Friday, 22 September 2017

Aboveground burial for managing catastrophic losses of livestock

Research (Published online: 22-09-2017)
9. Aboveground burial for managing catastrophic losses of livestock - Gary Alan Flory, Robert W. Peer, Robert A. Clark, Mohamed Naceur Baccar, Thanh-Thao Le, Aziz Ben Mbarek and Sami Farsi
International Journal of One Health, 3: 50-56

  doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2017.50-56


Background and Aim: Environmental impacts from carcass management are a significant concern globally. Despite a history of costly, ineffective, and environmentally damaging carcass disposal efforts, large animal carcass disposal methods have advanced little in the past decade. An outbreak today will likely be managed with the same carcass disposal techniques used in the previous decades and will likely result in the same economic, health, and environmental impacts. This article overviews the results of one field test that was completed in Virginia (United States) using the aboveground burial (AGB) technique and the disposal of 111 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) infected sheep in Tunisia using a similar methodology.
Materials and Methods: Researchers in the United States conducted a field test to assess the environmental impact and effectiveness of AGB in decomposing livestock carcasses. The system design included a shallow trench excavated into native soil and a carbonaceous base placed on the bottom of the trenches followed by a single layer of animal carcasses. Excavated soils were subsequently placed on top of the animals, and a vegetative layer was established. A similar methodology was used in Tunisia to manage sheep infected with FMDs, Peste des Petits Ruminants virus, and Bluetongue Virus.
Results: The results of the field test in the United States demonstrated a significant carcass degradation during the 1-year period of the project, and the migration of nutrients below the carcasses appears to be limited thereby minimizing the threat of groundwater contamination. The methodology proved practical for the disposal of infected sheep carcasses in Tunisia.
Conclusions: Based on the analysis conducted to date, AGB appears to offer many benefits over traditional burial for catastrophic mortality management. Ongoing research will help to identify limitations of the method and determine where its application during large disease outbreaks or natural disasters is appropriate.
Keywords: aboveground burial, carcass disposal, foot-and-mouth disease, foreign animal diseases, mesophilic static pile composting.

Thursday, 21 September 2017

Cloning and expression of P67 protein of Mycoplasma leachii

Research (Published online: 21-09-2017)
15. Cloning and expression of P67 protein of Mycoplasma leachii
Sabarinath Thankappan, Rajneesh Rana, Arun Thachappully Remesh, Valsala Rekha, Viswas Konasagara Nagaleekar and Bhavani Puvvala
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1108-1113
Aim: The present study was undertaken to clone, express and study the immunogenicity of P67 protein of Mycoplasma leachii.
Materials and Methods: P67 gene was amplified from genomic DNA of M. leachii. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product was inserted in pRham N-His SUMO Kan vector and was used to transform competent Escherichia cloni 10G cells. Recombinant protein expression was done by inducing cells with 0.2% Rhamnose. Purification was done using nickel nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. Western blot and dot blot analysis were performed to assess the immunoreactivity of P67 protein.
Results: PCR amplicon size of P67 gene was found to be 1500 base pair. The size of the fusion protein with SUMO tag was 79 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The recombinant P67 fusion protein expressed in pRham N-His SUMO Kan vector was found to be immunogenic in both western blot and dot blot analysis.
Conclusion: Western blot and dot blot analysis of P67 protein of M. leachii revealed that the protein is immunogenic. Further work is needed to evaluate the role of P67 antigen of M. leachii as an immunodiagnostic agent.
Keywords: cloning, dot blot, expression, Mycoplasma leachii, P67 protein, western blot.

