Tuesday, 31 May 2016
Prevalence of parasitic infection in captive wild animals in Bir Moti Bagh mini zoo (Deer Park), Patiala, Punjab
Research (Published online: 01-06-2016)
1. Prevalence of parasitic infection in captive wild animals in Bir Moti Bagh mini zoo (Deer Park), Patiala, Punjab - A. Q. Mir, K. Dua, L. D. Singla, S. Sharma and M. P. Singh
Veterinary World, 9(5): 540-543
Aim: The study was conducted to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of captive wild animals at Bir Moti Bagh Mini Zoo (Deer Park), Patiala, Punjab.
Materials and Methods: A total of 31 fecal samples from eight species of captive animals including Civet cat (Viverra zibetha), Porcupine (Hystrix indica), Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus), Spotted deer (Axis axis), Black buck (Antelope cervicapra), Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor), Hog deer (Axis porcinus), and Barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) were screened using classical parasitological techniques including sedimentation and floatation technique.
Results: Out of 31 fecal samples examined, 20 were positive for parasitic ova/oocysts of different species indicating an overall prevalence of 68.0%. The six different types of parasites observed in the study included strongyle (67%), Strongyloides spp. (14%), coccidia (38%), Trichuris spp. (19%), ascarid (10%), and Capillaria spp. (10%). Strongyles were the most common parasites observed (67%) followed by coccidia (38%). Mixed helminth and protozoan infection were observed in 48% of animals. No cestode or trematodes were detected during the study.
Conclusion: The high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites without overt clinical signs of disease or mortality as observed in this study is suggestive of subclinical infection. The findings will help in formulating the appropriate deworming protocol for parasitic control in these captive animals.
Keywords: captive wild animals, carnivores, parasitic infection, Punjab, rodent, ungulates.
Saturday, 28 May 2016
The structural and functional recovery of pancreatic β-cells in type 1 diabetes mellitus induced mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium
Research (Published online: 29-05-2016)
18. The structural and functional recovery of pancreatic β-cells in type 1 diabetes mellitus induced mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium - Widagdo Sri Nugroho, Dwi Liliek Kusindarta, Heru Susetya, Ida Fitriana, Guntari Titik Mulyani, Yuda Heru Fibrianto, Aris Haryanto and Teguh Budipitojo
Veterinary World, 9(5): 535-539
Aim: Various studies have shown that secreted factors alone in culture medium without stem cell are capable of repairing tissues by itself in various conditions involving damaged tissue/organ. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the role of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived conditioned medium (CM) on the recovery of pancreatic β-cells in Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Materials and Methods: The 0.05 ml CM induction was applied to the diabetic group of rats in weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4. 1 week after each CM induction, insulin concentration was analyzed using ELISA. The pancreas was divided into 3 regions, processed by paraffin method, stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and immunohistochemical method for insulin.
Results: This study indicated the decrease in the total number of islets and insulin concentration after the injection of single dose of alloxan. The exocrine acini were also damaged. Microscopic observation detected the presence of small islets in the diabetic group 1 week after the first 0.05 ml CM induction. The number and size of the islets increased in line with the CM doses and time of inductions. Immunohistochemically, the presence of low intensity of insulin-positive cells could be recognized at the splenic and duodenal regions of the pancreas, but not gastric region, 1 week after the first and second 0.05 ml CM induction. The intensity of staining and the number of insulin-positive cells increased dramatically in 1 week after the third and fourth 0.05 ml of CM induction in all regions of the pancreas. The data of insulin blood concentration showed clear differences between the second and the fourth induction of 0.05 ml CM induction.
Conclusions: This study showed very strong evidence on the role of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived CM in recovering the pancreatic β-cells damage in Wistar rats (R. norvegicus) with type 1 diabetes mellitus, structurally and functionally.
Keywords: conditioned-medium, pancreatic β-cells, structural and functional recovery, type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Friday, 27 May 2016
Influence of season and sex on hemato-biochemical traits in adult turkeys under arid tropical environment
Research (Published online: 28-05-2016)
17. Influence of season and sex on hemato-biochemical traits in adult turkeys under arid tropical environment - Anil Gattani, Arti Pathak, Ajeet Kumar, Vaibhav Mishra and Jitendra Singh Bhatia
Veterinary World, 9(5): 530-534
Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of season and sex on hemato-biochemical parameters of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in the arid tropical environment.
Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted on 20-week old turkeys consisting of 20 males and 20 females. Blood was collected from all turkeys during January and May. Hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were estimated in whole blood and glucose, protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, calcium, phosphorus, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum.
