Friday, 28 July 2017

Serogrouping and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from broiler chicken with colibacillosis in center of Algeria

Research (Published online: 29-07-2017)
21. Serogrouping and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from broiler chicken with colibacillosis in center of Algeria
Zehor Halfaoui, Nabil Mohamed Menoueri and Lyes Mohamed Bendali
Veterinary World, 10(7): 830-835
Aim: Colibacillosis is considered as one of the major bacterial infections in avian pathology. The excessive use of antibiotics reduced their effectiveness, which eventually led to the risk of emergence of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and serotype the pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility.
Materials and Methods: A total of 180 samples from different organs of broilers with colibacillosis lesions were collected (liver, spleen, lung, and heart) in center of Algeria. The isolation and identification of E. coliwere carried out using conventional techniques. Then, these strains were serotyped and tested over 13 antibiotics.
Results: A total of 156 strains of E. coli were isolated. Serotyping results showed that 50 strains belong to 3 serotypes (23 for O1, 11 for O2, 16 for O78) which represent 32% of isolates. The antimicrobial susceptibility test, presented high level of resistance to tetracyclines (94.12%), flumequine (91.5%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (88.89%), enrofloxacin (86.27%), nalidixic acid (85.62%), ampicillin (83.01%) and doxycycline (75.81%), medium level resistance to chloramphenicol (39.22%), and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (43.13%). All the strains were susceptible to cefotaxime, excepting three, which presented an extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). In addition, the results of multi-resistance showed that all the strains were resistant at the minimum to two antibiotics and 66.66% of strains were resistant to at least seven antibiotics.
Conclusion: The antibiotic resistance continues to rise at an alarming rate, and the emergence of ESBL is considered as a threat for public health.
Keywords: Algeria, antibiotic resistance, broilers, colibacillosis, Escherichia coli, serogrouping.

Probiotic characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from swine intestine

Research (Published online: 28-07-2017)
20. Probiotic characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from swine intestine
K. Balasingham, C. Valli, L. Radhakrishnan and D. Balasuramanyam
Veterinary World, 10(7): 825-829
Aim: A study was conducted with the objective to isolate probiotic microorganisms from swine intestine.
Materials and Methods: In this study 63 isolates (24 caeca, 24 colon mucosal scrapings, and 15 rectal swab samples) were collected from Large White Yorkshire pigs. The isolates were inoculated and grown in de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth at 37°C with 5% CO2 for 48 h and subjected to morphological identification. Colonies having Gram-positive rods were selected for further physiological and biochemical identification tests, which were conducted in triplicate in two runs for each of the selected isolates using a standard protocol. Probiotic properties among the identified species were determined through the implementation of several tests related with pH tolerance, bile tolerance, and antimicrobial activity.
Results: Morphological identification revealed that only 23 isolates were Gram-positive rods. Physiological tests performed on these 23 isolates further revealed that four of them did not exhibit any growth, at all conditions studied. The rest 19 isolates were, therefore, selected and subjected to biochemical tests. Six isolates were rejected because they were oxidase and nitrate reduction positive. From the 13 isolates subjected to sugar fermentation tests, speciation of only two isolates could be ascertained, one of the isolates showed characteristics for Lactobacillus acidophilus and the other for Lactobacillus plantarum. These two isolates were assessed for the strain possessing maximum probiotic property, and it was inferred that both - L. plantarum and L. acidophilus could tolerate a wide pH range (2-9), a wide bile concentration (0.05-0.3%) and revealed antimicrobial activity toward Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter spp.
Conclusion: L. plantarum and L. acidophilus were isolated from swine intestine and were found to have good probiotic properties.
Keywords: Lactobacillus acidophilusLactobacillus plantarum, probiotic, swine intestine.