Cloning and sequence analysis of hyaluronoglucosaminidase (nagH) gene of Clostridium chauvoei

Research (Published online: 21-09-2017)
14. Cloning and sequence analysis of hyaluronoglucosaminidase (nagH) gene of Clostridium chauvoei
Saroj K. Dangi, Pavan Kumar Yadav, Aakanksha Tiwari and Viswas Konasagara Nagaleekar
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1104-1107
Aim: Blackleg disease is caused by Clostridium chauvoei in ruminants. Although virulence factors such as C. chauvoei toxin A, sialidase, and flagellin are well characterized, hyaluronidases of C. chauvoei are not characterized. The present study was aimed at cloning and sequence analysis of hyaluronoglucosaminidase (nagH) gene of C. chauvoei.
Materials and Methods: C. chauvoei strain ATCC 10092 was grown in ATCC 2107 media and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the primers specific for 16-23S rDNA spacer region. nagH gene of C. chauvoei was amplified and cloned into pRham-SUMO vector and transformed into Escherichia cloni 10G cells. The construct was then transformed into E. cloni cells. Colony PCR was carried out to screen the colonies followed by sequencing of nagH gene in the construct.
Results: PCR amplification yielded nagH gene of 1143 bp product, which was cloned in prokaryotic expression system. Colony PCR, as well as sequencing of nagH gene, confirmed the presence of insert. Sequence was then subjected to BLAST analysis of NCBI, which confirmed that the sequence was indeed of nagH gene of C. chauvoei. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence showed that it is closely related to Clostridium perfringensand Clostridium paraputrificum.
Conclusion: The gene for virulence factor nagH was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector and confirmed by sequencing.
Keywords: black quarter, Clostridium chauvoei, hyaluronoglucosaminidase.

Tuesday, 19 September 2017

Immunological and histopathological changes in sheep affected with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and treated immunotherapeutically

Research (Published online: 20-09-2017)
13. Immunological and histopathological changes in sheep affected with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and treated immunotherapeutically
Faten A. M. Abo-Aziza, A. A. Zaki, A. El-Shemy, Sahar S. Abd Elhalem and Amany S. Amer
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1094-1103
Background and Aim: Recently, it has been recorded unexpected percentage of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) in sheep. Despite the improvement in surgical treatment, the outcome of animals remains limited by metastatic relapse. Although antibodies for cancer treatment have been practiced for many decades, the use of this methodology in animals is deficient. This study aimed to establish cSCC therapy by tumor cell protein antibody (Ab1) or secondary antibody (Ab2) raised by two series of immunization in the same strain of rabbits.
Materials and Methods: A total of 19 Ossimi sheep were used (14 sheep suffered from cSCC and 5 were apparently healthy). Each animal from control healthy group (n=5) and control cSCC (n=4) group was treated with a course of eight injections of normal globulins. Animals in the third (n=5) and the last (n=5) groups received a course of eight injections of Ab1and Ab2, respectively. Each tumor was measured before and after treatment. The eight injections were applied at 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th week and the remaining three injections were at 1 week interval. Tissue specimens and blood samples were taken for histological and immunological studies.
Results: The obtained results revealed that injection of Ab1 might prevent the bad prognostic picture of polymorph infiltration without any criteria of regression % of tumor. Treatment with Ab2 showed regression of tumor size ranged between minimum of 8.99% and maximum of 78.12%, however, the measurements in most cases reached the maximum regression after the past two injections. In additions, infiltration of lymphocytes to tumor site, normalization of leukocytes picture and also increase of antibody titer were observed.
Conclusion: This profile might confirm that Ab2 could act as an antigen and encourage us to use it as a tumor vaccine. Extensive studies are needed to isolate the idiotypic portion of Ab1 for raising Ab2 as an anti-idiotypic antibody to be used as tumor vaccine. The question of how lymphocyte traffic to the tumor site as a result of Ab2 injection needs further investigation.
Keywords: antibody, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, histopathology, immunotherapy, sheep.