Result: Season has significant (p<0.05) effect on Hb concentration, RBC, and PCV in both male and female. Male has significantly higher (p<0.05) Hb concentration, RBC, and PCV. There is no significant effect of sex, and season was observed on MCV, MCH, and MCHC. Glucose, protein, albumin, globulin, and A/G ratio were significantly (p<0.05) affected by season and sex. AST and ALT were significantly (p<0.05) affected by season in both sexes. There is no significant difference was recorded on calcium, phosphorus due to season and sex.
Conclusion: Under arid tropical environment, turkey hemato-biochemical parameters are influenced by both sex and season.
Keywords: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, season, sex, turkey.
Comparative efficacy of anthelmintics and their effects on hematobiochemical changes in fasciolosis of goats of South Gujarat
Research (Published online: 28-05-2016)
16. Comparative efficacy of anthelmintics and their effects on hematobiochemical changes in fasciolosis of goats of South Gujarat - R. G. Shrimali, M. D. Patel and R. M. Patel
Veterinary World, 9(5): 524-529
Aim: Fasciolosis is a parasitic disease caused by Fasciola spp. of the family Fasciolidae (trematodes) characterized by bottle jaw, anemia, progressive debility, and potbelly condition. There are many aspects of fasciolosis remaining unknown thus hemato-biochemical alterations in closantel, triclabendazole + ivermectin, and oxyclozanide + levamisole treated goats were studied.
Materials and Methods: A total of 40 naturally fasciolosis infected goats having egg per gram more than 100 were randomly divided into four groups. Goats of Group I-III were treated with three different anthelmintics, whereas, goats of Group-IV were kept as control or untreated. Whole blood, serum, and fecal samples were collected on 0, 7th, and 30th day of treatment.
Results: During the study, values of hemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, pack cell volume, and total protein were significantly elevated to their normal levels in anthelmintics treated groups. Whereas, values of total leukocyte count, aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were significantly reduced to their normal level in anthelmintics treated groups. The efficacy of closantel (T1), triclabendazole + ivermectin (T2), and oxyclozanide + levamisole (T3) was 99.63%, 100%, and 94.74% and 100%, 100%, and 97.38% on 7th and 30th day of treatment, respectively.
Conclusions: Fasciolosis in goats can be diagnosed on the basis of fecal sample examination, but alterations in important biomarkers such as AST, GGT, and LDH are also helpful for early diagnosis. The use of newer anthelmintic either alone or in combination showed a higher therapeutic response in fasciolosis of goats.
Keywords: anthelmintics, efficacy, fasciolosis, goats, hemato-biochemical changes.
Thursday, 26 May 2016
Research (Published online: 27-05-2016)
15. Effect of washing on the post-thaw quality of cryopreserved ram epididymal spermatozoa - Touqeer Ahmed, Rafiqul Islam, Farooz Ahmad Lone and Asloob Ahmad Malik
Veterinary World, 9(5): 519-523
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of washing on the post-thaw quality of ram cauda epididymal spermatozoa (P1: Unwashed, P2: Washed).
Materials and Methods: Fresh testicles of adult healthy slaughtered rams were collected and transported to the laboratory in an ice chest, where they were weighed, and cauda epididymides were separated. These cauda epididymides were used for recovery of spermatozoa in tris-citric acid fructose buffer by incision method. Spermatozoa samples showing ≥70% progressive motility were pooled and processed further. The mean values (±standard error) of various parameters such as the percentage of sperm motility, live sperm, intact acrosome, and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) rea cted spermatozoa were recorded.
Results: In this experiment, the percent sperm motility, live spermatozoa, and intact acrosome both at pre-freeze and postthaw were higher (p>0.05) in P1 than P2. However, the post-thaw percent HOST reacted spermatozoa was slightly higher (p>0.05) for P2 than P1.
Conclusion: Washing of cauda epididymal spermatozoa has no significant adverse effect on the quality during cryopreservation. Therefore, this processing method can be applied wherever necessary before the extension of the recovered spermatozoa sample in different ram extenders.
Keywords: cauda epididymis, centrifugation, processing, ram, spermatozoa, washing.
Wednesday, 25 May 2016
Reproductive disorders in dairy cattle under semi-intensive system of rearing in North-Eastern India
Research (Published online: 26-05-2016)
14. Reproductive disorders in dairy cattle under semi-intensive system of rearing in North-Eastern India - M. H. Khan, K. Manoj and S. Pramod
Veterinary World, 9(5): 512-518
Aim: This study was conducted to determine the incidence of major reproductive problems of dairy cattle reared under a semi-intensive system by small and marginal farmers in Meghalaya province of North-Eastern India.
