Friday, 15 December 2017

Prevalence of Theileria annulata in dairy cattle in Nyala, South Darfur State, Sudan

Research (Published online: 15-12-2017)
10. Prevalence of Theileria annulata in dairy cattle in Nyala, South Darfur State, Sudan
Ismail A. Abaker, Diaeldin A. Salih, Lima M. El Haj, Rawia E. Ahmed, Manal M. Osman and Awadia M. Ali
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1475-1480
Aim: This study was conducted in dairy cattle in Nyala, South Darfur State, during the period from June to September 2015, to study the prevalence of bovine tropical theileriosis.
Materials and Methods: Apparently, healthy cattle of different age groups, different breeds, and from both sexes were randomly selected from seven locations. Three age groups of cattle were selected, group one <1 year old, group two 1-3 years old, and group three older than 3 years. These cattle were indigenous and cross (Friesian X zebu). A total of 150 blood samples were collected for blood smears, blood in EDTA tubes, and serum samples as well as ticks infesting cattle. Three diagnostic techniques were used such as blood smear, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results: Of 150 samples, 11 (7.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.1-5.5) were positive for Theileria spp. piroplasms in the blood smears, 70 (46.7%, 95% CI: 35.7-57.7) were positive for Theileria annulata antibodies in the IFAT, and of 100 samples, 39 (39%, 95% CI: 46.6-31.4) were positive for T. annulata using PCR. The prevalence of T. annulata was higher in indigenous breed than cross cattle by the three diagnostic techniques. The highest prevalence of T. annulata was recorded among cattle older than 3 years old. There were three genera and ten species of ticks found feeding on cattle. These were Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus annulatus, Hyalomma dromedrii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma rufipes, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma truncatum, Amblyomma variegatum, and Amblyomma lepidum.
Conclusion: The study concluded that tropical theileriosis is prevalent among dairy cattle in Nyala. H. anatolicum was found in very low numbers, suggesting other ticks may play a role in the transmission of the disease. Molecular characterization of T. annulata is recommended for accurate mapping of the disease and evaluates the magnitude problem of tropical theileriosis in South Darfur region.
Keywords: indirect fluorescent antibody test, polymerase chain reaction, South Darfur, Sudan, Theileria annulata, ticks.

Thursday, 14 December 2017

Prevalence of carrier state theileriosis in lactating cows

Research (Published online: 14-12-2017)
9. Prevalence of carrier state theileriosis in lactating cows
Niranjana Sahoo, Bikash Kumar Behera, Hemant Kumar Khuntia and Manojita Dash
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1471-1474
ABSTRACT
Aim: The objective of this study was to examine the carrier status of theileriosis among apparently healthy cross-bred jersey cattle population of Odisha using conventional blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Materials and Methods: A total of 34 apparently healthy cross-bred Jersey lactating cows were considered in this study. Blood samples were subjected to microscopic examination after staining with Giemsa stain and PCR based molecular diagnosis using two sets of primer, i.e., N516/N517 and TorF1/TorF2 specific for Theileria annulata and Theileria orientalis, respectively.
Results: Examination of blood samples revealed presence of theileria parasites to a magnitude of 20.59% for T. annulata, 8.82% for T. orientalis, and 2.94% for both.
Conclusion: Molecular diagnosis was found to be much more sensitive than conventional method for diagnosis of theileriosis. T. annulata was found to be the predominant species affecting the exotic cattle. T. orientalis was detected in apparently healthy cows.
Keywords: bovine theileriosis, carrier state, polymerase chain reaction, Theileria annulataTheileria orientalis.

Wednesday, 13 December 2017

A comprehensive study on seroprevalence of bluetongue virus in Haryana state of India

Research (Published online: 13-12-2017)
8. A comprehensive study on seroprevalence of bluetongue virus in Haryana state of India
Sushila Maan, Anuj Tiwari, Deepika Chaudhary, Anita Dalal, Nitish Bansal, Vinay Kumar, Kanisht Batra, Aman Kumar, Naresh Kumar Kakker and Narender Singh Maan
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1464-1470
ABSTRACT
Aim: The aim of present study was to determine seroprevalence of bluetongue virus (BTV) in Haryana state of India.
Materials and Methods: A total of 803 serum samples, 408 of cattle and 395 of buffalo origin, respectively, were collected from different villages of Haryana. Sampling was done randomly to obtain unbiased results. The samples were evaluated by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of BTV antibodies.
Results: Overall seroprevalence of BTV antibody in cattle and buffaloes for all 21 districts of Haryana state was found to be 75.49% and 92.91%, respectively. The prevalence of BTV in different agroclimatic zones ranged between 72-77% and 90-94% for cattle and buffalo, respectively. In buffaloes, the BTV seroprevalence was comparatively higher than in cattle.
Conclusion: The study showed that BTV is circulating in cattle and buffalo populations in the Northern part of India.
Keywords: bluetongue, bluetongue virus, buffalo, cattle, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Haryana, India, serology.