Monday, 18 September 2017

Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry as a reliable proteomic method for characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates

Research (Published online: 19-09-2017)
12. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry as a reliable proteomic method for characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates
Waleed S. Shell, Mahmoud Lotfy Sayed, Fatma Mohamed Gad Allah, Fatma Elzahraa Mohamed Gamal, Afaf Ahmed Khder, A. A. Samy and Abde Hakam M. Ali
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1083-1093
Aim: Identification of pathogenic clinical bacterial isolates is mainly dependent on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the microorganisms. These conventional methods are costive, time-consuming, and need special skills and training. An alternative, mass spectral (proteomics) analysis method for identification of clinical bacterial isolates has been recognized as a rapid, reliable, and economical method for identification. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the performance, sensitivity and reliability of traditional bacteriology, phenotypic methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in the identification of clinical Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates recovered from chickens.
Materials and Methods: A total of 110 samples (cloacal, liver, spleen, and/or gall bladder) were collected from apparently healthy and diseased chickens showing clinical signs as white chalky diarrhea, pasty vent, and decrease egg production as well as freshly dead chickens which showing postmortem lesions as enlarged liver with congestion and enlarged gall bladder from different poultry farms.
Results: Depending on colonial characteristics and morphological characteristics, E. coli and Salmonella isolates were recovered and detected in only 42 and 35 samples, respectively. Biochemical identification using API 20E identification system revealed that the suspected E. coli isolates were 33 out of 42 of colonial and morphological identified E. coli isolates where Salmonella isolates were represented by 26 out of 35 of colonial and morphological identified Salmonella isolates. Serological identification of isolates revealed that the most predominant E. coli serotypes were O1 and O78 while the most predominant Salmonella serotype of Salmonellawas Salmonella Pullorum. All E. coli and Salmonella isolates were examined using MALDI-TOF MS. In agreement with traditional identification, MADI-TOF MS identified all clinical bacterial samples with valid scores as E. coli and Salmonella isolates except two E. coli isolates recovered from apparently healthy and diseased birds, respectively, with recovery rate of 93.9% and 2 Salmonella isolates recovered from apparently healthy and dead birds, respectively, with recovery rate of 92.3%.
Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that Bruker MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper is a reliable rapid and economic tool for the identification of Gram-negative bacteria especially E. coli and Salmonella which could be used as an alternative diagnostic tool for routine identification and differentiation of clinical isolates in the bacteriological laboratory. MALDI-TOF MS need more validation and verification and more study on the performance of direct colony and extraction methods to detect the most sensitive one and also need using more samples to detect sensitivity, reliability, and performance of this type of bacterial identification.
Keywords: ABI, Bruker Daltonics, colibacillosis, Escherichia coli, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, SalmonellaSalmonella pullorum.

N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptides in dogs and cats: A technical and clinical review

Review (Published online: 18-09-2017)
11. N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptides in dogs and cats: A technical and clinical review
Gabriela Vieira de Lima and Felipp da Silveira Ferreira
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1072-1082
Biomarkers are quantitative indicators of biological processes performed by an organ or system. In recent years, natriuretic peptides (NPs) have emerged as important tools in the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of heart diseases. Research has shown that serum and plasma levels of N-terminal pro brain NP (NT-proBNP) in dogs and cats are the only biomarkers that afford to diagnose and monitor congestive processes and, indirectly, the myocardial function of small animals. The present review discusses the peer-reviewed specialized literature about NT-proBNP and presents and compares the potential clinical applications of this NP in veterinary medicine of small animals, considering diagnosis, follow-up, and prognosis of myocardial or systemic diseases. The relevance of NT-proBNP is associated with sample stability, easy determination in laboratory, sensitivity, accuracy, and the possibility to analyze myocardial function. These advantages are specially important when NT-proBNP is compared with other cardiac biomarkers, mostly those that indicate the integrity of the myocardial cell. Fast NT-proBNP assays are marketed today and may be used in association with complementary tests. Together, these methods are an important source of information in differential diagnosis of heart and lung diseases as well in the early diagnosis of cardiopathy in dogs and cats, proving valuable tools in treatment and prognosis.
Keywords: cardiac biomarkers, cats, congestive heart failure, dogs, NT-proBPN.

