Friday, 29 July 2016
Research (Published online: 30-07-2016)
19. Characterization of the atypical lymphocytes in African swine fever - Z. A. Karalyan, Z. R. Ter-Pogossyan, L. O. Abroyan, L. H. Hakobyan, A. S. Avetisyan, Karalyan N. Yu and E. M. Karalova
Veterinary World, 9(7): 792-800
Aim: Atypical lymphocytes usually described as lymphocytes with altered shape, increased DNA amount, and larger size. For analysis of cause of genesis and source of atypical lymphocytes during African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection, bone marrow, peripheral blood, and in vitro model were investigated.
Materials and Methods: Atypical lymphocytes under the influence of ASFV were studied for morphologic, cytophotometric, and membrane surface marker characteristics and were used in vivo and in vitro models.
Results: This study indicated the increased size, high metabolic activity, and the presence of additional DNA amount in atypical lymphocytes caused by ASFV infection. Furthermore, in atypical lymphocytes, nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio usually decreased, compared to normal lymphocytes. In morphology, they looking like lymphocytes transformed into blasts by exposure to mitogens or antigens in vitro. They vary in morphologic detail, but most of them are CD2 positive.
Conclusions: Our data suggest that atypical lymphocytes may represent an unusual and specific cellular response to ASFV infection.
Keywords: African swine fever virus, atypical lymphocytes, CD2, DNA ploidy.
Review (Published online: 30-07-2016)
18. Y-chromosomal genes affecting male fertility: A review - Jasdeep Kaur Dhanoa, Chandra Sekhar Mukhopadhyay and Jaspreet Singh Arora
Veterinary World, 9(7): 783-791
The mammalian sex-chromosomes (X and Y) have evolved from autosomes and are involved in sex determination and reproductive traits. The Y-chromosome is the smallest chromosome that consists of 2-3% of the haploid genome and may contain between 70 and 200 genes. The Y-chromosome plays major role in male fertility and is suitable to study the evolutionary relics, speciation, and male infertility and/or subfertility due to its unique features such as long non-recombining region, abundance of repetitive sequences, and holandric inheritance pattern. During evolution, many holandric genes were deleted. The current review discusses the mammalian holandric genes and their functions. The commonly encountered infertility and/or subfertility problems due to point or gross mutation (deletion) of the Y-chromosomal genes have also been discussed. For example, loss or microdeletion of sex-determining region, Y-linked gene results in XY males that exhibit female characteristics, deletion of RNA binding motif, Y-encoded in azoospermic factor b region results in the arrest of spermatogenesis at meiosis. The holandric genes have been covered for associating the mutations with male factor infertility.
Keywords: holandric genes, male fertility, microdeletion sex-chromosome, spermatogenesis.
Wednesday, 27 July 2016
Research (Published online: 28-07-2016)
17. Effect of endosulfan on immunological competence of layer birds - P. P. Singh, Ashok Kumar, R. S. Chauhan and P. K. Pankaj
Veterinary World, 9(7): 777-782
Aim: The present study was aimed to investigate the immunological competence of endosulfan insecticide after limited oral administration in White Leghorn layer chickens.
Materials and Methods: A total of 20 White Leghorn birds were given endosulfan in drinking water at 30 ppm/bird/day (no observable effect level dose) for a period of 3-months. Immune competence status of layer birds and chicks hatched from endosulfan offered birds were estimated at 15-day interval in layer birds and at monthly interval in chicks using immunological, biochemical parameters, and teratological estimates.
Results: There was a significant decrease in levels of total leukocytes count, absolute lymphocyte count, absolute heterophil count, total serum protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, and serum gamma globulin in the birds fed with endosulfan as compared to control. Similarly, immune competence tests such as lymphocyte stimulation test, oxidative burst assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests indicated lower immunity in birds treated with endosulfan as compared to control. Subsequently, chicks produced from endosulfan-treated birds were also examined for immune competence, but no significant difference was observed between chicks of both the groups.
Conclusion: The exposure to endosulfan in limited oral dosage was able to exhibit hemo-biochemical and other changes that could be correlated with changes in the immunological profile of layer chickens suggesting cautious usage of endosulfan insecticide in poultry sheds.