Monday, 24 July 2017

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among patients in a teaching hospital in Ghana

Research (Published online: 25-07-2017)
8. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among patients in a teaching hospital in Ghana - Akosua Bonsu Karikari, Enoch Frimpong and Alex Owusu-Ofori
International Journal of One Health, 3: 46-49

doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2017.46-49


Aim: This study determined the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and assessed the resistance profiles of strains.
Materials and Methods: Inpatients and outpatients of all age groups presenting with sepsis as well as skin and soft tissue infections were screened from October 2006 to March 2007. Resistance to methicillin (oxacillin) and other relevant antibiotics was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) by the E-test (AB, Biodisk, Solna, Sweden).
Results: Methicillin resistance was 34.8% (87/250), majority (67/87) of which were hospital acquired MRSA. Resistance was 100% to the β-lactams, 78.2% to cotrimoxazole, 75.8% to tetracycline, 59.8% to gentamicin, 56.3% to flucloxacillin, 34.4% to erythromycin, and 32.2% to cefuroxime. MIC ranged from 4-256, 0.125-256, 0.064-32, and 1.5-32, respectively, to oxacillin, gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, and ceftriaxone.
Conclusion: Prevalence of MRSA is high in Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, and routine surveillance should be put in place to monitor the epidemiology of this pathogen.
Keywords: antibiotic resistance, Ghana, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus.

Baseline hematology and serum biochemistry results for Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca)

Research (Published online: 24-07-2017)
19. Baseline hematology and serum biochemistry results for Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca)
Arun Attur Shanmugam, Sanath Krishna Muliya, Ajay Deshmukh, Sujay Suresh, Anukul Nath, Pa Kalaignan, Manjunath Venkataravanappa and Lyju Jose
Veterinary World, 10(7): 818-824
Aim: The aim of the study was to establish the baseline hematology and serum biochemistry values for Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca), and to assess the possible variations in these parameters based on age and gender.
Materials and Methods: Hemato-biochemical test reports from a total of 83 healthy leopards, carried out as part of routine health evaluation in Bannerghatta Biological Park and Manikdoh Leopard Rescue Center, were used to establish baseline hematology and serum biochemistry parameters for the subspecies. The hematological parameters considered for the analysis included hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb (MCH), and MCH concentration. The serum biochemistry parameters considered included total protein (TP), albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, triglycerides, calcium, and phosphorus.
Results: Even though few differences were observed in hematologic and biochemistry values between male and female Indian leopards, the differences were statistically not significant. Effects of age, however, were evident in relation to many hematologic and biochemical parameters. Sub-adults had significantly greater values for Hb, TEC, and TLC compared to adults and geriatric group, whereas they had significantly lower MCV and MCH compared to adults and geriatric group. Among, serum biochemistry parameters the sub-adult age group was observed to have significantly lower values for TP and ALT than adult and geriatric leopards.
Conclusion: The study provides a comprehensive analysis of hematologic and biochemical parameters for Indian leopards. Baselines established here will permit better captive management of the subspecies, serve as a guide to assess the health and physiological status of the free ranging leopards, and may contribute valuable information for making effective management decisions during translocation or rehabilitation process.
Keywords: hematology, Indian leopard, Panthera pardus fusca, serum biochemistry.

Sunday, 23 July 2017

Characterization of Salmonella Gallinarum isolates from backyard poultry by polymerase chain reaction detection of invasion (invA) and Salmonella plasmid virulence (spvC) genes

Research (Published online: 23-07-2017)
18. Characterization of Salmonella Gallinarum isolates from backyard poultry by polymerase chain reaction detection of invasion (invA) and Salmonella plasmid virulence (spvC) genes
Susmita Pal, Samir Dey, Kunal Batabyal, Abhiroop Banerjee, Siddhartha Narayan Joardar, Indranil Samanta and Devi Prasad Isore
Veterinary World, 10(7): 814-817
Aim: The aim was to characterize Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum isolated from backyard poultry by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of virulence genes invasion (invA) and Salmonella plasmid virulence C (spvC).
Materials and Methods: Two strains of Salmonella serovar Gallinarum isolates used in this study were obtained from an outbreak of fowl typhoid in backyard Vanaraja fowl. PCR technique was used for detection of invA and spvC genes using standard methodology. The invA PCR product from one representative isolate was sequenced and compared with other related Salmonella serovars in GenBank data.
Results: Salmonella Gallinarum produced expected amplicons of invA and spvC gene products. Nucleotide sequence of 285 bp invA gene was deposited in GenBank with accession no. KX788214. Sequence analysis of invA gene was found conserved in Salmonella serovars and demonstrated 100% homology with closely related serovars of Salmonella.
Conclusion: Invasion gene (invA) was found to be highly conserved in Salmonella Gallinarum and highly similar with closely related serovars. The isolates also contained plasmid-mediated spvC gene indicating possession of virulence plasmid.
Keywords: invA, polymerase chain reaction, Salmonella Gallinarum, Salmonella plasmid virulence C, virulence genes.

