasis on viral diseases
Rakesh Kumar and Rajendra D. Patil
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1427-1438
The importance of horse (Equus caballus) to equine practitioners and researchers cannot be ignored. An unevenly distributed population of equids harbors numerous diseases, which can affect horses of any age and breed. Among these, the affections of nervous system are potent reason for death and euthanasia in equids. Many episodes associated with the emergence of equine encephalitic conditions have also pose a threat to human population as well, which signifies their pathogenic zoonotic potential. Intensification of most of the arboviruses is associated with sophisticated interaction between vectors and hosts, which supports their transmission. The alphaviruses, bunyaviruses, and flaviviruses are the major implicated groups of viruses involved with equines/humans epizootic/epidemic. In recent years, many outbreaks of deadly zoonotic diseases such as Nipah virus, Hendra virus, and Japanese encephalitis in many parts of the globe addresses their alarming significance. The equine encephalitic viruses differ in their global distribution, transmission and main vector species involved, as discussed in this article. The current review summarizes the status, pathogenesis, pathology, and impact of equine neuro-invasive conditions of viral origin. A greater understanding of these aspects might be able to provide development of advances in neuro-protective strategies in equine population.