Monday, 31 October 2016
Effect of Terminalia arjuna bark powder on some diagnostic enzymes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) ingesting arsenic contaminated water and fodder
Research (Published online: 31-10-2016)
22. Effect of Terminalia arjuna bark powder on some diagnostic enzymes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) ingesting arsenic contaminated water and fodder - Subrat Kumar Dash, Shashi Nayyar and Rajesh Jindal
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1167-1172
Aim: The study investigated the effect of Terminalia arjuna bark powder on some diagnostic enzymes related to hepatic and muscle function in buffaloes ingesting arsenic contaminated water and fodder in an arsenic affected area.
Materials and Methods: A total of 25 samples of tube well water, fodder and buffalo blood were collected through a survey from arsenic contaminated areas and 20 samples from the uncontaminated, i.e., control areas of Ludhiana district, Punjab for determination of arsenic concentration. A total of 30 buffaloes (selected from above 45 animals) were divided into three groups of 10 each on the basis of blood arsenic level, viz., control group: Clinically healthy buffaloes from the uncontaminated area with the blood arsenic level within the normal limit (0-0.05 ppm); Arsenic exposed group: Buffaloes exposed to arsenic through intake of contaminated water and fodder in the arsenic affected area with the blood arsenic level above the normal limit of 0-0.05 ppm; treatment group: Arsenic exposed buffaloes treated with T. arjuna bark powder orally at 42 mg/kg b.w. OD for 30 days. Single blood samples were collected from control and arsenic exposed groups. Blood samples from the treatment group were collected on 0, 15th, and 30th day of treatment along with one sample on the 45th day, i.e., after withdrawal of treatment. Activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine kinase (CK) were assayed in plasma.
Results: Significantly (p<0.05) higher arsenic concentration was observed in tube well water, fodder and buffalo blood samples collected from the arsenic contaminated area. A significant positive correlation was noticed between arsenic concentrations of tube well water, fodder and untreated buffalo blood samples, collected from the arsenic affected area. ALP, GGT, LDH, and CK activities were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the arsenic exposed buffaloes compared to control. Treatment with T. arjuna bark powder reduced the plasma levels of ALP, GGT, LDH, and CK in arsenic exposed buffaloes comparable to that of control.
Conclusion: Exposure to arsenic altered the hepatic and muscle function enzymes in buffaloes. T. arjuna bark powder supplementation lowered the ALP, GGT, LDH, and CK activities in arsenic exposed buffaloes toward the values exhibited by the control group.
Keywords: arsenic, Bubalus bubalis, diagnostic enzymes, Terminalia arjuna.
Sunday, 30 October 2016
Seroepidemiological survey of Neospora caninum and its risk factors in farm dogs in Nakuru district, Kenya
Research (Published online: 30-10-2016)
21. Seroepidemiological survey of Neospora caninum and its risk factors in farm dogs in Nakuru district, Kenya - Tequiero Abuom Okumu, John Njenga Munene, James Wabacha, Victor Tsuma and John Van Leeuwen
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1162-1166
Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum (NC) and its risk factors in farm dogs in Kenya.
Materials and Methods: As part of a longitudinal study on dairy cattle abortion in 2010 in Kenya, serum samples were collected from 84 dogs in 53 randomly selected dairy cattle farms to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of seropositivity for NC.
Results: 15 (17.9%) of the dogs were seropositive to NC antibodies, and at least one seropositive dog was found in 12 (22.6%) of the 53 farms. The final multivariable logistic regression model identified free-roaming as the only factor significantly associated with seropositivity (odds ratio=4.48; p=0.03).
Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that canine neosporosis does exist in Kenya and that farmers should restrict their dogs from roaming to reduce the risk of their dogs becoming a reservoir for NC. More studies need to be carried out to determine the reproductive effects of NC on dairy cattle in Kenya.
Keywords: cross-sectional study, dogs, Kenyan dairy farms, Neosporosis.