Effects of herbal ointment containing the leaf extracts of Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) for burn wound healing process on albino rats

Research (Published online: 23-07-2017)
17. Effects of herbal ointment containing the leaf extracts of Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) for burn wound healing process on albino rats
Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti and Bambang Sektiari Lukiswanto
Veterinary World, 10(7): 808-813
Aim: Skin burn is a health problem that requires fast and accurate treatment. If not well-treated, the burn will cause various damaging conditions for the patient. The leaf extract of Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis), or popularly known as Binahong in Indonesia, has been used to treat various diseases. The purpose of this research is to determine the effects of leaf extracts of Madeira vine (A. cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) on skin burn healing process in rats as an animal model.

Materials and Methods: In this research, there were four treatment groups: G0, G1, G2, and G3, each consisting of five rats. All these rats were given skin burns, using hot metal plates. Then, sulfadiazine was given to G0, 2.5% leaf extract of Madeira vine was given to G1, 5% extract was given to G2, and 10% extract was given to G3, for straight 14 days topically, 3 times a day. At the end of the treatment period, skin excisions were conducted, and histopathological examination was carried out.

Results: Microscopic observation on the wound healing process on the collagen deposition, polymorphonuclear infiltration, angiogenesis, and fibrosis showed that G2 had a significant difference with G0, G1, and G3 (p<0.05), while group G0 was significantly different from G1 and G3 (p<0.05). The better burn healing process on G2 allegedly because of the activity of flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, contained in the Madeira vine, which have the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects.

Conclusion: The ointment from the 5% leaf extract of Madeira vine (A. cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) has been proven to be effective to be used for topical burn therapy.

Keywords: burn wound, leaf extract of Madeira vine, wound healing.

Thursday, 20 July 2017

Antibiotic and heavy metal resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) coinfected with motile aeromonas septicemia and edwardsiellosis

Research (Published online: 21-07-2017)
16. Antibiotic and heavy metal resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) coinfected with motile aeromonas septicemia and edwardsiellosis
S. W. Lee and W. Wendy
Veterinary World, 10(7): 803-807
Aim: The aim of this study is to identify antibiogram and heavy metal resistance pattern of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) coinfected with motile aeromonas septicemia and edwardsiellosis in four commercial fish farms.
Materials and Methods: A. hydrophila and E. tarda were isolated using glutamate starch phenol red and xylose lysine deoxycholate (Merck, Germany) as a selective medium, respectively. All the suspected bacterial colonies were identified using conventional biochemical tests and commercial identification kit (BBL Crystal, USA). Susceptibility testing of present bacterial isolates to 16 types of antibiotics (nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, compound sulfonamides, doxycycline, tetracycline, novobiocin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, sulfamethoxazole, flumequine, erythromycin, ampicillin, spiramycin, oxytetracycline, amoxicillin, and fosfomycin) and four types of heavy metals (mercury, chromium, copper, and zinc) were carried out using disk diffusion and two-fold agar dilution method, respectively.
Results: Three hundred isolates of A. hydrophila and E. tarda were successfully identified by biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility testing results showed that 42.2% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to compound sulfonamides, sulfamethoxazole, flumequine, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, and oxolinic acid. On the other hand, 41.6% of these isolates were resistant to novobiocin, ampicillin, spiramycin, and chloramphenicol, which resulted for multiple antibiotic resistance index values 0.416. Among tested heavy metals, bacterial isolates exhibited resistant pattern of Zn2+ > Cr6+ > Cu2+ > Hg2+.
Conclusion: Results from this study indicated that A. hydrophila and E. tarda isolated from coinfected farmed red hybrid tilapia were multi-resistant to antibiotics and heavy metals. These resistant profiles could be useful information to fish farmers to avoid unnecessary use of antimicrobial products in the health management of farmed red hybrid tilapia.
Keywords: antibiotic, edwardsiellosis, heavy metal, motile aeromonas septicemia, multiple antibiotic resistance index, red hybrid tilapia.