Tuesday, 12 December 2017

Effects of incorporating agro-industrial by-products into diet of New Zealand rabbits: Case of rebus of date and apricot kernel meal

Research (Published online: 12-12-2017)
7. Effects of incorporating agro-industrial by-products into diet of New Zealand rabbits: Case of rebus of date and apricot kernel meal
Achour Mennani, Rafik Arbouche, Yasmine Arbouche, Etienne Montaigne, Fodil Arbouche and Halima Saadia Arbouche
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1456-1463
ABSTRACT
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incorporating the by-products complex of date and apricot on the fattening performance of the New Zealand breed of rabbits, to reduce the economic costs of the food formula.
Materials and Methods: A total of 288 young New Zealand rabbits aged 35 days were divided into four equal groups each containing 72 animals and into sub-groups of 6 rabbits per cage, depending on the rate of substitution of corn by date rebus and of soybean meal by apricot kernel meal (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%).
Results: The change in weight from day 35 to 77 and the average daily gain are not significantly different, regardless of the diet. The pH and water content are proportional to the substitution rates (6.4-6.6% and 66.5-68.8%). Meat protein levels increased significantly, in particular for the 10% and 30% groups (+8.1% and 6%) while the fat and mineral content levels decreased significantly, in particular for the 30% group displaying -16% and -17%, respectively. Incorporation of dates and apricot kernel meal into the ration of rabbits reduces the cost of the kilogram of food produced of -9%, with an opportunity cost of 165 Algerian dinars (DZD).
Conclusion: The date rebus/apricot kernel meal complex can be used as an alternative to the corn/soybean meal complex at substitution rates of up to 30% without adverse effects on growth rates, feed contribution, or slaughter yield. It improves the chemical composition of the meat and reduces the cost price of the quintal of feed produced.
Keywords: agro-industrial by-product, apricot kernel meal, fattening, rabbits, rebus of dates.

Monday, 11 December 2017

Prophylactic and immune modulatory influences of Nigella sativa Linn. in broilers exposed to biological challenge

Research (Published online: 12-12-2017)
6. Prophylactic and immune modulatory influences of Nigella sativa Linn. in broilers exposed to biological challenge
Essam S. Soliman, Rania T. Hamad and Amira Ahmed
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1447-1455
ABSTRACT
Background and Aim: Prophylaxis and disease prevention is an essential strategy among biorisk management in poultry farms that stimulate and maintain the birds' immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prophylactic, and immune-stimulant influence of Nigella sativa Linn. in broilers under biological stress.

Materials and Methods: A total of 250 1-day-old (ross) chicks were divided into 5 groups; four of which were supplemented with 1.4%, 2.8%, 4.2%, and 5.6% N. sativa Linn., respectively. The four supplemented groups were challenged with Escherichia coli O157:H7 1.5x108 at a 14th day old. A total of 1050 samples (150 serum, 150 swab, and 750 organ samples) were collected and examined.

Results: A highly significant increase (p<0.01) in 5.6% N. sativa Linn. supplemented group in performance traits (body weight, weight gain, and performance index), biochemical parameters (proteinogram, liver enzymes, and creatinine), immunoglobulins concentration, and immune organs' weight. Meanwile, liver showed improvement of histoarchitecture without fibrosis. Heart showed a mild pericarditis with a mild degree of hydropic degeneration. Bursa, thymus, and spleen showed lymphoid hyperplasia.

Conclusion: A concentration of 5.6% N. sativa Linn. in broiler's feed can improve the immune response and subsequent resistance of broilers against diseases.

Keywords: Broiler, Escherichia coli, histopathology, Nigella sativa Linn., preventive.

Sunday, 10 December 2017

Use of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) to substitute soybean meal in ruminant diet: An in vitro rumen fermentation study

