Saturday, 7 March 2015

Body condition score and its correlation with ultrasonographic back fat thickness in transition crossbred cows

Research (Published online: 07-03-2015)
7. Body condition score and its correlation with ultrasonographic back fat thickness in transition crossbred cows - Randhir Singh, S. N. S. Randhawa and C. S. Randhawa
Veterinary World, 8(3): 290-294

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.290-294

Aim: The aim was to study the effect of the transition to body condition score (BCS) and ultrasonographic back fat thickness (USG BFT) in crossbred cows.
Materials and Methods: A total of 101 multiparous crossbred cows in advanced pregnancy from organized dairy farm were taken up for study. The cows were grouped according to transition stage, i.e. far off dry (FOD), close up dry (CUD) and fresh (F). BCS was estimated by using the five point visual BCS technique with 0.5 increments. The USG BFT was measured by real-time ultrasound using a portable Sonosite instrument.
Results: In cows with BCS 2-2.5, the BFT of F period was significantly lower than FOD period. In cows with BCS 3-3.5, the mean BFT at F period was significantly reduced as compared to FOD and CUD period. The overall correlation coefficient between BCS and BFT for different transition stages was 84%, 79% and 75% for FOD, CUD and F period, respectively.
Conclusion: The USG BFT gives an accurate measure of fat reserves in cows. The cows with BCS of 3.5 entering the transition period are more prone to lose body condition and hence require better and robust management during the transition period.
Keywords: body condition score, back fat thickness, cow, transition period.

Release of β-endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol in response to machine milking of dairy cows

Research (Published online: 07-03-2015)
6. Release of β-endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol in response to machine milking of dairy cows - E. Fazio, P. Medica, C. Cravana and A. Ferlazzo
Veterinary World, 8(3): 284-289

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.284-289

Aim: The present study was undertaken with the objective to obtain insight into the dynamics of the release of β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in response to machine milking in dairy cows.
Materials and Methods: A total of 10 healthy multiparous lactating Italian Friesian dairy cows were used in the study. Animals were at the 4th-5th month of pregnancy and were submitted to machine milking 2 times daily. Blood samples were collected in the morning: In baseline conditions, immediately before milking and after milking; and in the early afternoon: In baseline conditions, before milking and after milking, for 2 consecutive days. Endocrine variables were measured in duplicate, using a commercial radioimmunoassay for circulating β-endorphin and ACTH concentrations and a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay for cortisol concentration.
Results: Data obtained showed a similar biphasic cortisol secretion of lactating dairy cows, with a significant increase of cortisol concentration after morning machine milking, at both the 1st and the 2nd day (p<0.05), and a decrease after afternoon machine milking at the 2nd day (p<0.01). One-way RM ANOVA showed significant effects of the machine milking on the cortisol changes, at both morning (f=22.96; p<0.001) and afternoon (f=15.10; p<0.01) milking, respectively. Two-way RM ANOVA showed a significant interaction between cortisol changes at the 1st and the 2nd day (f=7.94; p<0.0002), and between the sampling times (f=6.09; p<0.001). Conversely, no significant effects of the machine milking were observed on β-endorphin and ACTH changes, but only a moderate positive correlation (r=0.94; p<0.06) after milking stimuli.
Conclusions: A wide range of cortisol concentrations reported in this study showed the complex dynamic patterns of the homeostatic mechanisms involved during machine milking in dairy cows, suggesting that β-endorphin and ACTH were not the main factors that caused the adrenocortical response to milking stimuli.
Keywords: adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, dairy cows, machine milking, β-endorphin.

The effect of gabapentin and pregabalin on intestinal incision wound healing in rabbits

Research (Published online: 07-03-2015)
5. The effect of gabapentin and pregabalin on intestinal incision wound healing in rabbits - M. Korkmaz, T. B. Saritas, A. Sevimli, Z. K. Saritas and B. Elitok
Veterinary World, 8(3): 279-283