Keywords: blood biochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, layers, immune competence, organochloride, teratogeny.
Tuesday, 26 July 2016
Research (Published online: 27-07-2016)
16. Behavioral pattern of Rohilkhandi kids under different feeding systems - Anjali Kumari, B. H. M. Patel, Vipin Maurya, Asu Singh Godara, Med Ram Verma and Mukesh Singh
Veterinary World, 9(7): 773-776
Aim: The present study designed to evaluate the effect of different feeding systems on the behavior of local Rohilkhandi kids.
Materials and Methods: A total of 21 growing goats (local goat of Rohilkhand region), weighing around 7-11 kg and aging 4-5 months, were used. These animals were kept in three groups. Group I was fed un-chopped green fodder in circular feeder (newly designed). Group II was fed un-chopped green fodder in linear feeder that was similar to the existing farm practice. Group III was fed chopped green fodder in linear feeder (modified version). Amount of concentrate and dry fodder fed was kept constant for all the three groups subject to equal increment in accordance with their increasing age. Adlibitum green fodder was made available to the animals. The experiment was conducted for 3 months. On-going behavior was recorded each day 4 h (2 h in the morning from 9:00 am to 11:00 am, after offering the feed, and same was repeated for 2 h in the afternoon, i.e., from 2:00 pm to 4:00 pm) was made between 9 am and 5 pm. The individual behaviors, viz., feeding, drinking, lying down, ruminating, idling, butting, pressing, pushing, frontal clashing, and physical displacement at feed barrier (active and passive: Without physical contact) of the goat were recorded using time-sampling method. Further, incidental activities such as defecation and urination were also recorded.
Results: Among all the groups, butting, head to head, and pushing were the common agonistic behavior found but values did not differ significantly. The pushing while feeding was relatively less in Group II (0.22±0.04 min) which differed significantly (p<0.05) from the other two groups. The idling time was found significantly (p<0.05) lower in Group II (1.68±0.21) as compared to Group I (4.67±0.52) and Group III (4.27±0.56). Time spent in rumination near the feeding trough as well as away from the feeding trough was also significantly higher in Group I (p<0.05) than the other two groups. Other minor activities, viz., defecation and urination were negligible. No stereotypic activities were observed.
Conclusion: It was concluded that provision of un-chopped fodder in circular feeder could only simulate natural feeding behavior of goat but did not give any added advantage. Further, feeding chopped fodder in linear feeding trough lead to increased consumption and more time is spent on feeding than on agonistic behavior as compared to the other two groups.
Keywords: agonistic behavior, chopped, feeder, goat, growth.
Monday, 25 July 2016
Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillusspp. in rat animal model
Research (Published online: 26-07-2016)
15. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillusspp. in rat animal model - Lopamudra Haldar and D. N. Gandhi
Veterinary World, 9(7): 766-772
Aim: To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model.
Materials and Methods: An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1) was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2) and (T3) groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4) was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat) were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed.
Results: The rats those (T2 and T3) received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (p<0.01) in fecal coliform counts and increase (p<0.05) in both fecal lactobacilli and Bacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4) and the group fed only skim milk (T1). In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure.
Conclusions: This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats.
Keywords: acid salt tolerance, antibacterial activity, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus pumilus, bile salt tolerance, probiotics.
Friday, 22 July 2016
Testicular pathology, gonadal and epididymal sperm reserves of Yankasa rams infected with experimental Trypanosoma brucei bruceiand Trypanosoma evansi
Research (Published online: 23-07-2016)
14. Testicular pathology, gonadal and epididymal sperm reserves of Yankasa rams infected with experimental Trypanosoma brucei bruceiand Trypanosoma evansi - Yunusa A. Wada, Sonnie J. Oniye, Peter I. Rekwot and Oluyinka O. Okubanjo
Veterinary World, 9(7): 759-765
Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the pathological effects of trypanosomosis on the testes, gonadal, and epididymal sperm reserves of Yankasa rams for 98 days.