Research (Published online: 10-12-2017)
5. Use of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) to substitute soybean meal in ruminant diet: An in vitro rumen fermentation study
Anuraga Jayanegara, Briliannanda Novandri, Nover Yantina and Muhammad Ridla
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1439-1446
ABSTRACT
Aim: This experiment aimed to evaluate substitution of soybean meal (SBM) by black soldier fly (BSF) larvae meal in a napier grass diet as performed by an in vitro rumen fermentation system.
Materials and Methods: Samples of napier grass, SBM, and BSF larvae age 1 week (BSF1) and 2 weeks (BSF2) were arranged according to the following dietary treatments (dry matter [DM] basis): T1, 100% napier grass; T2, 60% napier grass + 40% SBM; T3, 60% napier grass + 40% BSF1; T4, 60% napier grass + 40% BSF2; T5, 60% napier grass + 20% SBM + 20% BSF1; and T6, 60% napier grass + 20% SBM + 20% BSF2. The samples were determined for their chemical composition and were incubated in vitro using buffered rumen fluid for 48 h at 39°C. In vitro incubation was carried out in three runs and represented by two incubation bottles per run.
Results: Supplementation of BSF, both BSF1 and BSF2, increased ether extract, neutral- and acid-detergent insoluble crude protein contents of T3-T6 diets. The T3 or T4 diet resulted in lower ruminal ammonia concentration, in vitro DM digestibility, and in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility as compared to those in T2 (p<0.05). Diet supplemented with BSF produced lower methane emission in comparison to that of supplemented with SBM (p<0.05). Diet containing BSF2 produced lower methane and methane per digestible OM than that containing BSF1 (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Substitution of SBM by BSF in ruminant diet results in a lower nutritional value in vitro but with an advantage of lowering ruminal methane emission.
Keywords: black soldier fly, chitin, insect, methanogenesis, rumen.

Cryptic etiopathological conditions of equine nervous system with special emphasis on viral diseases

Review (Published online: 10-12-2017)
4. Cryptic etiopathological conditions of equine nervous system with special emphasis on viral diseases
Rakesh Kumar and Rajendra D. Patil
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1427-1438
ABSTRACT
The importance of horse (Equus caballus) to equine practitioners and researchers cannot be ignored. An unevenly distributed population of equids harbors numerous diseases, which can affect horses of any age and breed. Among these, the affections of nervous system are potent reason for death and euthanasia in equids. Many episodes associated with the emergence of equine encephalitic conditions have also pose a threat to human population as well, which signifies their pathogenic zoonotic potential. Intensification of most of the arboviruses is associated with sophisticated interaction between vectors and hosts, which supports their transmission. The alphaviruses, bunyaviruses, and flaviviruses are the major implicated groups of viruses involved with equines/humans epizootic/epidemic. In recent years, many outbreaks of deadly zoonotic diseases such as Nipah virus, Hendra virus, and Japanese encephalitis in many parts of the globe addresses their alarming significance. The equine encephalitic viruses differ in their global distribution, transmission and main vector species involved, as discussed in this article. The current review summarizes the status, pathogenesis, pathology, and impact of equine neuro-invasive conditions of viral origin. A greater understanding of these aspects might be able to provide development of advances in neuro-protective strategies in equine population.
Keywords: bacterial diseases, seroprevalence, viral diseases.

Saturday, 2 December 2017

Seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases among the bovines in Himachal Pradesh, India

Research (Published online: 03-12-2017)
3. Seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases among the bovines in Himachal Pradesh, India
Shailja Katoch, Shweta Dohru, Mandeep Sharma, Vikram Vashist, Rajesh Chahota, Prasenjit Dhar, Aneesh Thakur and Subhash Verma
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1421-1426
Aim: The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, brucellosis, and paratuberculosis among bovine of Himachal Pradesh during the year 2013-2015.
Materials and Methods: The serum samples were collected from seven districts of state, namely, Bilaspur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Lahul and Spiti, Mandi, Sirmour, and Solan. The samples were screened using indirect ELISA kits to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases.
Results: The overall seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis was 24.24%, bovine viral diarrhea 1.52%, bovine leukemia 9.09%, bovine parainfluenza 57.58%, bovine respiratory syncytial disease 50%, brucellosis 19.69%, and paratuberculosis 9.09% in Himachal Pradesh. The seroprevalence of bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, and paratuberculosis in the state varied significantly (p<0.01) while was insignificant for bovine viral diarrhea and brucellosis (p>0.01). Multiple seropositivity has been observed in this study. Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 was observed commonly in mixed infection with almost all viruses and bacteria under study.
Conclusion: The viral and bacterial diseases are prevalent in the seven districts of Himachal Pradesh investigated in the study. Therefore, appropriate management practices and routine vaccination programs should be adopted to reduce the prevalence of these diseases.
Keywords: bacterial diseases, seroprevalence, viral diseases.