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.279-283

AimTo evaluate the macroscopic and histologic effects of pregabalin (PG) gabapentin (GB) on longitudinal intestinal wound healing in New Zealand rabbits.
Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into three groups randomly; the control group (n=6), PG group (n=6) and GB group (n=6). All animals were premedicated with xylazine HCI, 5 mg/kg i.m. and general anaesthesia was performed by ketamine HCI 50 mg/kg i.m injection. A 4 cm incision in the caecum through median laparotomy was achieved under aseptic surgery. Intestinal wound was closed with double-sutured. All animals were received parenteral antibiotic treatment for 5 days. PG and GB groups were treated by PG (30 mg/kg, oral, daily) and GB (30 mg/kg, oral, daily) for 10 days respectively. Control group did not receive any treatment. The animals were euthanized on day 10 and the caecum was examined by laparotomy. Adhesion formation was observed, and tissue samples were taken from suture lines for histologic examination. Cellular infiltration (polymorphonuclear white blood cells and mononuclear cells), accumulation of connective tissue, vascularization and extent of necrosis were evaluated and scored separately for each of mucosal, submucosal, muscular and serosal layers of caecum.
Results: Adhesions were more severe in the GB group compared to other groups. No statistically significant differences were detected among the three groups about the wound healing.
Conclusion: It was suggested that the use of gabapentinoids had no significant effect on wound healing in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery and further studies with treatment periods longer than 10 days are needed.
Keywords: gabapentin, intestinal incisional wound, pregabalin, rabbit.

Thursday, 5 March 2015

Evaluation of geriatric changes in dogs

Research (Published online: 05-03-2015)
4. Evaluation of geriatric changes in dogs - Soumyaranjan Pati, S. K. Panda, A. P. Acharya, S. Senapati, M. Behera and S. S. Behera
Veterinary World, 8(3): 273-278

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.273-278

Aim: The present study has been envisaged to ascertain the old age for critical management of geriatric dogs considering the parameters of externally visible changes, haemato-biochemical alterations and urine analysis in geriatric dogs approaching senility.
Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken in the Department of Veterinary Pathology in collaboration with Teaching Veterinary Clinic complex spanning a period of 1 year. For screening of geriatric dogs, standard geriatric age chart of different breeds was followed. The external characteristics such as hair coat texture, dental wear and tear, skin texture and glaucoma were taken as a marker of old age. Haematology, serum biochemistry and urine analysis were also included in the study.
Results: External visible changes like greying of hair, dull appearance of hair coat, glaucoma, osteoarthritis, dental wear and tear were commonly encountered in the aged dogs. The haemoglobin, total erythrocyte count and packed cell volume showed a decreasing trend in the geriatric groups. Biochemical values like total protein, albumin, calcium level showed a decreasing trend while urea level with an increasing trend in geriatric dogs without any much alteration in serum glutamicoxaloacetic transaminse, serum glutamic-pyruvate transaminase, cholesterol and creatinine. Physical examination of urine revealed yellow, amber, red, deep red color with turbidity and higher specific gravity. Chemical examination revealed presence of protein, glucose, ketone bodies, blood and bilirubin on some cases. The culture and sensitivity test of the urine samples revealed presence of bacteria with sensitive and resistance to some antibiotics.
Conclusion: External visible changes are still the golden standard of determining the old age in dogs. Haemato-biochemical evaluation can be useful for correlating with the pathophysiological status of the animal. Biochemical analysis of urine can be employed rightly as kidney dysfunction is being major geriatric problem. Anaemia, jaundice, nephritis, hepatitis are the most common findings considered during old age.
Keywords: canine, geriatric, haematology, serum biochemistry, urine analysis

The commercial impact of pig Salmonella spp. infections in border-free markets during an economic recession

Review (Published online: 05-03-2015)
3. The commercial impact of pig Salmonella spp. infections in border-free markets during an economic recession - G. Evangelopoulou, S. Kritas, G. Christodoulopoulos and A. R. Burriel
Veterinary World, 8(3): 257-272

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.257-272

The genus Salmonella, a group of important zoonotic pathogens, is having global economic and political importance. Its main political importance results from the pathogenicity of many of its serovars for man. Serovars Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are currently the most frequently associated to foodborne infections, but they are not the only ones. Animal food products contaminated from subclinically infected animals are a risk to consumers. In border free markets, an example is the EU, these consumers at risk are international. This is why, economic competition could use the risk of consumer infection either to restrict or promote free border trade in animals and their products. Such use of public health threats increases during economic recessions in nations economically weak to effectively enforce surveillance. In free trade conditions, those unable to pay the costs of pathogen control are unable to effectively implement agreed regulations, centrally decided, but leaving their enforcement to individual states. Free trade of animal food products depends largely on the promotion of safety, included in "quality," when traders target foreign markets. They will overtake eventually the markets of those ineffectively implementing agreed safety regulations, if their offered prices are also attractive for recession hit consumers. Nations unable to effectively enforce safety regulations become disadvantaged partners unequally competing with producers of economically robust states when it comes to public health. Thus, surveillance and control of pathogens like Salmonella are not only quantitative. They are also political issues upon which states base national trade decisions. Hence, the quantitative calculation of costs incurring from surveillance and control of animal salmonelloses, should not only include the cost for public health protection, but also the long term international economic and political costs for an individual state. These qualitative and qualitative costs of man and animalSalmonella infections should be calculated in the light of free trade and open borders. Understandably, accurate calculation of the economic and political costs requires knowledge of the many factors influencing nationally the quality and safety of pork products and internationally free trade. Thus, how Salmonella pig infections affect commerce and public health across open borders depends on a state’s ability to accurately calculate costs for the surveillance and control of animal salmonelloses in general, and pig infections as a particular example.
Keywords: control, economic crisis, pig, Salmonella, salmonellosis.

