Tuesday, 25 April 2017

Spatial pattern of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in North Central Nigeria

Research (Published online: 26-04-2017)
13. Spatial pattern of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in North Central Nigeria
Yiltawe Simwal Wungak, Olayinka O. Ishola, Babasola O. Olugasa, David D. Lazarus, David O. Ehizibolo and Hussaini G. Ularamu
Veterinary World, 10(4): 450-456
Aim: This study aimed to determine the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating, the prevalence of FMDV serotypes, and the spatial distribution of FMDV among sedentary and pastoral cattle herds in the North-Central Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken, during which a total of 155 sera that tested positive for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) 3ABC non-structural protein antibodies were selected and screened for FMD structural protein serotypes, A, O, SAT 1, and SAT 2 using a solid-phase competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Epithelial tissue specimens were collected during outbreak investigations which were tested for FMD using an antigen capture ELISA for serotype A, O, SAT 1, and SAT 2.
Results: An overall serotype-specific prevalence of 79.35 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 72.4-85.18) was recorded for serotype O, 65.2% (95% CI: 57.41-72.3) for serotype A, 52.9% (95% CI: 45.03-60.67) for SAT-2, and 33.55% (95% CI: 26.45-41.26) for SAT-1. Evidence of exposure to multiple FMDV serotypes showed that 12.26% of the sera samples had antibodies against four serotypes circulating, 30.97% had antibodies against three serotypes circulating, 22.58% had antibodies against two serotypes, and 17% showed exposure to only one serotype. Clinical specimens (epithelial tissue) collected during outbreak investigations showed that serotype O has the highest proportion of 50% with serotype A - 25%; SAT 2 - 20.8%; and SAT 1 - 4.1%.
Conclusion: The study detected diffuse and co-circulation of serotypes A, O, SAT1, and SAT2 within the study area, and hence the need for the appropriately matched multivalent vaccine is strongly advocated for FMD control in Nigeria.
Keywords: antibodies, endemic, foot-and-mouth disease, multiple, Nigeria, serotypes, spatial.

Monday, 24 April 2017

The importance of timely introduction of vancomycin therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia and severity of MRSA bacteremia at Teaching Hospital, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka

Research (Published online: 25-04-2017)
2The importance of timely introduction of vancomycin therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia and severity of MRSA bacteremia at Teaching Hospital, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka -Jayaweera Arachchige Asela Sampath Jayaweera, Malika Karunarathne and Wikum Widuranga Kumbukgolla
International Journal of One Health, 3: 7-11

  doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2017.7-11


Aim: Worldwide, an estimated 2 billion healthy people carry Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and of these, up to 53 million are thought to carry methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA)MRSA bacteremia patients are more critical to manage and timely introduction of antibiotics is life-saving. The aim of the study was to elucidate the prevalence of MRSA bacteremia in different units of Teaching Hospital, Anuradhapura (THA), Sri Lanka and assess the clinical characteristics and associated mortality related to timely introduction of vancomycin therapy.
Materials and Methods: The data on MRSA bacteremia which were obtained from THA, for the period of March 2012 to December 2013 were statically analyzed emphasizing the unit-wise prevalence, severity, and comorbidity and timely introduction of vancomycin therapy.
Results: The laboratory records of total 13,260 blood cultures were analyzed. Of those, MRSA bacteremia was detected in 61 cultures (9.3%). The highest prevalence of MRSA bacteremia was observed in the nephrology unit. The survival rate of the patients when the vancomycin therapy started before 24 h of receiving the blood culture report was 94.9% and in the instances of the treatment started after 24 h of blood culture report, the survival rate decreased down to 50%. High Pitt Bacteraemia score (PBS) (p<0.05) and initiation of vancomycin therapy after 24 h following the receipt of blood culture report (p<0.05) independently affected the MRSA bacteremic patient’s 7th day mortality. Having comorbidities have not shown significant impact on 7th day mortality.
Conclusion: The start of vancomycin therapy as earlier as possible following arrival of antibacterial susceptibility test reduces the likelihood of mortality.
Keywords: MRSA bacteremia, timing of vancomycin, severity.