Friday, 1 December 2017

Ocular squamous cell carcinoma in Holstein cows from the South of Brazil

Research (Published online: 01-12-2017)
2. Ocular squamous cell carcinoma in Holstein cows from the South of Brazil
Gabrielle A. Fornazari, Juliana Kravetz, Matti Kiupel, Dodd Sledge, Ivan Roque De Barros Filho and Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1413-1420
ABSTRACT
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate 10 cases of bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) diagnosed in Holstein or Holstein-crosses cows.
Materials and Methods: The investigation was performed exclusively in OSCC cases diagnosed in the State of Parana and Santa Catarina. A combination of two previously existing histopathological classifications systems was used. The tissue samples were tested for immunoexpression of p53 and p16 and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bovine herpesvirus and papillomavirus.
Results: A positive correlation between number of mitotic figures and tissue invasion was found. Anaplasia parameters did not correlate well with tumor invasion of deeper tissues and mitotic counts. Six of 10 OSCC cases were in animals with heavily pigmented eyes. Immunoexpression of p53 and p16 was observed in 3 cases each. Bovine herpesvirus and papillomavirus were not detected by PCR.
Conclusion: Our results indicate that OSCC occurrence is most likely multifactorial with genetic, phenotypic, and environmental influences contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease.
Keywords: bovine, histologic classification, ophthalmology, p16, p53, tumor behavior.

Effect of feed supplement and additives on stress mitigation in Karan Fries heifers

Research (Published online: 01-12-2017)
1. Effect of feed supplement and additives on stress mitigation in Karan Fries heifers
Vaibhav Purwar, P. S. Oberoi and A. K. Dang
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1407-1412
ABSTRACT
Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of protected fat plus yeast, niacin, zinc, and chromium dietary supplementation on the reduction of heat stress in Karan Fries (KF) heifers during hot humid months.

Materials and Methods: The basal ration for both the control and treatment groups was the same, containing maize as green fodder and concentrate mixture. However, the treatment group was supplemented with protected fat (2.5% of dry matter intake [DMI]), yeast (10 g/animal/day), niacin (6 g/animal/day), zinc (40 mg/kg DMI), and chromium (1.5 mg/kg DMI).

Results: The overall mean value of afternoon rectal temperature for control and treatment group was 103.17±0.09 and 102.72±0.10°F, respectively, and was significantly (p<0.01) lower in the treatment group. The overall mean value of afternoon respiration rate for control and treatment group was 76.35±0.56 and 73.13±0.58 breaths/min, respectively, and was also significantly (p<0.01) lower in the treatment group. The overall mean value of afternoon pulse rate for control and treatment group was 97.09±0.63 and 94.67±0.67 beats/minute, respectively, and was also significantly (p<0.01) lower in the treatment group. Finally, the mean cortisol concentration for control and treatment group was 3.94±0.05 ng/ml and 3.70±0.06 ng/ml, respectively, and was significantly (p<0.01) lower in the treatment group.

Conclusion: The present study shows that supplementation with the above feed additives could serve as a heat stress abatement strategy in growing KF heifers during extreme conditions in summer months.

Keywords: feed supplement, heat stress, hot humid, Karan Fries.

Thursday, 30 November 2017

Pathology and polymerase chain reaction detection of ovine progressive pneumonia (maedi) cases in slaughtered sheep in India

Research (Published online: 30-11-2017)
20. Pathology and polymerase chain reaction detection of ovine progressive pneumonia (maedi) cases in slaughtered sheep in India
Rahul Singh, Pawan Kumar, Rajendra Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Swati Kumari, Jay Prakash Yadav, Gayatri Kashyap, Karam Pal Singh, Vidya Singh and Monalisa Sahoo
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1401-1406
ABSTRACT
Aim: The small ruminant lentiviruses are known to cause maedi-visna (MV) and caprine arthritis - encephalitis in sheep and goats, typically affecting joints, udder, lungs, and the central nervous system. The diagnosis usually involves serology, clinical signs, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the present study, the histopathologically positive pneumonia cases of MV were confirmed by PCR in lung tissue probably for the first time in India.
Materials and Methods: A total of 888 lungs of adult sheep, aged between 2 and 5 years, were screened during slaughter, of which 121 were found to have pneumonic lesions. The tissues from each pneumonic lung including associated lymph nodes were collected in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathology. The frozen tissues of the same were also collected and stored at -20°C for PCR confirmation.
Results: Three of 121 cases of pneumonic lungs of sheep revealed gross and histopathological lesions suggestive of maedi or ovine progressive pneumonia infection. These 3 cases were further confirmed by PCR technique that amplified 291-base pair DNA in the long terminal repeat sequence of MV provirus.
Conclusion: This study suggests the low occurrence of MV virus (MVV) infection in India in naturally affected sheep based on pathomorphological lesions and using the molecular tool of PCR detection of the virus in tissues. Further, a combination of pathomorphology or/and PCR testing might be optimal for detecting the animals infected with MVV.
Keywords: histopathology, maedi-visna, ovine progressive pneumonia, polymerase chain reaction, small ruminant lentiviruses.