Wednesday, 4 March 2015

Evaluation of efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate - xylazine - propofol anesthesia in buffalo calves

Research (Published online: 04-03-2015)
2. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate - xylazine - propofol anesthesia in buffalo calves - Sandeep Potliya, Ashok Kumar, Sandeep Kumar, Sukhbir Singh and Sarvan Kumar
Veterinary World, 8(3): 251-256

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.251-256

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of glycopyrrolate - xylazine - propofol anesthesia in buffalo calves.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on six clinically healthy male buffalo calves, 6-12 months of age, and weighing between 130 and 170 kg. In all the animals; glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg/kg, IM), xylazine (0.1 mg/kg, IM) and 1% propofol as single bolus (1.5 mg/kg, intravenous), were administered. The parameters observed included behavioral changes, physiological; hematological and blood biochemical parameters.
Results: Muzzle and nostrils became dry in all the animals after glycopyrrolate administration. A decrease in spontaneous activity and mild cutaneous analgesia was noticed after xylazine administration. After administration of propofol, loss of swallowing reflex, palpebral reflex, corneal reflexes, periosteal reflex and complete analgesia was observed. There was no significant change in rectal temperature and heart rate. However, heart rate remained elevated during anesthesia. Respiratory rate decreased significantly after propofol administration. There was a significant increase in plasma glucose after the xylazine and propofol administration which remained elevated till recovery. A significant decrease in chloride level was seen after propofol administration.
Conclusions: Glycopyrrolate - xylazine - propofol anesthetic combination may safely be used for short duration anesthesia in buffalo calves.
Keywords: buffalo calves, propofol, xylazine, glycopyrrolate.

Pock forming ability of fowl pox virus isolated from layer chicken and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture

Research (Published online: 04-03-2015)
1. Pock forming ability of fowl pox virus isolated from layer chicken and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture - Varsha Rani Gilhare, S. D. Hirpurkar, Ashish Kumar, Surendra Kumar Naik and Tarini Sahu
Veterinary World, 8(3): 245-250

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.245-250

Aim: The objective of the present study was to examine pock forming ability of field strain and vaccine strain of fowl pox virus (FPV) in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonated chicken eggs and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell culture.
Materials and Methods: Dry scabs were collected from 25 affected birds in glycerin-saline and preserved at 4°C until processed. Virus was isolated in 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs by dropped CAM method. The identity of the virus is confirmed by clinical findings of affected birds, pock morphology and histopathology of infected CAM. In addition one field isolate and vaccine strain of FPV was adapted to CEF cell culture. CEF cell culture was prepared from 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs.
Result: Clinical symptoms observed in affected birds include pox lesion on comb, wattle, eyelids and legs, no internal lesions were observed. All field isolates produced similar findings in CAM. Pocks produced by field isolates ranged from 3 mm to 5 mm at the third passage while initial passages edematous thickening and necrosis of CAM was observed. Pocks formed by lyophilized strain were ranges from 0.5 mm to 2.5 mm in diameter scattered all over the membrane at the first passage. Intra-cytoplasmic inclusion bodies are found on histopathology of CAM. At third passage level, the CEF inoculated with FPV showed characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE) included aggregation of cells, syncytia and plaque formation.
Conclusion: FPV field isolates and vaccine strain produced distinct pock lesions on CAMs. Infected CAM showed intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. The CEF inoculated with FPV field isolate as well as a vaccine strain showed characteristic CPE at third passage level.
Keywords: chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture, chorioallantoic membrane, embryonated egg, fowl pox virus.