Materials and Methods: In a 3 years study, a total of 576 crossbred dairy cattle (212 Holstein Friesian cross and 364 Jersey cross) from all districts (n=11) of Meghalaya were assessed with the survey, clinical examination, and personal observations.
Results: Out of the total animal assessed, 33.85% (n=195) were found to be affected with one or more of the clinical reproductive problems. Repeat breeding (RB), anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion were found to be the major clinical reproductive problems. Out of the total animal affected with reproductive disorders, the incidence of anestrus, RB, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion was found to be 31.79% (n=62), 24.61% (n=48), 14.35% (n=28), and 11.25% (n=22), respectively. In addition, dystocia (5.12%), prolapse (1.53%), endometritis (4.61%), and pyometra (6.66%) were minor clinical reproductive problems. There was a significant difference in the incidence of reproductive disorders with respect to breed, age, and parity.
Conclusion: It was revealed from this study that RB, anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and dystocia are the major clinical reproductive problems in Meghalaya. Results indicated unsatisfactory feeding, housing, and health management practices are the main cause of low fertility of dairy cows. Lack of scientific knowledge, low access to breeding, and health services further contributed to low productivity and fertility.
Keywords: anestrus, dairy, infertility, Meghalaya, reproductive disorders.
Tuesday, 24 May 2016
Research (Published online: 24-05-2016)
13. Studies of the macroscopic and microscopic morphology (hippocampus) of brain in Vencobb broiler - Shailesh Kumar Gupta, Kumaresh Behera, C. R. Pradhan, Arun Kumar Mandal, Kamdev Sethy, Dayanidhi Behera and Kuladip Prakash Shinde
Veterinary World, 9(5): 507-511
Aim: The aim of this study was to study the anatomy of different parts of brain and histology of hippocampus of Vencobb broiler chicken.
Materials and Methods: A 12 adult experimental birds were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. After separation of the brain, gross anatomy features were studied. Brain tissue was fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin for 2-3 days, and then routine dehydration process in ascending grades of ethyl alcohol was done. After xylene cleaning, paraffin impregnation was prepared. Paraffin blocks were cut, and slides were stained by Harris hematoxylin and eosin. Photography was carried out both under lower (×10) and higher (×40) magnifications.
Results: The brain structure (dorsal view) of Vencobb bird resembled the outline of a playing card symbol of a “spade.” The brain subdivisions are cerebrum, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata. Cerebrum was devoid of usual convolutions (elevations), gyri, depressions (grooves), and sulci. The cerebral hemispheres were tightly apposed along a median sulcus called interhemispheric fissure and cerebrum and cerebellum were separated by a small transverse fissure. The olfactory bulb was small structures, and the pineal body was clearly visible. The optic lobes were partially hidden under cerebral hemispheres, but laterally, it was large, prominent rounded or spherical bodies of the midbrain. The hippocampal area appeared as dorso-medial protrusion. Different types of neurons were distinguished in the hippocampus were pyramidal neurons, pyramidal-like neurons, and multipolar neurons, etc. There was rich vascularization in the form of blood capillaries throughout the hippocampus.
Conclusion: Cerebrum was pear shaped and largest part of the brain. Cerebrum hemisphere was smooth devoid of convolutions, gyri, and depressions, but in the surface of cerebellum, there was the presence of a number of transverse depression (grooves) and sulci subdividing into many folds. Olfactory bulb was poorly developed, whereas optic lobes were rounded and large. The exact boundary line of the hippocampus was not discernable. In hippocampus histology, two categories of neuron local circuit neurons and projection neurons, high vascularization and epididymal lining of lateral ventricle were observed. Hippocampal neurons were comparatively larger without any distinct layers. The afferent neurons projected to the medium septum.
Keywords: capillaries, hemisphere, hippocampus, neurons, Vencobb broiler.
Phenotypic and genotypic detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hunting dogs in Maiduguri metropolitan, Borno State, Nigeria
Research (Published online: 24-05-2016)
12. Phenotypic and genotypic detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hunting dogs in Maiduguri metropolitan, Borno State, Nigeria - Muhammad Mustapha, Yachilla Maryam Bukar-Kolo, Yaqub Ahmed Geidam and Isa Adamu Gulani
Veterinary World, 9(5): 501-506
Aim: To determine the presence of MRSA in hunting dogs in Maiduguri metropolitan.
Materials and Methods: Phenotypic methods used includes microscopic technique, colony morphology study, catalase-coagulase tests, and the use of mannitol salt agar test, oxacillin resistance screening agar base, and antibiotic susceptibility testing methods. Genotypic approach was used for deoxyribonucleic acid extraction, and the presence of nuc and mecA gene was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques.