Wednesday, 29 November 2017

Plastination of macroparasites: An eco-friendly method of long-term preservation

Research (Published online: 29-11-2017)
19. Plastination of macroparasites: An eco-friendly method of long-term preservation
Niranjan Kumar, Bhupamani Das, Jayesh B. Solanki, Mehul M. Jadav and Ramasamy Menaka
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1394-1400
ABSTRACT
Aim: Preservation of macroparasites by infiltrating the polymer in the tissues can defy the inherited shortcoming of classical wet preservation method.
Materials and Methods: Preservation was done by infiltrating the melamine alone or with xylene (MX)/chloroform (MC)/turpentine oil (MT) in 1:1 and hardener (MH) in 9:1 ratio in the tissues of the gross specimen of the animal parasites.
Results: The plastinated models withstand the process of microbial decomposition, and remain intact in the environmental conditions. The polymer mixture resists the entry of the water molecule, and model dried just after taking out it from the water tank. Overall, the plastinated parasites were dry, non-sticky, glossy, odorless, chemical free, and harmless, to some extent flexible, with detectable morphological structure, and retain their natural form but lost their natural color. Full marks were assigned to the degree of dryness, non-stickiness, and odorlessness to the model plastinated in different solutions on a five-point scale. For flexibility, the score was 1.2, 2.2, and 2.4 for the plastinated model in melamine/MH, MX/MC, and MT solutions, respectively. The average score of glossiness was 4.6 and 5 for the specimen plastinated in melamine/MH and MX/MC/MT solutions, respectively. The degree of dryness, glossiness, stickiness, and flexibility varies non-significantly, with the polymer mixtures used.
Conclusion: The prepared model can be used to educate the students/general mass population.
Keywords: macroparasites, melamine, plastination, preservation.

Tuesday, 28 November 2017

Mingling of human and veterinary strains of Staphylococcus aureus: An emerging issue in health-care systems

Research (Published online: 28-11-2017)
12. Mingling of human and veterinary strains of Staphylococcus aureus: An emerging issue in health-care systems - Sara Giordana Rimoldi, Annamaria Di Gregorio, Vittorio Sala, Eleonora De Faveri, Cristina Pagani, Pietro Olivieri, Claudio Savi, Anna Lisa Ridolfo, Antona Carlo and Maria Rita Gismondo
International Journal of One Health, 3: 77-82

doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2017.77-82

Abstract

Aim: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus remains a leading cause of hospital and community infections. We report a retrospective molecular characterization of S. aureus strains from different settings: hospital workers and patients, and veterinarian surgeons and pets.
Materials and Methods: Eighty-nine S. aureus isolates obtained from nasal swabs of 10 patients, 17 health-care workers (HCWs), 9 pets, and 53 veterinarians were genotypically characterized by means of repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (Rep PCR) and whole-genome sequencing.
Results: Thirteen different sequence types (STs) were detected: ST398, ST22, ST8, ST30, ST15, ST5, ST121, ST45, ST10, ST6, ST34, ST97, and ST1. Two new STs differing from ST22 and ST5 for a single multilocus sequence typing gene were also identified. Rep PCR documented a genetic relationship among isolates obtained from 5 veterinarians and 10 HCWs.
Conclusion: The large diversity of S. aureus strains detected may reflect a larger epidemiology within the hospital and community, in which companion animals likely act as a reservoir. We identified the circulation of ST5, ST8, ST15, ST22, ST30, ST45, and ST121 both in the hospital and veterinarian environment. Starting from the idea of a unique setting where our population lives, we consider the relationship between community- and hospital-acquired S. aureus.
Keywords: health-care workersmultilocus sequence typing, S. aureus, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, pets, veterinarians.

Monday, 27 November 2017

Molecular analysis of genome segment-3 of bluetongue virus serotype 12 isolates from Haryana