Thursday, 27 October 2016
Evaluation of salivary electrolytes during estrous cycle in Murrah buffaloes with reference to estrus detection
Research (Published online: 28-10-2016)
20. Evaluation of salivary electrolytes during estrous cycle in Murrah buffaloes with reference to estrus detection - Indu Devi, Pawan Singh, Surerder Singh Lathwal, A. Kumaresan and Kuldeep Dudi
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1157-1161
Aim: Timely estrus detection is one of the critical factors for increasing reproductive efficiency in buffaloes. In recent decades, saliva has become a more popular as a noninvasive source for determining physiological status of animals by various biochemical electrolytes. This study was designed to assess and correlate changes in different salivary minerals concentration (calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride) during different stages of the estrous cycle in Murrah buffaloes.
Materials and Methods: The saliva samples were collected during the different phases of the estrous cycle from 20 Murrah buffaloes in early morning hours and were assayed using respective minerals assay kits.
Results: The concentrations of calcium (8.76±0.08-12.11±0.11 mg/dl), inorganic phosphorus (6.56±0.13-14.72±4.50 mg/dl), magnesium (2.27±0.14-5.79±0.15 mg/dl), sodium (139.47±0.31-159.62±1.22 mmol/L), potassium (12.40±0.22-26.85±1.22 mmol/L), and chloride (109.28±0.41-137.07±0.68 mmol/L) varied during the different phases of estrous cycle. The concentration of calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride in saliva were significantly (p<0.01) higher during estrus phase compared to other phases of the estrous cycle. All these minerals were positively and significantly (p<0.0001) related to estrogen concentration while salivary concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride showed a significant (p<0.0001) negative correlation with progesterone level in blood plasma.
Conclusion: These preliminary findings indicate that there are definite variations in salivary mineral and electrolyte concentrations during different phases of the estrous cycle. These results may be used as an aid for estrus detection/ confirmation in buffaloes although validation of the results using a large number of animals is required.
Keywords: heat detection, noninvasive method, saliva electrolytes, silent heat.
Research (Published online: 28-10-2016)
19. Effect of boiling on the antidiabetic property of enzyme treated sheep milk casein - Farhath Jan, Santosh Kumar and Richa Jha
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1152-1156
Aim: Sheep milk-born bioactive peptides have been found to exhibit various physiological activities. The present work was designed with the aim to evaluate the effect of boiling on antidiabetic property of peptides derived from sheep milk caseinate on hydrolysis with three different proteases.
Materials and Methods: In this investigation, casein prepared from raw and boiled sheep milk was hydrolyzed by three commercially available proteases (trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin). These hydrolysates collected at different hydrolysis times (60, 120, 160, and 240 min) were assayed for their antidiabetic activity.
Results: Among the three different enzyme hydrolysates, casein treated with chymotrypsin shows the highest antidiabetic activity among other enzymes. While the antidiabetic effect of raw milk-derived casein hydrolysates always exceeds than effect shown by boiled milk casein hydrolysates.
Conclusion: The result obtained hence shows that the effect of boiling on the properties of bioactive peptides released during different enzyme digestion depends largely on the enzymatic formulation used and treatment conditions. Chymotrypsin treatment of raw casein yields peptides with maximum antidiabetic activity as compared to pepsin and trypsin. Moreover, the peptides produced after enzymatic treatment of boiled casein show reduced antidiabetic properties. Therefore, enzymatically treated raw milk casein hydrolysates may be used as effective nutritional supplements for diabetic patients, as it causes a significant inhibition of α-amylase activity.
Keywords: α-amylase, antidiabetic, bioactive peptides, casein, hydrolysates, proteases.
Wednesday, 26 October 2016
Research (Published online: 26-10-2016)
18. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in raw milk and some dairy products - Mona A. El-Zamkan and Karima G. Abdel Hameed
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1147-1151
Aim: This study was accomplished to test raw milk and certain dairy products sold in local markets of Qena, Egypt, for the presence ofCampylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni.
Materials and Methods: A total of 150 samples of raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt (50 samples each) were subjected first to enrichment in Bolton broth at 42°C for 2 days under a microaerobic condition, subsequently campylobacter blood free selective agar plates were cultured and incubated in the same condition of the broth. Based on the morphological and biochemical themes of the growing colonies, it was further classified into Campylobacter spp. The identified isolates were later affirmed by polymerase chain reaction using primers that were designed to locate hipO genes in C. jejuni and glyA in C. coli.