Saturday, 22 April 2017

Molecular detection of Taenia spp. in dogs' feces in Zanjan Province, Northwest of Iran

Research (Published online: 23-04-2017)
12. Molecular detection of Taenia spp. in dogs' feces in Zanjan Province, Northwest of Iran
Mohammad Hasan Kohansal, Abbasali Nourian, Ali Haniloo and Asghar Fazaeli
Veterinary World, 10(4): 445-449
Aim: Echinococcus and Taenia spp. are important but neglected zoonotic helminths of dogs. Dogs as the most relevant definitive hosts harbor several species of Taenia and Echinococcus simultaneously in their gastrointestinal lumen which are morphologically indistinguishable. In this study, we used a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to identify Taeniid infections which seem to be highly distributed in the study region.
Materials and Methods: A total of 450 dog fecal samples were collected from eight different areas of Zanjan province, northwest of Iran, and examined using a flotation method followed by multiplex PCR for detection and identification of parasites' eggs.
Results: Gastrointestinal parasites were found in 86 out of 450 fecal samples (19.1%) by microscopic examination. Taeniid eggs were observed in 5.6% of samples, containing 0.45%, 3.8%, and 1.3% Echinococcus granulosusTaenia spp., and mix infection of both E. granulosus and Taenia spp., respectively. Echinococcus multilocularis was absent in the samples.
Conclusion: A relatively low rate of E. granulosus (1.8%) was observed in this study. However, risks of this parasite should not be overlooked, and control programs need to be extended for this species and other Taeniid spp. In particular, dogs are recommended to be dewormed more frequently.
Keywords: dog, Echinococcus spp., eggs, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, Taenia spp.

Friday, 21 April 2017

Pathotypic characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolated from vaccinated chicken in West Java, Indonesia

Research (Published online: 22-04-2017)
11. Pathotypic characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolated from vaccinated chicken in West Java, Indonesia
Dwi Desmiyeni Putri, Ekowati Handharyani, Retno Damajanti Soejoedono, Agus Setiyono, Ni Luh Putu Ika Mayasari and Okti Nadia Poetri
Veterinary World, 10(4): 438-444
Aim: This research was conducted to differentiate and characterize eight Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates collected from vaccinated chicken at commercial flocks in West Java, Indonesia, in 2011, 2014 and 2015 by pathotype specific primers.
Materials and Methods: A total of eight NDV isolates collected from clinical outbreaks among commercial vaccinated flocks in West Java, Indonesia, in 2011, 2014, and 2015 were used in this study. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect and differentiate virulence of NDV strains, using three sets of primers targeting their M and F gene. First primers were universal primers to detect NDV targeting matrix (M) gene. Other two sets of primers were specific for the fusion (F) gene cleavage site sequence of virulent and avirulent NDV strains.
Results: Our results showed that three isolates belong to NDV virulent strains, and other five isolates belong to NDV avirulent strains. The nucleotide sequence of the F protein cleavage site showed 112K/R-R-Q/R-K-R/G-F117 on NDV virulent strains and 112G-K/R-Q-G-R-L117 on NDV avirulent strain.
Conclusion: Result from the current study suggested that NDV virulent strain were circulating among vaccinated chickens in West Java, Indonesia; this might possess a risk of causing ND outbreaks and causing economic losses within the poultry industry.
Keywords: F gene, M gene, molecular pathotyping, Newcastle disease virus, vaccinated chickens, virulence.

Thursday, 20 April 2017

Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

Review (Published online: 21-04-2017)
10. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review
Yasir Afzal Beigh, Abdul Majeed Ganai and Haidar Ali Ahmad
Veterinary World, 10(4): 424-437
Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.
Keywords: benefits, complete feed, concept, feeding, ruminants.

Wednesday, 19 April 2017

A reducing trend of fasciolosis in slaughtered animals based on abattoir data in South of Iran

Research (Published online: 20-04-2017)
9. A reducing trend of fasciolosis in slaughtered animals based on abattoir data in South of Iran
Manoochehr Shabani Kordshooli, Kavous Solhjoo, Belal Armand, Hamidreza Dowlatkhah and Masoud Esmi Jahromi
Veterinary World, 10(4): 418-423
Aim: Fascioliasis is a zoonosis infection caused by the liver trematodes (Fasciola spp.) which have been considered to be an important disease in livestock. After several large outbreaks, fascioliasis remains one of the serious health concerns of Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and possible trends of fascioliasis in slaughtered animals in South of Iran based on abattoir data during a period of 5 years.
Materials and Methods: The daily records for cattle, sheep, and goats slaughtered in the abattoir were extracted from the archived documents of the recent 5 years (2011-2015) and used as the source of data. The collected data were statistically analyzed for finding any probable correlation between the various factors associated with fasciolosis.
Results: Our results showed that 3.44% of all slaughtered animals during 2011-2015 were infected with Fasciola spp. The mean prevalence of fasciolosis for cattle, sheep, and goat was 11.15%, 5.22%, and 2.15%, respectively. In addition, the highest infection rate was in winter (4.02%), and the lowest were entered in summer (2.86%).
Conclusion: Our findings showed a reducing trend during the 5 years. Improving the animal husbandry and increasing the awareness through fasciolosis may be a logical explanation for this trend. Since there have been suggested numerous factors associated with the epidemiology of fasciolosis, further studies seem essential for better clarifying the various aspects of fasciolosis in areas.
Keywords: fasciolosis, livestock, prevalence, south of Iran, trend.