Wednesday, 19 July 2017

Identification of Toxocara spp. eggs in dog hair and associated risk factors

Research (Published online: 20-07-2017)
15. Identification of Toxocara spp. eggs in dog hair and associated risk factors
Tania O. Rojas, Camilo Romero, Rafael Heredia, Linda G. Bautista and Galia Sheinberg
Veterinary World, 10(7): 798-802
Aim: The aim of the study was to identify the presence of eggs of Toxocara spp. in dog hair and to identify any risk factors associated with this.

Materials and Methods: A total of 96 dogs were sampled collecting hair from the head, perianal and hindquarters. Epidemiologic data from each animal were recorded to identify risk factors. The samples of hair were washed with solutions of distilled water, phosphate-buffered saline and Tween 20 detergent. Microscopic analysis was subsequently performed for the identification of eggs.

Results: Out of the total dogs, 41.7% were positive for the presence of parasite egg in their hair. Toxocara eggs were found in hair from the head (14.5%), tail (20.8%), and limbs (10.4%). Dogs, younger than 12 months old, showed higher values (4.7%) of egg presence in the perianal area (p<0.05). The principal risk factors for the presence of eggs in hair were not deworming (odds ratio [OR]=3.60, p<0.004) and not brushing (OR=2.26, p<0.12).

Conclusion: These results show that in the state of Mexico there is a high percentage of dogs contaminated with Toxocara spp. eggs in their hair. This should be seriously considered due to the potential problems of toxocariasis and the risk to public health.

Keywords: dog hair, public health, risk factors, Toxocara eggs.

Phenotypic approach artemisinin resistance in malaria rodent as in vivo model

Research (Published online: 19-07-2017)
14. Phenotypic approach artemisinin resistance in malaria rodent as in vivo model
Lilik Maslachah, Thomas V. Widiyatno, Lita Rakhma Yustinasari and Hani Plumeriastuti
Veterinary World, 10(7): 790-797
Aim: The aim of this study is to prove the development of artemisinin resistance phenotypically in malaria rodent as an in vivo resistance development model in humans.
Materials and Methods: Plasmodium berghei was infected intraperitoneally in mice, then artemisinin was given with "4-day-test" with effective dose (ED) 99% dose for 3 days which begins 48 h after infection (D2, D3, and D4). Parasite development was followed during 5th until 10th days of infection. After parasitemia >2% of red blood cell which contains parasites on 1 mice, that mice were used as donor to be passaged on the new 5 mice. After that, parasitemia was calculated. ED50 and ED90 were examined with parasite clearance time (PCT), recrudescence time (RT), and also morphology development examination of intraerythrocytic cycle of P. berghei with transmission electron microscope.
Results: Among the control group compare with the treatment group showed significant differences at α=0.05 on 5th day (D5) until 10th day (D10). The control group of 4th passage (K4) with passage treatment group of 4th passage (P4) on the 10th days (D10) post infection showed no significant differences in the α=0.05. The average percentage of inhibition growth was decreasing which is started from 5th to 10th day post infection in P1, P2, P3, and P4. On the development of P. berghei stage, which is given repeated artemisinin and repeated passage, there was a formation of dormant and also vacuoles in Plasmodium that exposed to the drug.
Conclusion: Exposure to artemisinin with repeated passages in mice increased the value of ED50 and ED90, decreased the PCT and RT and also changes in morphology dormant and vacuole formation.
Keywords: artemisinin, parasite clearance time, phenotypic, Plasmodium berghei, recrudescence time, resistance.

Tuesday, 18 July 2017

Depiction of global trends in publications on mobile health

Research (Published online: 18-07-2017)
7. Depiction of global trends in publications on mobile health - Shahla Foozonkhah and Leila R. Kalankesh
International Journal of One Health, 3: 36-41

doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2017.42-45


Background: Variety of mobile health initiatives in different levels have been undertaken across many countries. Trends of these initiatives can be reflected in the research published in m-health domain.
Aim: This paper aims to depict global trends in the published works on m-health topic.
Materials and Methods: The Web of Science database was used to identify all relevant published papers on mobile health domain worldwide. The search was conducted on documents published from January 1898 to December 2014. The criteria for searching were set to be “mHealth” or “Mobile health” or “m health” or “m_health” or “m-health” in topics.
Results: Findings revealed an increasing trend of citations and publications on m-health research since 2012. English was the first most predominant language of the publication. The US had the highest number of publication with 649 papers; however, the Netherlands ranked first after considering publication number in terms of countries population. “Studies in Health Technology and Informatics” was the source title with highest number of publications on mobile health topics.
Conclusion: Trend of research observed in this study indicates the continuing growth is happening in mobile health domain. This may imply that the new model of health-care delivery is emerging. Further research is needed to specify directions of mobile health research. It is necessary to identify and prioritize the research gaps in this domain.
Keywords: mHealth, mobile health, publication trend, research trend, scientometrics.