Results: Of the total 150 examined samples of raw milk and soft cheese samples; 37 (24.6%) samples were contaminated withCampylobacter spp. C. jejuni was dominating in this study in 20%, 14%, and 8% of the examined raw milk, kareish cheese, and yoghurt samples, respectively. No sample harbored C. coli.
Conclusion: Campylobacter spp. could be detected in 24.6% of the investigated samples. C. jejuni isolated from 14% of the total tested samples, while C. coli could not be detected from the examined samples. Campylobacter spp. is rampant in the areas of poor hygienic conditions making products made from raw milk of public health hazard.
Keywords: Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni, dairy products, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, raw milk.
In-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane reduction potential of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L.)
Research (Published online: 26-10-2016)
17. In-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane reduction potential of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L.) - S. M. Durge, M. K. Tripathi and N. Dutta
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1141-1146
Aim: To assess the effect of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L.) levels in concentrate mixtures and in composite feed mixtures (CFMs) on in-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane production.
Materials and Methods: Five concentrate mixtures were prepared with containing 30% oil cake, where linseed cake was replaced by mustard cake at the rate of 0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30% in concentrate mixture. Mustard cake contained glucosinolate 72.58 μmol/g oil free dry matter (DM) and contents in diet were 0, 5.4, 10.9, 16.3, and 21.8 μmol/g of concentrate mixture, respectively. Concentrate mixture containing 15.0% mustard cake was found to produced minimum methane which was then used for the preparation of CFM containing 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% levels with gram straw.
Result: Increased levels of mustard cake in concentrate mixtures had a linear decrease (p<0.05) in the total gas production, and the 15% inclusion showed lowest methane concentration (quadratic, p<0.01). The degradability of DM and organic matter (OM) of concentrate mixtures did not change, however, pH and NH3-N concentrations of the fermentation medium showed linear (p<0.05) reductions with increased mustard cake levels. Increased levels of 15% mustard cake containing concentrate mixture in CFMs exhibited a trend (p=0.052) of increased gas production, whereas methane concentration in total gas, methane produced and degradability of DM and OM were also displayed a linear increase (p<0.05). However, the pH, NH3-N, and total volatile fatty acid levels decreased linearly (p<0.05) with increased levels of concentrate in CFMs.
Conclusion: Reduction in methane production was evidenced with the inclusion of mustard cake in concentrate mixture at 15% level, and the CFMs with 25% concentrate, which contained 15% mustard cake, exhibited an improved fermentation and reduced methane production.
Keywords: Brassica, glucosinolate, mustard cake, methane, rumen fermentation.
Monday, 24 October 2016
Impact of therapeutic and high doses of florfenicol on kidney and liver functional indicators in goat
Research (Published online: 24-10-2016)
16. Impact of therapeutic and high doses of florfenicol on kidney and liver functional indicators in goat - Jan Muhammad Shah, Toufique Ahmed Qureshi, Tahmina Shah, Qurban Ali Shah, Muhammad Asif Arain, Zohaib Ahmed Bhutto, Muhammad Saeed and Farman Ali Siyal
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1135-1140
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of therapeutic and high doses of florfenicol on kidney and liver functional indicators in goat species.
Materials and Methods: Six mature, healthy goats (combine breed and sex) with average weight 25 kg were selected for this study. The therapeutic (20 mg/kg b.w.) and high doses (40 and 60 mg) of florfenicol were administered for 3 days with 24 h interval. Blood samples were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h following the each administered dose.
Results: The results showed that the therapeutic dose of florfenicol produced nonsignificant effect on serum urea, creatinine, total protein (TP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and bilirubin on all timings, and increased (p<0.05) the serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) levels for 48 h. Whereas the high doses of florfenicol (40 and 60 mg) significantly altered the kidney and liver functional indicators in the blood. In contrast with control, the serum urea level was (p<0.01) increased at all timing points. Creatinine values were altered (p<0.01, <0.05) in increasing manner from 24 to 96 h. The high dose of 40 mg decreased the TP (p<0.05) for 72 h and 60 mg persisted same effect (p<0.01) up to 120 h. The indices of ALP, GGT, SGOT, and SGPT were raised (p<0.01, <0.05) at all timings. The bilirubin indexes also (p<0.05) elevated from 48 to 72.