Prevalence of echinococcosis and Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered small ruminants at the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Ngorongoro, Tanzania

Research (Published online: 19-04-2017)
8. Prevalence of echinococcosis and Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered small ruminants at the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Ngorongoro, Tanzania
M. B. Miran, A. A. Kasuku and E. S. Swai
Veterinary World, 10(4): 411-417
Aim: Echinococcosis or hydatidosis (due to the larval stage of Echinococcus spp.) and cysticercosis (due to the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena) pose a significant economic losses due to slaughter condemnation and risk to public health in developing countries such as Tanzania where sanitation is poor and people live in close proximity with each other and with animals. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of and to identify the predisposing factors for echinococcosis and cysticercosis in sheep and goats at three slaughter slabs located in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Ngorongoro, Tanzania.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional based survey was conducted, from January 2013 to April 2013, whereby a total of 180 animals comprising 90 goats and 90 sheep of both sexes were examined at postmortem for the evidence of larval stages of Echinococcus spp. (hydatid cyst) and T. hydatigena (Cysticercus tenuicollis) through visual inspection, incision and palpation of organs and viscera.
Results: The prevalence of echinococcosis was 22.2% and 16.6%, in goats and sheep, respectively, while the overall infection rates for cysticercosis were 61.1% in goats and 42.2% in sheep. The result of this study revealed that goats and sheep in Malambo slaughter slab had significantly higher prevalence of T. hydatigena (C. tenuicollis) and hydatid cysts (p<0.05) compared to other slab points. T. hydatigena (C. tenuicollis) cysts were more frequently detected in the omentum than other visceral organs among the animals examined.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the observed high prevalence of the two metacestodes larval stages leads to high condemnation rates of edible offals and raises significant public health concerns. This underscores for the need to undertake more extensive epidemiological investigations to better determine the causal factors, economic impact, and public health importance of the disease in this livestock-wildlife interface setting.
Keywords: cysticercosis, echinococcosis, small ruminants, Tanzania, wildlife interface.

Tuesday, 18 April 2017

The effects of quercetin on microRNA and inflammatory gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated bovine neutrophils

Research (Published online: 18-04-2017)
7. The effects of quercetin on microRNA and inflammatory gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated bovine neutrophils
Phongsakorn Chuammitri, Suphakit Srikok, Duanghathai Saipinta and Sukolrat Boonyayatra
Veterinary World, 10(4): 403-410

Aim: To investigate gene expression of microRNA (miRNA) milieus (MIRLET7E, MIR17, MIR24-2, MIR146A, and MIR181C), inflammatory cytokine genes (interleukin 1β [IL1B], IL6, CXCL8, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]), and the pathogen receptor toll-like receptor (TLR4) in bovine neutrophils under quercetin supplementation.
Materials and Methods: Isolated bovine neutrophils were incubated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide under quercetin treatment or left untreated. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the expression of the miRNAs and messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts in neutrophils.
Results: Quercetin-treated neutrophils exhibited a remarkable suppression in MIR24-2, MIR146A, and MIR181C expression. Similarly, mRNA expression of IL1B, IL6, CXCL8, TLR4, and TNF genes noticeably declined in the quercetin group. Many proinflammatory genes (IL1B, IL6, and CXCL8) and the pathogen receptor TLR4 had a negative correlation with MIR146A and MIR181C as revealed by Pearson correlation.
Conclusion: Interaction between cognate mRNAs and miRNAs under quercetin supplementation can be summarized as a positive or negative correlation. This finding may help understand the effects of quercetin either on miRNA or gene expression during inflammation, especially as a potentially applicable indicator in bovine mastitis.
Keywords: bovine neutrophil, gene expression, microRNA, quercetin.