Materials and Methods: A total of 16 Yankasa rams, aged between 24 and 30 months and weighed between 22 and 25 kg, were acclimatized for a period of 2-months in a clean fly proof house and were adequately fed and given water ad-libitum. Of the 16 rams, 12 that were clinically fit for the experiment at the end of the acclimatization period were randomly divided into four groups: Groups I, II, III, and IV, each having 3 rams. Groups I and II were each challenged singly with experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Federer strain) and Trypanosoma evansi (Sokoto strain), respectively, while Group III was challenged with mixed T. brucei brucei and T. evansiparasites (50% of each species in the infective inoculum) and Group IV was left as an uninfected control. Each infected ram received 2 mL of the infected blood containing 2×106 trypomastigotes via the jugular vein, while the control group received 2 mL each, normal saline.
Results: All the infected rams developed clinical signs typical of trypanosomosis at varying pre-patent periods. The gross lesions observed in the infected rams in Group II were moderate and more severe in those of Groups I and III. Histological sections of the testes of infected rams (Groups I, II, and III) showed moderate (T. evansi-infected group) to severe (mixed and T. brucei brucei-infected groups) testicular degenerations with reduction in number of spermatogenic cell layers, degenerated seminiferous tubules, congested interlobular spaces, loss of tissue architecture with significant (p<0.01) depletion, and loss of gonadal and epididymal sperm reserves in Groups I and III in comparison to Group II and the control Group IV. No observable clinical signs and histopathological lesions were found in those rams of the control Group IV.
Conclusion: The study concluded that trypanosomosis due to experimental T. brucei brucei or T. evansi or mixed infections (of both parasites) caused testicular damage, decreased epididymal and gonadal sperm reserves and an important cause of infertility in Yankasa rams.
Keywords: gonadal sperm reserve, mixed infection, testicular degeneration, Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma evansi, Yankasa ram.
Thursday, 21 July 2016
Research (Published online: 22-07-2016)
13. How safe is the use of chlorpyrifos: Revelations through its effect on layer birds - P. P. Singh, Ashok Kumar, R. S. Chauhan and P. K. Pankaj
Veterinary World, 9(7): 753-758
Aim: The present study was aimed to investigate the immunological competence of chlorpyrifos (CPF) insecticide after oral administration in layer chickens.
Materials and Methods: A total of 20 White Leghorn birds were given CPF in drinking water at 0.3 ppm/bird/day (no observable effect level dose) for a period of 3-month. Immune competence status of layer birds and chicks hatched from CPF-treated birds were estimated at 15 days interval in layer birds and monthly interval in chicks using immunological and biochemical parameters.
Results: There was a significant decrease in values of total leukocytes count, absolute lymphocyte count, absolute heterophil count, total serum protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, and serum gamma globulin in the birds treated with CPF as compared to control. Similarly, immune competence tests such as lymphocyte stimulation test, oxidative burst assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests indicated lower immunity in birds treated with CPF as compared to control. Subsequently, chicks produced from CPF-treated birds were also examined for immune competence, but no significant difference was observed between chicks of both the groups.
Conclusion: The exposure to CPF produced hemo-biochemical and other changes that could be correlated with changes in the immunological profile of layer chickens suggesting total stoppage of using CPF in poultry sheds.
Keywords: blood biochemistry, chlorpyrifos, layers, immunity, organic pollutant.
A study on the tolerance level of farmers toward human-wildlife conflict in the forest buffer zones of Tamil Nadu
Research (Published online: 22-07-2016)
12. A study on the tolerance level of farmers toward human-wildlife conflict in the forest buffer zones of Tamil Nadu - K. Senthilkumar, P. Mathialagan, C. Manivannan, M. G. Jayathangaraj and S. Gomathinayagam
Veterinary World, 9(7): 747-752
Aim: The aim of this work was to study the tolerance level of farmers toward different human-wildlife conflict (HWC) situations.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 24 villages of nine blocks from Kancheepuram, Coimbatore, Erode, and Krishnagiri districts of Tamil Nadu by personally interviewing 240 farmers affected with four different HWC situations such as human-elephant conflict (HEC), human-wild pig conflict (HPC), human-gaur conflict (HGC), and human-monkey conflict (HMC). A scale developed for this purpose was used to find out the tolerance level of the farmers.