Conclusion: It was concluded that the high doses of florfenicol produced reversible dose-dependent effects on functional indicators of kidney and liver such as urea, creatinine, TP, ALP, SGOT, SGPT, GGT, and bilirubin.
Keywords: blood chemistry, florfenicol, goat, liver and kidney function tests, therapeutic and high doses.
Sunday, 23 October 2016
Research (Published online: 23-10-2016)
15. The effect of lead on the process of spermatogenesis in sex glands of male albino rats - Olga Sergeevna Shubina and Natalia Anatolievna Dudenkova
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1129-1134
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and functional features of the process of spermatogenesis in the testes of male albino rats when exposed to lead acetate.
Materials and Methods: Using histological, morphometric and statistical methods explored the effects of lead acetate on the process of spermatogenesis in the testes of male albino rats. Investigations were carried out using a digital microscope Axio Imager.M2 and automatic cell counter Countess™.
Results: It is shown that when exposed to lead acetate a decrease in the production of all populations of spermatogenic cells, decreased spermatogenesis index and an index of relaxation (tension spermatogenesis), the increase in the index of ripening, index meiotic activity and germinative index, which indicates a decrease in the functional activity of the testes. On preparations, it is possible to see that after the influence of acetate of lead the head of spermatozoa becomes more roundish, breaks of tails observed.
Conclusion: Lead acetate reduces the productivity of the seminal glands, which leads to the decrease of the concentration of spermatozoa, and their viability. The results of the studies suggest a negative impact of lead acetate in the course of the process of spermatogenesis in the testes of male white rats.
Keywords: epididymis (appendage testis), lead acetate, seminal glands (testis), Sertoli cells, spermatogenesis, spermatogenic cells.
Saturday, 22 October 2016
Detection of Salmonella species in chicken carcasses using genus specific primer belong to invA gene in Sohag city, Egypt
Research (Published online: 22-10-2016)
14. Detection of Salmonella species in chicken carcasses using genus specific primer belong to invA gene in Sohag city, Egypt - Nahed Mahmoud Abdel-Aziz
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1125-1128
Aim: This study aimed to detect Salmonella species found as contaminants in chicken carcass (thigh, breast, wings, liver, and gizzard).
Materials and Methods: A total of 75 chicken samples including thigh, breast, wings, liver, and gizzard (15 of each) were collected from different markets in Sohag city for detection of Salmonella species by culture methods, biochemical tests, serology, and polymerase chain reaction.
Results: The overall incidence of Salmonella contamination of 75 examined samples was found to be 6.6% with the higher percentage of Salmonella being isolated from liver samples (13.3%) followed by thigh, wings, gizzard (6.6%) while breast show negative result.
Conclusion: Results in this study indicate that contamination of chicken carcass with Salmonella needs strict hygienic measures to prevent their transmission to human.
Keywords: chicken carcass, invA gene, Salmonella spp.
Thursday, 20 October 2016
Effect of Tamarindus indica leaf powder on plasma concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron in fluorotic cows
Research (Published online: 21-10-2016)
13. Effect of Tamarindus indica leaf powder on plasma concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron in fluorotic cows - Pinaki Samal, R. C. Patra, A. R. Gupta, S. K. Mishra, D. Jena and D. Satapathy
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1121-1124
Aim: The main objective of the study was to determine the deleterious effect of fluoride on plasma trace minerals of fluorotic cattle and to evaluate the effect of Tamarindus indica leaf powder toward correction of the same.
Materials and Methods: A total of 30 cattle exhibiting chronic sign of fluorosis and 10 healthy cattle from nonfluorotic area were incorporated in this study. Fluorotic cattle were divided into three equal groups consisting of 10 cattle each. Group I from fluoride free area served as healthy control. The Group II received no treatment and served as disease control. Groups III and IV were supplemented with tamarind leaf powder at 15 g and 30 g/day with feed for 60 days. Plasma mineral status was evaluated after 60 days of treatment with double beam atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
Results: Statistical analysis of data revealed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in mean plasma copper (Cu) (0.344±0.007 ppm), zinc (Zn) (0.692±0.06 ppm), and iron (Fe) concentration (1.100±0.01 ppm) in fluorotic cattle in comparison to healthy cattle (0.58±0.010, 2.342±0.04, 1.406±0.04 ppm, respectively). Significant (p<0.05) increase in Cu, Zn, and Fe was recorded after supplementation of tamarind leaf powder to the fluorotic cattle.