Association between the swine production areas and the human population in Pinar del Río province, Cuba

Research (Published online: 18-07-2017)
6Association between the swine production areas and the human population in Pinar del Río province, Cuba - Osvaldo Fonseca, Kleber Régis Santoro, Pastor Alfonso, Joel Ayala, María Antonia Abeledo, Octavio Fernández, Yosdany Centelles, Damarys de las Nieves Montano and María Irian Percedo
International Journal of One Health, 3: 36-41

  doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2017.36-41


Aim: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the association between high human population density and high pig production in the province of Pinar del Río, Cuba.
Materials and Methods: Records on pig movements at the district level in Pinar del Río province from July 2010 to December 2012 were used in the study. A network analysis was carried out considering districts, as nodes, and movements of pigs between them represented the edges. The in-degree parameter was calculated using R 3.1.3 software. Graphical representation of the network was done with Gephi 0.8.2, and ArcGIS 10.2. was used for the spatial analysis to detect clusters by the Getis-Ord Gi* method and visualize maps as well.
Results: Significant spatial clusters of high values (hot spots) and low values (cold spots) of in-degree were identified. A cluster of high values was located in the central area of the province, and a cluster of low values involving municipalities of the Western zone was detected. Logistic regression demonstrated that a higher human population density per district was associated (odds ratio=16.020, 95% confidence interval: 1.692-151.682, p=0.016) with areas of high pork production.
Conclusion: Hot spot of swine production in Pinar del Río is associated with human densely populated districts, which may suppose a risk of spillover of pathogens able to infect animals and humans. These results can be considered in strategy planning in terms of pork production increases and improvements of sanitary, commercial, and economic policies by decision-makers.
Keywords: cluster, Getis-Ord, logistic regression, network analysis, swine.

Sunday, 16 July 2017

Alterations in lipid profile in neonatal calves affected by diarrhea

Research (Published online: 16-07-2017)
13. Alterations in lipid profile in neonatal calves affected by diarrhea
K. Bozukluhan, O. Merhan, H. I. Gokce, H. A. Deveci, G. Gokce, M. Ogun and S. Marasli

Veterinary World, 10(7): 786-789
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the alterations in the lipid profile, plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, total and direct bilirubin levels of neonatal calves with diarrhea.

Materials and Methods: A total of 25 calves with diarrhea as experimental group and 10 healthy calves as control group, 1-30 days old, were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein in tubes with anticoagulant agent to evaluate the concentration of triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), ALP, total and direct bilirubin. Very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were calculated according to the Friedewald formula.

Results: Significant increases in the plasma levels of ALP (p<0.05), total and direct bilirubin, triglycerides, and VLDL-C (p<0.01) were determined, whereas significant decreases in the levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C (p<0.01) were observed in neonatal calves with diarrhea.

Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, liver functions impaired and, therefore, lipid profile is affected negatively in neonatal calves with diarrhea.

Keywords: calves, cholesterol, diarrhea, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides.

Saturday, 15 July 2017

Semen characteristics, extension, and cryopreservation of Rusa deer (Rusa timorensis)