Results: In general, the majority (61.70%) of the farmers had medium level of tolerance toward HWC, whereas 25.40% and 12.90% belonged to a high and low category, respectively. The mean tolerance level of the farmer’s encountering HMC is low (8.77) among the other three wild animal conflicts. In tackling HWC, the majority (55.00%) of the HEC farmers drove the elephant once it entered into their farmland. In the HPC, more than three-fourths of the respondents drove away the wild pig once they were found in farmlands. With regard to the HMC, a less number of them (1.70%) drove the monkey away if monkeys were spotted in their village. With regard to HGC, 95.00% of the respondents frightened the gaurs if their family members were threatened by gaurs.
Conclusion: The present study suggests that that majority of the farmers had medium level of tolerance toward HWC. The tolerance level of the HMC farmers was lower than other three HWC affected farmers. This study emphasizes the need for necessary training to tackle the problem in an effective manner for wild animal conservation.
Keywords: elephant, gaur, human-wildlife conflict, local perceptions, monkey, tolerance level, wild pig.
Saturday, 16 July 2016
Research (Published online: 17-07-2016)
11. Seroprevalence of human brucellosis in and around Jammu, India, using different serological tests - H. K. Sharma, S. K. Kotwal, D. K. Singh, M. A. Malik, Arvind Kumar, Rajagunalan and M. Singh
Veterinary World, 9(7): 742-746
Aim: Brucellosis is a disease of zoonotic importance as it affects both human as well as animal’s health, and therefore, directly affects animal productivity and human efficiency. Therefore, a study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans in Jammu and surrounding areas.
Materials and Methods: A total of 121 sera samples from humans occupied with professional related to animals were collected and tested for anti-Brucella antibodies by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), modified RBPT (mRBPT), standard tube agglutination test (STAT), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). Sampling was done keeping in view with the occupation, sex, and age.
Results: The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis recorded was 4.96%. The test-wise seroprevalence was 9.91% by RBPT, 9.91% by mRBPT, 9.09% by STAT, and 16.52% by I-ELISA. The prevalence of brucellosis was higher in >35-50 years age group compared to >20-35 years and >50-65 years. Sex-wise seroprevalence was higher in males than females. Taking I-ELISA as standard, the relative sensitivities of mRBPT, RBPT, and I-ELISA were in the order of mRBPT=RBPT>STAT. All the tests revealed high specificity values; however, among different serological tests, I-ELISA detected a maximum number of positive sera samples.
Conclusions: The prevalence of brucellosis was found to be approximately 5%. The adult (>35-50 years) age male group was most vulnerable. The routine diagnosis of brucellosis involved the conventional serological tests, viz., RBPT and STAT, but each was associated with drawbacks which could give either false-positive or false-negative interpretation. Therefore, it is always recommended to use a battery of tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis.
Keywords: brucellosis, humans, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Rose Bengal plate test, seroprevalence, standard tube agglutination test.
Friday, 15 July 2016
Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract
Research (Published online: 16-07-2016)
10. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract - Vikash Sharma, K. K. Jakhar and Swati Dahiya
Veterinary World, 9(7): 735-741
Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens.
Materials and Methods: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7th day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies.
Result: E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB) antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1.
Conclusion: 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken.
Keywords: broiler chicken, Escherichia coli, immune response, neem leaf extract.
Wednesday, 13 July 2016
Prevalence and risk factors associated with gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats raised in Baybay city, Leyte, Philippines
Research (Published online: 14-07-2016)
9. Prevalence and risk factors associated with gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats raised in Baybay city, Leyte, Philippines - Ariel Paul M. Rupa and Harvie P. Portugaliza
Veterinary World, 9(7): 728-734
Aim: Gastrointestinal parasitism is a serious constraint affecting goat production in the Philippines. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of gastrointestinal nematode infection in goat-populated barangays of Baybay City, Leyte.
Materials and Methods: A total of 81 households or farms were interviewed, and 450 goats were sampled for fecalysis. Fecal egg count along with egg morphological identification and coproculture for third stage larvae identification were conducted. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were carried out to determine the farm- and animal-level prevalence and risk factors.