Conclusion: It was concluded that fluorotic cattle might be supplemented with T. indica leaf powder with feed for the correction of the decreased level of certain plasma minerals.
Keywords: cattle, fluorosis, micro-minerals, tamarind leaf.
Wednesday, 19 October 2016
Comparison of radiography and ultrasonography in the detection of lung and liver cysts in cattle and buffaloes
Research (Published online: 20-10-2016)
12. Comparison of radiography and ultrasonography in the detection of lung and liver cysts in cattle and buffaloes - Ashwani Kumar, Narinder Singh Saini, Jitender Mohindroo, Balbir Bagicha Singh, Vandana Sangwan and Naresh Kumar Sood
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1113-1120
Aim: Echinococcosis is the major cause of lung and liver cysts in ruminants. This study compared usefulness of radiography and ultrasonography (USG) in the detection of lung and/or liver cysts in sick bovine animals. The study also worked out cooccurrence of lung and liver cysts, and whether these cysts were primary cause of sickness or not.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 45 sick bovine (37 buffaloes and 8 cattle) suffering from lung and liver cysts. A complete history of illness and clinical examination was carried out. Lateral radiographs of chest and reticular region were taken. In radiographically positive or suspected cases of cysts, USG of the lung and liver region was done. Depending on the location of cyst and clinical manifestations of the animal, the cysts were categorized as primary or secondary causes of sickness.
Results: Using either imaging technique, it was observed that 46.7% of the animals had both lung and liver cysts, whereas 33.3% had only lung and 20% had only liver cyst. Cysts were identified as primary cause of sickness in 31.1% animals only. For diagnosing lung cysts, radiography (71.1%) and USG (62.2%) had similar diagnostic utility. However, for detecting liver cysts, USG was the only imaging tool.
Conclusion: The lung and liver cysts, depending on their number and size may be a primary cause of sickness in bovine. Radiography and USG are recommended, in combination, as screening tools to rule out echinococcosis.
Keywords: bovine, echinococcus cyst, liver, lung, radiography, ultrasound.
Tuesday, 18 October 2016
Production performance of finisher broiler fed with cocoyam-corm meal as partial energy replacement for maize
Research (Published online: 19-10-2016)
11. Production performance of finisher broiler fed with cocoyam-corm meal as partial energy replacement for maize - Christian Paul P. de la Cruz
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1107-1112
Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Gabing San Fernando (Xanthosoma spp.) corms as partial carbohydrate replacement for maize in finisher broiler production.
Materials and Methods: The completely randomized design was utilized to investigate the effects of three finisher poultry diets prepared in varying amounts of cocoyam-corm meal set at 0% (control), 25%, and 50% (experimental) replacement levels.
Results: There were no significant differences (p≥0.05) as to mortality and body weight measurements between control and experimental groups. Similarly, the mean weights of selected internal organs and condemnable carcasses among treatment groups did not show any significant differences (p≥0.05). In terms of the average feed intakes, birds from 50%-cocoyam group had the highest mean value and were found to be statistically different (p≥0.01) from both control and 25%-cocoyam groups. However, feed conversion ratio did not significantly differ (p≥0.05) among three groups. Higher feed costs were associated with the 50%-cocoyam treatment diet, which was only consistent with higher feed inputs. Thus, the group fed with 50%-cocoyam meal had significantly higher total mean production costs (p<0.005) per bird, when other expenses were taken into account. The production costs for the group given 25%-cocoyam meal did not significantly differ (p≥0.05) from the control group.
Conclusion: Partial replacement of maize with cocoyam-corm meal at 25% level was acceptable since inclusion at this level did not adversely affect the production performance of finisher broilers in terms of growth rate, mortality rate, and feeding efficiency. The use of cocoyam meal as nonconventional and alternative carbohydrate source in poultry diet presents positive economic implications, especially to smallhold farmers from the developing countries, like the Philippines.