Research (Published online: 15-07-2017)
12. Semen characteristics, extension, and cryopreservation of Rusa deer (Rusa timorensis)
Wan-Nor Fitri, Haron Wahid, Yusoff Rosnina, Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse, Zainal Abidin Aimi-Sarah, Mohd Lila Mohd-Azmi, Che' Amat Azlan, Muhammad Rashid Azrolharith, Innocent Damudu Peter and Falah Hasan Ali Baiee
Veterinary World, 10(7): 779-785
Aim: The objective of this research is to report parameters for breeding soundness evaluation, semen extension, and cryopreservation in Rusa timorensis.
Materials and Methods: Seven healthy stags were chosen for semen collection using an electroejaculator. The collections were performed twice in a breeding season between February and June 2016. Samples were collected between 2 and 3 weeks interval, collected twice for each animal. Semen was evaluated, extended, and cryopreserved using four different extenders; Andromed®, BioXcell®, Triladyl®, and a modified Tris-egg yolk combined with Eurycoma longifolia Jack.
Results: R. timorensis semen characteristics according to volume (ml), color, sperm concentration (106/ml), general motility (%), progressive motility (%), and % morphology of normal spermatozoa are 0.86±0.18 ml, thin milky to milky, 1194.2±346.1 106/ml, 82.9±2.8%, 76.1±4.8%, and 83.9±4.8%, respectively.
Conclusion: Semen characteristics of R. timorensis collected by electroejaculation is good allowing for cryopreservation and future artificial insemination work. The most suitable extender for Rusa deer semen is Andromed®.
Keywords: cryopreservation, electroejaculation, extension, Rusa deer, semen characteristics.

Thursday, 13 July 2017

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli in diarrheic buffalo calves

Research (Published online: 13-07-2017)
11. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli in diarrheic 
buffalo calves
M. Srivani, Y. Narasimha Reddy, K. V. Subramanyam, M. Ramakoti Reddy and T. Srinivasa Rao
Veterinary World, 10(7): 774-778
Aim: Aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence, virulence gene profiles, and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) in diarrheic buffalo calves from Andhra Pradesh and Telangana States.
Materials and Methods: A total of 375 fecal samples from diarrheic buffalo calves of 1-7, 8-30, 31-60, and 61-90 days age were collected from which STEC were isolated, and virulence genes were detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The antimicrobial resistance of isolates was tested by disk diffusion method.
Results: The prevalence of E. coli associated diarrhea in buffalo calves was 85.04%, of which 35.01% was STEC origin. In STEC, the combination of eaeA and, hlyA virulence genes was highest (42.45%) followed by stx1(16.04%), stx1stx2 and hlyA (13.21%), stx2 (12.64%), stx1eae and hlyA (9.43%) and stx1 and hlyA (6.6%) genes were detected. Highest antimicrobial resistance was observed for tetracycline (63.21%) and ampicillin (48.11%), while chloramphenicol, gentamycin (96.33%) and imipenem (99.06%) antibiotics are susceptible. Multidrug resistance was detected in 69.81% of the STEC isolates from diarrheic buffalo calves.
Conclusion: Higher prevalence of eaeA and hlyA genes carrying isolates of STEC may be a serious zoonotic threat and increased prevalence of multidrug resistance in E. coli may necessitate stringent selection of appropriate antimicrobial agent in treating buffalo calf diarrhea cases.
Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, buffalo calf diarrheia, Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli, virulence genes.

Tuesday, 11 July 2017

Serotyping, antibiotic susceptibility, and virulence genes screening of Escherichia coli isolates obtained from diarrheic buffalo calves in Egyptian farms

Research (Published online: 11-07-2017)
10. Serotyping, antibiotic susceptibility, and virulence genes screening of Escherichia coli isolates obtained from diarrheic buffalo calves in Egyptian farms
Ashraf S. Hakim, Shimaa T. Omara, Sohier M. Syame and Ehab A. Fouad
Veterinary World, 10(7): 769-773
Aim: In Egypt as in many other countries, river water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is considered an important source of high-quality milk and meat supply. The objective of this study was to investigate serotypes, virulence genes, and antibiotic resistance determinants profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from buffalo at some places in Egypt; noticibly, this issue was not discussed in the country yet.
Materials and Methods: A number of 58 rectal samples were collected from diarrheic buffalo calves in different regions in Egypt, and bacteriological investigated for E. coli existence. The E. coli isolates were biochemically, serologicaly identified, tested for antibiotic susceptibility, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyzed for the presence of antibiotic resistance determinants and virulence genes.
Results: Overall 14 isolates typed as E. coli (24.1%); 6 were belonged to serogroup O78 (10.3%), followed by O125 (4 isolates, 6.9%), then O158 (3 isolates, 5.2%) and one isolate O8 (1.7%), among them, there were 5 E. coli isolates showed a picture of hemolysis (35.7%). The isolates exhibited a high resistance to β lactams over 60%, followed by sulfa (50%) and aminoglucoside (42.8%) group, in the same time the isolates were sensitive to quinolone, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline (100%), and cephalosporine groups (71.4%). A multiplex PCR was applied to the 14 E. coli isolates revealed that all were carrying at least one gene, as 10 carried blaTEM (71.4%), 8 Sul1 (57.1%), and 6 aadB (42.8%), and 9 isolates could be considered multidrug resistant (MDR) by an incidence of 64.3%. A PCR survey was stratified for the most important E. coli virulence genes, and showed the presence of Shiga toxins in 9 isolates carried either one or the two Stx genes (64.3%), 5 isolates carried hylA gene (35.7%), and eae in 2 isolates only (14.3%), all isolates carried at least one virulence gene except two (85.7%).
Conclusion: The obtained data displayed that in Egypt, buffalo as well as other ruminants could be a potential source of MDR pathogenic E. coli variants which have a public health importance.
Keywords: antibiotic resistance determinants, buffalo, Egypt, Escherichia coli, virulence.