Results: Fecalysis revealed the presence of strongyle and Trichuris spp. with a farm-level prevalence of 100% and 4.94%, respectively; and animal-level prevalence of 96.22% and 4.44%, respectively. The identified strongyle genera per barangay were Haemonchus spp. (34.79%), Trichostrongylus spp. (33.29%), Oesophagostomum spp. (24.21%), Cooperia spp. (6.93%), and Chabertia spp. (0.79%). Goats older than 12 months were four times more likely to present high strongyle burden when compared to goats <6 months. With each month increase in goat’s age, the odds of acquiring strongyle infection also increased by 1.07 times. Animals kept in goat house with cemented flooring have lower odds of acquiring strongyle (odds ratio=0.12). Goats raised for leisure purposes and fed with carabao grass (Paspalum conjugatum) were 8.12 and 5.52 times more likely to acquire Trichuris, respectively.
Conclusion: Most of the backyard goat raisers in Baybay City, Leyte, do not practice sound helminth control measures as shown by the high prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes. The most relevant risk factors for gastrointestinal nematode infection were the age of the goat, type of goat house’s flooring, purpose of raising goats, and feeding practices.
Keywords: goat, Haemonchus, Philippines, risk factors, strongyle, Trichuris.
Tuesday, 12 July 2016
Effect of feeding cottonseed meal on some hematological and serum biochemical parameters in broiler birds
Research (Published online: 13-07-2016)
8. Effect of feeding cottonseed meal on some hematological and serum biochemical parameters in broiler birds - G. Thirumalaisamy, M. R. Purushothaman, P. Vasantha Kumar and P. Selvaraj
Veterinary World, 9(7): 723-727
Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the effect of feeding cottonseed meal (CSM) on performance of hematological and serum biochemical parameters in broiler birds.
Materials and Methods: A 6-week biological trial was carried out with 432-day-old Cobb 400 broiler chicks distributed to nine experimental diets with six replicates, each containing eight chicks. The experimental diets were formulated based on total amino acids (BTAA) or based on digestible amino acids (BDAA) with or without iron supplementation with two levels of CSM (2% and 4%) and control diet based on maize – soybean. The whole blood was subjected to hematological studies. The serum samples were analyzed for protein fractions and lipid profiles.
Results: The packed cell volume (PCV) value, red blood cell (RBC) numbers, and hemoglobin (Hb) were lower in iron unsupplemented CSM BTAA or BDAA diets than the control (33.86-35.54 vs. 36.41%, 2.78-2.87 vs. 2.98 × 106/μl, and 10.30-10.70 vs. 10.88%). Supplementation of iron in CSM diets improved the PCV, RBC numbers, and Hb, and the values were comparable to the control. White blood cell numbers, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH), and MCH concentration values were comparable to the control. The erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) was poor in birds fed diets containing up to 4% CSM BTAA or CSM BDAA without iron supplementation (32.02-32.57 vs. 28.77%). Supplementation of iron improved the EOF. The serum cholesterol level did not change with or without iron supplementation.
Conclusion: This study suggested that feeding of CSM BTAA or BDAA up to 4% level voiding iron supplementation lowers the hematological parameters, whereas supplementation of iron did not alter serum protein fractions and cholesterol profile; however, it had lowered some hematological parameters, which was rectified by iron supplementation.
Keywords: broiler, cottonseed meal, hematological and serum parameters, iron supplementation.
Monday, 11 July 2016
A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Research (Published online: 12-07-2016)
7. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay - Anju Mohan, Hari Mohan Saxena and Puneet Malhotra
Veterinary World, 9(7): 717-722
Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19.
Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT), microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT), indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) as per standard protocols.
Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was extremely significant (p<0.0001). The mean MAT titers were 2.244±0.727 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was very significant (p<0.005). The mean IHA titers in infected cattle were 2.284±0.574, and those in healthy vaccinated cattle were 1.200±0.155. The difference was extremely significant (p=0.0002). However, the difference in mean iELISA titers of infected cattle (1.3678±0.014) and healthy vaccinated cattle (1.367±0.014) was non-significant. The infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. However, it cannot be ascertained whether these antibodies are due to vaccine or response to infection. Since the infected animals had been vaccinated earlier, the current infection may suggest that vaccination was unable to induce protective levels of antibody. The heightened antibody response after infection may also indicate a secondary immune response to the antigens common to the vaccine strain and wild Brucella organisms.
Conclusion: The brucellosis infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals.
Keywords: antibody titers, Brucella, brucellosis, Brucella abortus S19 vaccine, bovine brucellosis.