Research (Published online: 28-11-2017)
18. Molecular analysis of genome segment-3 of bluetongue virus serotype 12 isolates from Haryana
Anita Dalal, Sushila Maan, Nitish Bansal, Vinay Kumar, Aman Kumar, Narender Singh Maan and Naresh Kumar Kakker
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1389-1393
ABSTRACT
Aim: The present study was designed to characterize the genome segment 3 (Seg-3) of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 12 isolates from different outbreaks of Bluetongue disease in Haryana, India.
Materials and Methods: Blood and swab samples were collected from goat and sheep suspected to be suffering of BT from different outbreaks from Gurugram, Sirsa, Hisar, and Karnal districts of Haryana. The samples were grown in insect and mammalian cell lines. After preliminary identification, serotyping was done using BTV type-specific quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays. Sequencing was performed using terminal and walking internal primers specific for Seg-3 on ABI Capillary Sequencer 3130 using a "BigDye cycle sequencing kit." The obtained sequence data were analyzed with various bioinformatic tools.
Results: Real-time PCR results confirmed the samples to be positive for BTV-12. The Seg-3 of Indian isolates was most closely related to that of a south Indian isolate of BTV-12 from Andhra Pradesh (KC662614) with 97% nucleotide identity.
Conclusion: The study confirmed the circulation of BTV-12 in Haryana, India. The variations shown in genome Seg-3 of BTV-12 isolates may have some significance and need to be further explored.
Keywords: bluetongue, bluetongue virus-12, genome segment-3, Haryana, real time, serotype, sequencing.

Sunday, 26 November 2017

Application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay in the detection of herpesvirus of turkey (FC 126 strain) from chicken samples in Nigeria

Research (Published online: 26-11-2017)
17. Application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay in the detection of herpesvirus of turkey (FC 126 strain) from chicken samples in Nigeria
A. J. Adedeji, P. A. Abdu, P. D. Luka, A. A. Owoade and T. M. Joannis
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1383-1388
ABSTRACT
Aim: This study was designed to optimize and apply the use of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) as an alternative to conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) (FC 126 strain) in vaccinated and non-vaccinated poultry in Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: HVT positive control (vaccine) was used for optimization of LAMP using six primers that target the HVT070 gene sequence of the virus. These primers can differentiate HVT, a Marek's disease virus (MDV) serotype 3 from MDV serotypes 1 and 2. Samples were collected from clinical cases of Marek's disease (MD) in chickens, processed and subjected to LAMP and PCR.
Results: LAMP assay for HVT was optimized. HVT was detected in 60% (3/5) and 100% (5/5) of the samples analyzed by PCR and LAMP, respectively. HVT was detected in the feathers, liver, skin, and spleen with average DNA purity of 3.05-4.52 μg DNA/mg (A260/A280) using LAMP. Conventional PCR detected HVT in two vaccinated and one unvaccinated chicken samples, while LAMP detected HVT in two vaccinated and three unvaccinated corresponding chicken samples. However, LAMP was a faster and simpler technique to carry out than PCR.
Conclusion: LAMP assay for the detection of HVT was optimized. LAMP and PCR detected HVT in clinical samples collected. LAMP assay can be a very good alternative to PCR for detection of HVT and other viruses. This is the first report of the use of LAMP for the detection of viruses of veterinary importance in Nigeria. LAMP should be optimized as a diagnostic and research tool for investigation of poultry diseases such as MD in Nigeria.
Keywords: herpesvirus of turkeys, loop-mediated isothermal amplification procedure, Nigeria.

Friday, 24 November 2017

Clinical, pathological, and molecular investigation of Mycoplasma pulmonis-induced murine respiratory mycoplasmosis in a rat (Rattus norvegicus) colony

Research (Published online: 25-11-2017)
16. Clinical, pathological, and molecular investigation of Mycoplasma pulmonis-induced murine respiratory mycoplasmosis in a rat (Rattus norvegicus) colony
Saurabh Chawla, Sarita Jena, Balaji Venkatsan, Kuna Mahara and Nilanjan Sahu
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1378-1382
ABSTRACT
Aim: Mycoplasma pulmonis (MP) remains potentially important rodent pathogen causing murine respiratory mycoplasmosis (MRM) which may go undiagnosed due to its asymptomatic nature. In the present study, we carried out clinical, pathological, and molecular investigations of MP-induced MRM in a rat colony.
Materials and Methods: Two female Wistar rats were observed to be diseased in animal facility of NISER, Bhubaneswar, and were kept in isolation for further investigation. Both the animals were found to be positive for MP after serological and molecular tests. Thereafter, whole rat colony comprising of 36 animals was segregated based on clinical symptoms and further sampled for histopathological, serological, and molecular investigations. Tracheal washing and infected lung tissue were collected during necropsy examination for DNA extraction. Molecular diagnosis was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using species-specific primers.
Results: Classical symptoms of MP-associated respiratory tract infection were observed in only 2 of 36 infected animals, and most of the animals were found asymptomatic to the disease; however, all the animals were found to be carrier after necropsy and PCR assay. Gross and histopathological finding suggested severe congestion of the lungs along with suppurative and necrotizing pneumonia. The disease is confirmed by molecular diagnosis using species-specific primers in PCR assay.
Conclusion: MRM may go undiagnosed due to asymptomatic nature. Detailed study of clinical symptoms, pathology, serology, and PCR-based molecular approach may aid in health monitoring and detection of MRM in a rodent colony reared for experimental purpose.
Keywords: murine respiratory mycoplasmosis, Mycoplasma pulmonis, polymerase chain reaction, rat colony.