Monday, 10 July 2017

Effects of commonly used chemical fertilizers on development of free-living stages of Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected pasture

Research (Published online: 10-07-2017)
9. Effects of commonly used chemical fertilizers on development of free-living stages of Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected pasture
Tapas Kumar Roul, Mitra Rajan Panda, Bijayendranath Mohanty, Kautuk Kumar Sardar, Manaswini Dehuri, Ananta Hembram and Trilochan Mohapatra
Veterinary World, 10(7): 764-768
Aim: The effects of N-P-K fertilizers in the form of urea, single super phosphate and muriate of potash on development of free-living stages of Haemonchus contortus were studied.

Materials and Methods: Five parasite free experimental plots of 1 mx1 m area, each of paddy leaves (15-day-old) and an equal number of Cynodon dactylon grass were infested with about 10x104 eggs/ml phosphate buffer saline along with the application of the calculated amount of fertilizers solution. On the 10th day of posttreatment, the pasture was cut, processed, larvae recovered by Baermann method and counted, which was expressed as number of L3 per kg dry matter (DM) of pasture.

Results: The average recovered population of L3 of H. contortus per kg DM varied significantly (p<0.05) between the paddy leaves (5933.57±22.718) and Cynodon grass (4861.00±22.718). When different doses of chemical fertilizer and their impact on different pasture were analyzed for control (T-1, 0-0-0 kg/ha N-P-K), the mean L3 recovery per kg DM of paddy (19512.7±50.80) was more than that of Cynodon grass (16540.9±50.80). Larvae recovery per kg DM for different pastures under treatment were in decreasing order as follows: T-2 of paddy (6981.33±50.80, 35.77%), T-2 of Cynodon (5545.38±50.80, 33.52%), T-3 of paddy (317378±50.80, 16.26%), and T-3 of Cynodon (2218.72±50.80, 13.41%) which showed significant difference (p<0.05) among the treatments. In T-4 (paddy) and T-5 (Cynodon), the average number of recovery of larvae was nil implying no significant variation (p>0.05).

Conclusion: This study shown that when N-P-K fertilizers administered at recommended level, significantly reduced larval translation of H. contortus minimizing pasture infectivity for the free range grazing animals.

Keywords: Haemonchus contortus, larva, N-P-K fertilizer, pasture.

Saturday, 8 July 2017

Evaluation of crude larval protein and recombinant somatic protein 26/23 (rHcp26/23) immunization against Haemonchus contortus in sheep

Research (Published online: 08-07-2017)
8. Evaluation of crude larval protein and recombinant somatic protein 26/23 (rHcp26/23) immunization against Haemonchus contortus in sheep
Omnia M. Kandil, Khaled A. Abdelrahman, Hatem A. Shalaby, Seham H. M. Hendawy, Nadia M. T. Abu El Ezz, Somia A. Nassar and James E. Miller
Veterinary World, 10(7): 758-763
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential possibility of crude larval and recombinant (rHcp26/23) antigens of Haemonchus contortus for immunization to control sheep hemonchosis.

Materials and Methods: A total of 21 lambs were divided into five groups. Lambs were immunized with larval and recombinant (rHcp26/23) proteins at day 0 and day 14 and after that challenged with 5000 infective larvae of H. contortus on day 42. An unvaccinated positive control group was challenged with L3 in the meantime. An unvaccinated negative control group was not challenged.