Monday, 17 April 2017

Cross-sectional study on bovine mastitis and its associated risk factors in Ambo district of West Shewa zone, Oromia, Ethiopia

Research (Published online: 17-04-2017)
6. Cross-sectional study on bovine mastitis and its associated risk factors in Ambo district of West Shewa zone, Oromia, Ethiopia
Edilu J. Sarba and Getachew K. Tola
Veterinary World, 10(4): 398-402
Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of mastitis in dairy cows.
Materials and Methods: A total of 302 dairy cows were selected from all volunteer dairy farms in Ambo district of West Shewa Zone, Oromia region. Thorough clinical examination was made on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis followed by collection of milk sample for examination of gross changes of milk secretion and California mastitis test.
Results: About 126 (41.7%) cows had mastitis, of which 9.9% (30/302) were clinical and 31.8% (96/302) were subclinical mastitis cases. The quarter level prevalence was 44.4% (536/1208), comprising 9.3% (112/1208), clinical and 32.8% (396/1208) subclinical forms of mastitis. In addition, 5.5% (66/1208) of teats were found to be blind on the clinical examination of udder and teat. The Chi-square analysis of intrinsic risk factors revealed significantly (p<0.05) higher prevalence of mastitis in crossbred cattle (47.2%) than indigenous (15.4%), in cattle above 7 years (75%) than less than 2-6 years of age (28%) and cows given more than 4 calves (81.3%) than those with less than 4 calves (31.1%) irrespective to their lactation stage. There was also significantly (p<0.05) higher mastitis prevalence in larger (46.6%) than smaller herds (24.2%) and among the farming systems in semi-intensive (47.1%) and intensive (42.3%) than extensive (8.1%) management system.
Conclusion: This study indicated a higher prevalence of mastitis linked with several risk factors. Thus, early diagnosis and regular screening of cows for subclinical mastitis together with proper therapeutic management of clinical cases are of paramount importance. Moreover, control and prevention strategies should be designed and implemented with great emphasis given to risk factors to reduce bovine mastitis and its impact on milk production and food security.
Keywords: Ambo district, California mastitis test, dairy cows, mastitis, prevalence, risk factors.

Monday, 10 April 2017

Isolation and identification of fungi associated with spoilt fruits vended in Gwagwalada market, Abuja, Nigeria

Research (Published online: 10-04-2017)
5. Isolation and identification of fungi associated with spoilt fruits vended in Gwagwalada market, Abuja, Nigeria
Samuel Mailafia, God'spower Richard Okoh, Hamza Olatunde K. Olabode and Ramatu Osanupin
Veterinary World, 10(4): 393-397
Aim: Annual reports have shown that 20% of fruits and vegetables produced are lost to spoilage. This study was undertaken to isolate and identify fungi that are associated with spoilt fruits commonly sold in Gwagwalada market, Abuja, and recommend appropriate control measure.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Gwagwalada metropolis, Gwagwalada Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. A total of 100 spoilt fruits which include pawpaw (Carica papaya), orange (Citrus sinensis), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), pineapple (Ananas comosus), and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) were purchased and examined for the presence of fungal organisms using standard methods. The data collected were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics (frequency and mean) and analysis of variance (p<0.05).
Results: Aspergillus niger had the highest occurrence in pineapple, watermelon, oranges, pawpaw, and tomatoes with a frequency of 38%. Fusarium avenaceum followed with the frequency of occurrence of 31% in fruits such as pineapple, watermelon, oranges, pawpaw, and tomatoes while Penicillium digitatum and Rhizopus stolonifer had the least frequency of 4% each in tomato; and orange and tomato, respectively. Other fungal species were identified as yeast (Saccharomyces species) (10%), Fusarium solani (8%), and Aspergillus flavus (5%). The highest prevalence rate was 70% of A. niger from orange followed by F. avenaceum of which 65% isolates were recovered from pawpaw. Other fungal organisms such as yeast (Saccharomyces species), P. digitatum and R. stolonifer were isolated with varying prevalence (40%, 20%, and 5%) from watermelon, tomato, and orange, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in the fungal load of the various fruits studied (analysis of variance=478.2857, p<0.05, F=4.680067 and df=34).
Conclusion: The pathogenic fungi species associated with fruits spoilage in this study are of economical and public health significance. A. niger causes black mold in certain fruits and vegetables. Some strains of A. niger have been reported to produce potent mycotoxins called ochratoxins that can be harmful to human beings and animals. Care should be taken during handling of these fruits and improved technology based preservation methods are suggested to enhance the keeping quality of fruits.
Keywords: frequency of occurrence, fruits, fungi, pathogenic, prevalence.