Metabolic and immunological changes in transition dairy cows: A review

Review (Published online: 24-11-2017)
15. Metabolic and immunological changes in transition dairy cows: A review
Pratik Ramesh Wankhade, A. Manimaran, A. Kumaresan, S. Jeyakumar, K. P. Ramesha, V. Sejian, D. Rajendran and Minu Rachel Varghese
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1367-1377
ABSTRACT
Smooth transition from pregnancy to lactation is important for high productive and reproductive performance during later postpartum period in dairy animals. On the other hand, the poor transition often leads to huge economic loss to dairy farmers due to compromised production and reproduction. Therefore, understanding the causes and consequence of metabolic changes during the transition period is very important for postpartum health management. In this review, metabolic changes with reference to negative energy balance in transition cow and its effect on health and reproduction during the later postpartum period in dairy animals are discussed besides the role of metabolic inflammation in postpartum performance in dairy animals.
Keywords: acute phase proteins, dairy cows, inflammatory cytokines, negative energy balance, transition period.

Tuesday, 21 November 2017

Advances in genome editing for improved animal breeding: A review

Review (Published online: 21-11-2017)
14. Advances in genome editing for improved animal breeding: A review
Shakil Ahmad Bhat, Abrar Ahad Malik, Syed Mudasir Ahmad, Riaz Ahmad Shah, Nazir Ahmad Ganai, Syed Shanaz Shafi and Nadeem Shabir
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1361-1366
ABSTRACT
Since centuries, the traits for production and disease resistance are being targeted while improving the genetic merit of domestic animals, using conventional breeding programs such as inbreeding, outbreeding, or introduction of marker-assisted selection. The arrival of new scientific concepts, such as cloning and genome engineering, has added a new and promising research dimension to the existing animal breeding programs. Development of genome editing technologies such as transcription activator-like effector nuclease, zinc finger nuclease, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats systems begun a fresh era of genome editing, through which any change in the genome, including specific DNA sequence or indels, can be made with unprecedented precision and specificity. Furthermore, it offers an opportunity of intensification in the frequency of desirable alleles in an animal population through gene-edited individuals more rapidly than conventional breeding. The specific research is evolving swiftly with a focus on improvement of economically important animal species or their traits all of which form an important subject of this review. It also discusses the hurdles to commercialization of these techniques despite several patent applications owing to the ambiguous legal status of genome-editing methods on account of their disputed classification. Nonetheless, barring ethical concerns gene-editing entailing economically important genes offers a tremendous potential for breeding animals with desirable traits.
Keywords: animal breeding, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats /Cas9, genome editing, transcription activator-like effector nuclease, zinc finger nucleases.

Sunday, 19 November 2017

The clinical impact of antimicrobial resistance genomics in competition with she-camels recurrent mastitis metabolomics due to heterogeneous Bacillus licheniformis field isolates

Research (Published online: 20-11-2017)
13. The clinical impact of antimicrobial resistance genomics in competition with she-camels recurrent mastitis metabolomics due to heterogeneous Bacillus licheniformis field isolates
Nesreen Allam Tantawy Allam, Doaa Sedky and Enshrah Khalil Mira
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1353-1360
ABSTRACT
Background and Aim: Recently, cases of mastitis refractory to treatment have been reported frequently. There are limited routine laboratory investigations on Camelidae infections. Mastitis has been estimated to affect more than 25% of lactating she-camel with up to 70% milk loss. The details of Bacillus spp. pathogenesis in mastitis are not yet fully described. The present study is the first detailed phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Bacillus licheniformis isolates from recurrent mastitic she-camels with sepsis in Egypt.
Materials and Methods: The udders of 100 she-camels were investigated, samples collected from smallholders' farmers in 10 localities within three governorates in Egypt: Marsa Matrouh, Giza, and Sharkia governorates. The pathogens ascend from udder inducing abortion at different trimesters of pregnancy. Polymerase chain reactions-mediated proofs of identity were applied for diagnostic and taxonomic purposes, where the 16S rRNA gene sequence and the β subunit of RNA polymerase encoding gene rpoB are the molecular targets.
Results: The genetic elements classified the subspecies to B. licheniformis 61.4%, in addition to, Corynebacterium bovis 29.8%. The somatic cell count (≤1x107 cells/ml) and California mastitis test reactivity (+3 or +4) of milk clinically classified the she-camels population (n=100) under investigation into 50, 20, and 30 as healthy, subclinical, and clinical mastitic she-camels, respectively. During bacterial isolation, 80 species were noticed, of which 71.25% (57/80) and 28.75% (23/80) were Gram-positive and negative, respectively, in two clinical forms: Single (40%, n=16/40) and mixed (60%, n=34/40) bacterial infections. In vitro, 100% sensitivity for gentamycin (10 μg) and ofloxacin (5 μg) was noted; however, it was reduced to 50%. Moreover, during in vivo treatments cloxacillin (5 μg) upraised as the most effective alternative with 90% sensitivity.
Conclusion: Neither recurrent mastitis nor Bacillus species are thoroughly investigated with regard to reproduction performance in Egypt and the usefulness of these strains as antimastitis probiotics. Both persistent bacteremia and dormant endospores were formed but unaffected by standard schemes of antimicrobials injections which proposed the risk of pathogenic bacilli contaminating row milk from apparently healthy she-camel. The discrepancies between treatment results were induced by the resistance that started to develop by the organisms due to frequent and/or faulty use of applied antibiotics.
Keywords: 16S rRNA gene, antimicrobial resistance, Bacillus species, Camelidae, Egypt, probiotics, recurrent mastitis, rpoB gene.