Results: Fecal egg count reduction taking after challenge for rHcp26/23 and larval antigens was 92.2% and 38.2%, respectively, compared with the positive control group. Vaccine incited protection in rHcp26/23 and larval immunization was reflected in significant (p<0.05) decreases in worm burden; 59.9% and 40.1%, respectively.

Conclusion: Recombinant rHcp26/23 vaccine induced a partial immune response and had immune-protective effect against sheep hemonchosis.

Keywords: antigen, Haemonchus contortus, immunization, larval, rHcp26/23, sheep.

Thursday, 6 July 2017

Repair of segmental radial defect with autologous bone marrow aspirate and hydroxyapatite in rabbit radius: A clinical and radiographic evaluation

Research (Published online: 07-07-2017)
7. Repair of segmental radial defect with autologous bone marrow aspirate and hydroxyapatite in 
rabbit radius: A clinical and radiographic evaluation
Kalbaza Ahmed Yassine, Benchohra Mokhtar, Hemida Houari, Amara Karim, and Melizi Mohamed
Veterinary World, 10(7): 752-757
Aim: Finding an ideal bone substitute to treat large bone defects, delayed union and nonunions remain a challenge for orthopedic surgeons and researchers. Several studies have been conducted on bone regeneration; each has its own advantages and disadvantages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a combination of hydroxyapatite (HA) powder with autologous bone marrow (BM) aspirate on the repair of segmental radial defect in a rabbit model.
Materials and Methods: A total of 36 male and adult New Zealand rabbit with a mean weight of 2.25 kg were used in this study. Approximately, 5 mm defect was created in the mid-shaft of the radius to be filled with HA powder in the control group "HA" (n=18) and with a combination of HA powder and autologous BM aspirate in the test group "HA+BM" (n=18). Animals were observed daily for healing by inspection of the surgical site, and six rabbits of each group were sacrificed at 30, 60, and 90 post-operative days to perform a radiographic evaluation of defect site.
Results: Obtained results revealed a better and more rapid bone regeneration in the test group: Since the defect was rapidly and completely filled with mature bone tissue after 90 days.
Conclusion: Based on these findings, we could infer that adding a BM aspirate to HA is responsible of a better regeneration process leading to a complete filling of the defect.
Keywords: autologous bone marrow aspirate, bone regeneration, hydroxyapatite, rabbit, radial defect.

Noninvasive assessment of gastrointestinal parasites infection in freeranging wild herbivores and adjoining livestock of Panna Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, India

Research (Published online: 06-07-2017)
6. Noninvasive assessment of gastrointestinal parasites infection in freeranging wild herbivores and adjoining livestock of Panna Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abhay Sengar, A. B. Shrivastav, K. P. Singh and Amol Rokde
Veterinary World, 10(7): 748-751
Aim: This study was conducted to know the epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites of free-ranging wild herbivores and adjoining livestock of Panna Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Materials and Methods: A total of 374 fecal samples from wild herbivores (Chital Axis axis - 123, Sambar Rusa unicolor - 94, Nilgai Boselaphus tragocamelus - 86, and Chinkara Gazella bennettii - 71) and 284 fecal samples of domestic herbivores (cattle - 118, buffalo - 78, and goat - 88) were collected from common grazing land and adjoining area of tiger reserve. Detailed coprological examination for the presence of parasitic eggs/oocysts by direct smear examination, standard sedimentation, and floatation techniques was performed.
Results: Fecal samples (n=374) of four different species of wild herbivores were screened. Out of which, 55.61% (n=208) were positive for parasitic infection. Among them, 13.10% (n=49) were positive for mixed parasitic infection of two or more parasite and 42.5% (n=159) were found positive for single parasitic infection. A total of 284 fecal samples of domestic animals were screened from adjoining areas of the tiger reserve. Out of which, 66.54% (n=189) were positive for parasitic infections, out of which 19.71% (n=56) were positive for mixed infection of two or more parasites, and 46.83% (n=133) were found positive for single parasitic infection.
Conclusion: Wild herbivores at Panna Tiger Reserve were exposed to parasites including some that are known to be pathogenic; majority of wild animals had mixed infection of Eimeria spp., Trichuris spp., Monieziaspp., AmphistomeStrongyloides spp., Balantidium spp., and Fasciola spp.
Keywords: free ranging wild herbivores, gastrointestinal parasites, Panna Tiger Reserve.