Keywords: broiler, cocoyam, feed-conversion ratio, Philippines, poultry, Xanthosoma.
Certain hormonal profiles of postpartum anestrus jersey crossbred cows treated with controlled internal drug release and ovsynch protocol
Research (Published online: 18-10-2016)
10. Certain hormonal profiles of postpartum anestrus jersey crossbred cows treated with controlled internal drug release and ovsynch protocol - Dayanidhi Jena, S. Das, B. K. Patra, S. S. Biswal, D. N. Mohanty and P. Samal
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1102-1106
Aim: The study was conducted to determine the serum levels of certain hormones in post-partum anestrus cows following treatment with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and Ovsynch protocol.
Materials and Methods: A total of 30 postpartum anestrus cows were divided into three equal groups after thorough gynecoclinical examination. The Group 1 animals received an intravaginal progesterone device on day 0 and 2 ml of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) on day of CIDR removal (7th day), Group 2 cows were treated with ovsynch protocol (gonadotropinreleasing hormone [GnRH]-PGF2α-GnRH) on day 0, 7 and 9, respectively, and Group 3 cows were supplemented with mineral mixture and treated as control. The serum estrogen, progesterone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine concentration were estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit and absorbance was read at 450 nm with Perkin Elmer Wallac 1420 Microplate Reader.
Results: There was a significant increase in progesterone level in Group 1 after withdrawal of CIDR as compared to other two groups. However, the estrogen assay revealed a greater concentration in Group 2 against Group 1 on day 7 of sampling. However, there was no significant difference for serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) irrespective of treatment protocols and days of sampling.
Conclusion: Treatment with CIDR based progesterone therapy and drug combinations may affect the reproductive hormonal balance like estrogen and progesterone, which is inevitable for successful return to cyclicity and subsequent fertilization and conception. However, as far as serum T3 and T4 concentration concerned it may not give an astounding result.
Keywords: controlled internal drug release, ovsynch, postpartum anestrus.
Morphological and molecular identification of the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii(Acari: Ixodidae) vectors of Rickettsioses in Egypt
Research (Published online: 18-10-2016)
9. Morphological and molecular identification of the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii(Acari: Ixodidae) vectors of Rickettsioses in Egypt - Hend H. A. M. Abdullah, Amal El-Molla, Fayez A. Salib, Nesreen A. T. Allam, Alaa A. Ghazy and Sobhy Abdel-Shafy
Veterinary World, 9(10): 1087-1101
Aim: Rickettsioses have an epidemiological importance that includes pathogens, vectors, and hosts. The dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii play important roles as vectors and reservoirs of Rickettsiae. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Rickettsiae in ixodid ticks species infesting dogs and camels in Egypt, in addition to, the morphological and molecular identification of R. sanguineus and H. dromedarii.
Materials and Methods: A total of 601 and 104 of ticks’ specimens were collected from dogs and camels, respectively, in Cairo, Giza and Sinai provinces. Hemolymph staining technique and OmpA and gltA genes amplification were performed to estimate the prevalence rate of Rickettsiae in ticks. For morphological identification of tick species, light microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used. In addition to the phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA, Second internal transcript spacer, 12S rDNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit-1, and 16S rDNA were performed for molecular identification of two tick species.
Results: The prevalence rate of Rickettsiae in ticks was 11.6% using hemolymph staining technique and 6.17% by OmpA and gltA genes amplification. Morphological identification revealed that 100% of dogs were infested by R. sanguineus while 91.9% of camels had been infested by H. dromedarii. The phylogenetic analyses of five DNA markers confirmed morphological identification by LM and SEM. The two tick species sequences analyses proved 96-100% sequences identities when compared with the reference data in Genbank records.
Conclusion: The present studies confirm the suitability of mitochondrial DNA markers for reliable identification of ticks at both intra- and inter-species level over the nuclear ones. In addition to, the detection of Rickettsiae in both ticks’ species and establishment of the phylogenetic status of R. sanguineus and H. dromedarii would be useful in understanding the epidemiology of ticks and tick borne rickettsioses in Egypt.
Keywords: hard ticks, light microscope, phylogenetic analysis, polymerase chain reaction, Rickettsiae, scanning electron microscope.