Thursday, 16 November 2017

Reducing zoonotic and internal parasite burdens in pigs using a pig confinement system

Research (Published online: 16-11-2017)
12. Reducing zoonotic and internal parasite burdens in pigs using a pig confinement system
Kadek Karang Agustina, Ida Bagus Ngurah Swacita, Ida Bagus Made Oka, I Made Dwinata, Rebecca Justin Traub, Colin Cargill and I Made Damriyasa
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1347-1352
ABSTRACT
Aim: This study was designed to validate the effectiveness of the pig confinement system (PCS) in reducing the prevalence of zoonotic and internal parasite burdens in pigs.
Materials and Methods: Ten PCS households were selected together with 10 households practising traditional scavenging systems. Five pigs were monitored per household every 3 months for 15 months and blood and feces collected. Pigs received a single dose of oxfendazole at 30 mg/kg at baseline. Qualitative fecal examinations for intestinal parasite stages were performed, and serum was tested for antibodies to cysticercus of Taenia soliumTrichinella spp., and Toxoplasma gondii.
Results: Based on fecal examination, the prevalence of pigs positive for parasite eggs was reduced in PCS pigs over consecutive samplings (Ascaris suum [14.3% to 0%], Trichuris suis [46.9% to 8.3%], Strongyle-type eggs [81.6% to 8.3%], Physocephalus spp. [6.1% to 0%], and Metastrongylus apri [20.8% to 0%]) compared with increases in the number of pigs positive for parasite eggs in non-PCS pigs (T. suis [20-61.5%], Strongyle-type [60.4-80.8%], Physocephalus spp. [8.3-15.4%], and M. apri [20.8-34.6%]) and little change in pigs positive for A. suum (18.8-19.2%). While the prevalence of pigs with antibodies against to cysticerci of T. solium reduced in PCS pigs from 18% to 14%, the prevalence in non-PCS pigs increased from 42% to 52%. Antibodies to Trichinella were not detected, but the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies increased from 6% to 10% in PCS pigs and from 7% to 24% in non-PCS pigs.
Conclusion: These data demonstrate the potential of a PCS to reduce the prevalence of pigs infected with zoonotic and internal parasites and thus the risk to human and pig health.
Keywords: confinement, parasite, pig, system, zoonotic.

Wednesday, 15 November 2017

Determination of serum adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase activity in Kangal dogs with maternal cannibalism

Research (Published online: 15-11-2017)
11. Determination of serum adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase activity in Kangal dogs with maternal cannibalism
N. Ercan, M. Kockaya, S. Kapancik and D. Bakir
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1343-1346
ABSTRACT
Aim: Kangal dogs, known as guard dogs in many countries of the world, have been found to eat their own puppies during their first 24 h following birth, which is called as maternal cannibalism. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and xanthine oxidase (XO) are important enzymes for purine metabolism. In this study, the aim is to evaluate ADA and XO activities in Kangal dogs with maternal cannibalism.
Materials and Methods: The material of the study consists of the blood sera of Kangal dog breed with and without maternal cannibalism in the breeders around Sivas city and its districts. ADA and XO activities in blood serum of these animals were investigated by spectrophotometric method.
Results: ADA activities in Kangal dogs with maternal cannibalism were increased to the control group without maternal cannibalism (p<0.01).
Conclusion: Postnatal measurement of ADA activity in dogs may be useful in assessing maternal cannibalism.
Keywords: adeosine deaminase, Kangal dog, maternal cannibalism.