Results: Examination of 416 swab samples from nasal and perineal region of dogs revealed a total of 79.5% of S. aureus, where 62.5% of the isolates were MRSA. Molecular analysis revealed that 7nuc genes specific for S. aureus from 20 presumptive MRSA assay were allmecA PCR negative. The isolates were sensitive to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin but proved resistant to cefoxitin and oxacillin.
Conclusion: High isolation rate of MRSA was found in hunting dogs. Significant level (p<0.05) of MRSA was isolated in the nasal cavity of hunting dogs than its perineum. Only nuc genes were detected from the MRSA isolates.
Keywords: dogs, genotypic, methicillin, phenotypic, Staphylococcus aureus.
Estimation of metabolic heat production and methane emission in Sahiwal and Karan Fries heifers under different feeding regimes
Research (Published online: 24-05-2016)
11. Estimation of metabolic heat production and methane emission in Sahiwal and Karan Fries heifers under different feeding regimes -Sunil Kumar, S. V. Singh, Priyanka Pandey, Narendra Kumar and O. K. Hooda
Veterinary World, 9(5): 496-500
Aim: The objective of this study was designed to estimate the metabolic heat production and methane emission in Sahiwal and Karan Fries (Holstein-Friesian X Tharparkar) heifers under two different feeding regimes, i.e., feeding regime-1 as per the National Research Council (NRC) (2001) and feeding regime-2 having 15% higher energy (supplementation of molasses) than NRC (2001).
Materials and Methods: Six (n = 6) healthy heifers of Sahiwal and Karan Fries with 18-24 months of age were selected from Indian Council of Agricultural Research-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. An initial 15 days was maintained under feeding regime-1 and feeding regime-2 as adaptation period; actual experiment was conducted from 16th day onward for next 15 days. At the end of feeding regimes (on day 15th and 16th), expired air and volume were collected in Douglas bag for two consecutive days (morning [6:00 am] and evening [4:00 pm]). The fraction of methane and expired air volume were measured by methane analyzer and wet test meter, respectively. The oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were measured by iWorx LabScribe2.
Results: The heat production (kcal/day) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in feeding regime-2 as compared to feeding regimen-1 in both breeds. The heat production per unit metabolic body weight was numerically higher in feeding regime-1 than feeding regime-2; however, the values were found statistically non-significant (p>0.05). The energy loss as methane (%) from total heat production was significantly (p<0.05) higher in feeding regime-1. The body weight (kg), metabolic body weight (W0.75), and basal metabolic rate (kcal/kg0.75) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in feeding regime-2 in both breeds.
Conclusions: This study indicates that higher energy diet by supplementing molasses may reduce energy loss as methane and enhance the growth of Sahiwal and Karan Fries heifers.
Keywords: feeding regimes, heat production, Karan Fries, methane emission, Sahiwal.
Friday, 20 May 2016
Important hemoprotozoan diseases of livestock: Challenges in current diagnostics and therapeutics: An update
Review (Published online: 20-05-2016)
10. Important hemoprotozoan diseases of livestock: Challenges in current diagnostics and therapeutics: An update - Biswa Ranjan Maharana, Anup Kumar Tewari, Buddhi Chandrasekaran Saravanan and Naduvanahalli Rajanna Sudhakar
Veterinary World, 9(5): 487-495
Hemoprotozoan parasites pose a serious threat to the livestock population in terms of mortality, reduced milk yield and lowered draft power. Diagnosis of these diseases often poses a challenging task. Needless to say that impact of disease in health and productivity is huge though a fair economic assessment on the quantum of economic loss associated is yet to be worked out from India. The diagnosis of hemoprotozoan infections largely depends on various laboratory-based diagnostic methods as the clinical manifestations are often inconspicuous and non-specific. Traditional diagnostic methods rely on microscopical demonstration of infective stages in blood or tissue fluids. However, it is laborious, lesser sensitive, and cannot differentiate between morphologically similar organisms. Recent development in the technologies has opened new avenues for improvement in the accurate diagnosis of parasitic infections. Serological tests are simple, fast but lack specificity. With advent of molecular techniques, as DNA hybridization assays, polymerase chain reaction and its modifications ensure the detection of infection in the latent phase of the disease. Nucleic acid-based assays are highly sensitive, free from immunocompetence and can differentiate between morphologically similar parasites. With the advent of newer diagnostics complemented with traditional ones will be of huge help for targeted selective treatment with better chemotherapeutic agents.
Keywords: Anaplasma, Babesia, chemotherapy, hemoprotozoa, molecular diagnosis, Theileria, Trypanosoma.
