Friday, 9 June 2017
Effect of high and low roughage total mixed ration diets on rumen metabolites and enzymatic profiles in crossbred cattle and buffaloes
Aim: A comparative study was conducted on crossbred cattle and buffaloes to investigate the effect of feeding high and low roughage total mixed ration (TMR) diets on rumen metabolites and enzymatic profiles.
Materials and Methods: Three rumen-fistulated crossbred cattle and buffalo were randomly assigned as per 3x3 switch over design for 21-days. Three TMR diets consisting of concentrate mixture, wheat straw and green maize fodder in the ratios of (T1) 60:20:20, (T2) 40:30:30, and (T3) 20:40:40, respectively, were fed to the animals ad libitum. Rumen liquor samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h post feeding for the estimation of rumen biochemical parameters on 2 consecutive days in each trial.
Results: The lactic acid concentration and pH value were comparable in both species and treatments. Feed intake (99.77±2.51 g/kg body weight), ruminal ammonia nitrogen, and total nitrogen were significantly (p<0.05) higher in buffalo and in treatment group fed with high concentrate diet. Production of total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was non-significant (p>0.05) among treatments and significantly (p<0.05) greater in crossbred cattle than buffaloes. Molar proportions of individual VFAs propionate (C3), propionate:butyrate (C3:C4), and (acetate+butyrate):propionate ([C2+C4]:C3) ratio in both crossbred cattle and buffalo were not affected by high or low roughage diet, but percentage of acetate and butyrate varied significantly (p<0.05) among treatment groups. Activities of microbial enzymes were comparable among species and different treatment groups. A total number of rumen protozoa were significantly (p<0.05) higher in crossbred cattle than buffaloes along with significantly (p<0.05) higher population in animal fed with high concentrate diet (T1).
Conclusion: Rumen microbial population and fermentation depend on constituents of the treatment diet. However, microbial enzyme activity remains similar among species and different treatments. High concentrate diet increases number of rumen protozoa, and the number is higher in crossbred cattle than buffaloes.
Keywords: buffalo, crossbred cattle, rumen ecology, rumen metabolites.