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Tuesday, 8 August 2017
Influence of microclimatic ammonia levels on productive performance of different broilers' breeds estimated with univariate and multivariate approaches
Research (Published online: 08-08-2017)
8. Influence of microclimatic ammonia levels on productive performance of different broilers' breeds estimated with univariate and multivariate approaches
Essam S. Soliman, Sherif A. Moawed and Rania A. Hassan
Veterinary World, 10(8): 880-887
Background and Aim: Birds litter contains unutilized nitrogen in the form of uric acid that is converted into ammonia; a fact that does not only affect poultry performance but also has a negative effect on people's health around the farm and contributes in the environmental degradation. The influence of microclimatic ammonia emissions on Ross and Hubbard broilers reared in different housing systems at two consecutive seasons (fall and winter) was evaluated using a discriminant function analysis to differentiate between Ross and Hubbard breeds.
Materials and Methods: A total number of 400 air samples were collected and analyzed for ammonia levels during the experimental period. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Results: Ammonia levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) in the Ross compared to the Hubbard breed farm, although no significant differences (p>0.05) were found between the two farms in body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and performance index (PI) of broilers. Body weight; weight gain and PI had increased values (p<0.01) during fall compared to winter irrespective of broiler breed. Ammonia emissions were positively (although weekly) correlated with the ambient relative humidity (r=0.383; p<0.01), but not with the ambient temperature (r=-0.045; p>0.05). Test of significance of discriminant function analysis did not show a classification based on the studied traits suggesting that they cannot been used as predictor variables. The percentage of correct classification was 52% and it was improved after deletion of highly correlated traits to 57%. Conclusion: The study revealed that broiler's growth was negatively affected by increased microclimatic ammonia concentrations and recommended the analysis of broilers' growth performance parameters data using multivariate discriminant function analysis. Keywords: ammonia, broiler, discriminant function analysis, growth performance parameters, humidity, temperature.