Saturday, 14 May 2016
Subjective and objective observation of skin graft recovery on Indonesian local cat with different periods of transplantation time
Research (Published online: 15-05-2016)
9. Subjective and objective observation of skin graft recovery on Indonesian local cat with different periods of transplantation time -Erwin, Gunanti, Ekowati Handharyani and Deni Noviana
Veterinary World, 9(5): 481-486
Aim: The success of a skin graft in a cat is highly dependent on the granulation formed by the base of recipient bed. Granulation by the base of recipient bed will form after several days after injury. This research aimed to observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats with different periods of donor skin placement.
Materials and Methods: Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old, weighing 3-4 kg were divided into three groups. The first surgery for creating defect wound of 2 cm×2 cm in size was performed in the whole group. The wound was left for several days with the respective interval for each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days), Group II (for 4 days), and Group III (for 6 days). In the whole group, the second surgery was done by the harvesting skin of thoracic area which then applied on recipient bed of respective groups.
Result: The donor skin on Group II was accepted faster compared to Group I and Group III. The donor skin did not show color differences compared to surrounding skin, painless, bright red in bleeding test had faster both hair growth and drug absorption. Test toward the size of donor skin and the effect of drugs did not show a significant difference between each group.
Conclusion: The observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats on Group II were accepted faster compared to Group I and III.
Keywords: auto skin graft, cats, observation.
Clinical and ultrasonographic observations of functional and mechanical intestinal obstruction in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)
Research (Published online: 14-05-2016)
8. Clinical and ultrasonographic observations of functional and mechanical intestinal obstruction in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) - Arafat Khalphallah, Nasr-Eldin M. Aref, Enas Elmeligy and Sayed F. El-Hawari
Veterinary World, 9(5): 475-480
Aim: This study was designed for clinical and laboratory evaluation of intestinal obstruction (IO) in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with special emphasis on the diagnostic value of ultrasonographic findings.
Materials and Methods: A total number of 30 buffaloes were included in the study and divided into 2 groups: Healthy (n=10) and diseased group (n=20). Diseased buffaloes were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Assiut University, Egypt, with a history of anorexia, abdominal pain, various degrees of abdominal distention, and absence or presence of scanty mucoid faces. These animals were subjected to clinical and ultrasonographic as well as laboratory examinations.
Results: Based on ultrasonographic findings, various forms of IO were diagnosed. Functional obstruction, paralytic ileus, was diagnosed in 17 cases (85%) while mechanical IO was diagnosed only in 3 cases (15%). Out of 17 cases of paralytic ileus, both proximal and distal ileuses were successfully imaged in 8 and 9 cases, respectively. Proximal ileus was imaged from the right dorsal flank region as a single dilated loop of diameter >6 cm, while distal ileus was imaged as multiple dilated loops of diameter <6 cm. Mechanical obstruction due to duodenal intussusception was visualized as two concentric rings with outer echogenic wall and hypoechoic lumen. All cases of IO showed leukocytosis, hypoproteinemia, and increased activity of alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase.
Conclusion: Ultrasonography proved to be an essential tool for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of various forms of IO in buffaloes.
Keywords: buffalo, ileus, intestine, intussusception, ultrasonography.
Tuesday, 10 May 2016
Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers
Research (Published online: 11-05-2016)
7. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers - A. Kirubakaran, M. Moorthy, R. Chitra and G. Prabakar
Veterinary World, 9(5): 470-474
Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens.
Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR).
Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01).
Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR.
Keywords: black pepper, body weight, feed conversion ratio, fenugreek, garlic.
Loop mediated isothermal amplification: An innovative gene amplification technique for animal diseases
Review (Published online: 11-05-2016)
6. Loop mediated isothermal amplification: An innovative gene amplification technique for animal diseases - Pravas Ranjan Sahoo, Kamadev Sethy, Swagat Mohapatra and Debasis Panda
Veterinary World, 9(5): 465-469
India being a developing country mainly depends on livestock sector for its economy. However, nowadays, there is emergence and reemergence of more transboundary animal diseases. The existing diagnostic techniques are not so quick and with less specificity. To reduce the economy loss, there should be a development of rapid, reliable, robust diagnostic technique, which can work with high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay is a rapid gene amplification technique that amplifies nucleic acid under an isothermal condition with a set of designed primers spanning eight distinct sequences of the target. This assay can be used as an emerging powerful, innovative gene amplification diagnostic tool against various pathogens of livestock diseases. This review is to highlight the basic concept and methodology of this assay in livestock disease.
Keywords: designed primers, loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay, transboundary animal diseases.