Wednesday, 13 September 2017

Pathology and immunohistochemistry study of Newcastle disease field case in chicken in Indonesia

Research (Published online: 13-09-2017)
10. Pathology and immunohistochemistry study of Newcastle disease field case in chicken in Indonesia
Etriwati, Dewi Ratih, Ekowati Handharyani and Surachmi Setiyaningsih
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1066-1071
Aim: The aim of the study was to examine pathology and the distribution pattern of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in internal organs of chickens from a field case using immunohistochemical staining.
Materials and Methods: 10 groups of broiler, layer, and domestic chicken were collected from necropsy room Division of Pathology, Bogor Agricultural University. These chickens were originated from West Java and collected based on pathologist diagnosis as suspect of Newcastle disease (ND). They were subsequently confirmed positive of ND with real-time-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. The respiratory, circulatory, digestive, lymphoreticular and central nervous systems were collected for histopathology examination.
Results: The gross pathology and histopathology changes were tracheitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, myocarditis, catarrhal proventriculitis, catarrhal enteritis, typhlitis, perihepatitis, pancreatitis, nephritis interstitial, splenitis, atrophy of Bursa Fabricius, and encephalitis.
Conclusion: The distribution pattern of NDV in internal organs of chickens from a field case in this study is similar with a previous reported pattern in systemic cases of the internal chicken organs. High intensity of immunohistochemistry stain result was detected in trachea, lung, proventriculus, duodenum, cecal tonsil, kidney, and brain.
Keywords: broiler, domestic chicken, immunohistochemistry, layer, Newcastle disease.

Detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in chronic myeloid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia patients

Research (Published online: 13-09-2017)
9. Detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in chronic myeloid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia patients
Mohammad Javad Gharavi, Mona Roozbehani and Zienat Mandeh
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1063-1065
Background and Aim: Infection of Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide distribution. Toxoplasmosis in patients who are immunocompromised by virtue of underlying leukemia disease has received relatively little attention. This study was aimed to evaluate IgG and IgM antibodies of T. gondii and to minimize the role of T. gondii and opportunistic infection complication at the early stage of infection in leukemia patients.
Materials and Methods: The purpose of this assay was to measure anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique in leukemia patients.
Results: IgG antibodies against T. gondii were detected by ELISA in 96 (56.4%) leukemia patients and 72 (42.4%) control group. IgM antibodies were found in 10 patients (5.9%) with leukemia and 3 (1.8%) in the corresponding.
Conclusion: Our finding indicated that leukemia patients under immunosuppressive condition should not be neglected. Toxoplasmosis in leukemia patients as a main risk factor is considered, meanwhile in some patients, due to possibility of the presence of secondary infection that leads to severe toxoplasmosis.
Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, Toxoplasma gondii.

Tuesday, 12 September 2017

Mastitis vaccines in dairy cows: Recent developments and recommendations of application

Review (Published online: 12-09-2017)
8. Mastitis vaccines in dairy cows: Recent developments and recommendations of application
Zuhair Bani Ismail
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1057-1062
The objective of this review article was to summarize the most recent clinical field trials that have been published evaluating the use of different types of vaccines against mastitis pathogens in dairy cows. Mastitis is one of the most common and economically important diseases in dairy cows in the world. The disease is considered an important welfare issue facing the dairy industry in addition to the loss of production and premature removal or death of affected cows. Losses are also related to high cost of veterinary medicines and the cost of unsalable milk of treated cows. Mastitis can be caused by either contagious or environmental pathogens both of which are best prevented rather than treated. In addition to the application of best management practices in the parlor during milking, vaccination against common udder pathogens is widely practiced in many dairy farms to prevent or reduce the severity of clinical mastitis. In this review, the most recent clinical field studies that evaluated the use of different types of vaccines in dairy cows are summarized.
Keywords: dairy cows, immunization, mastitis, pathogens, udder.

Application of radio frequency based digital thermometer for real-time monitoring of dairy cattle rectal temperature

Research (Published online: 12-09-2017)
7. Application of radio frequency based digital thermometer for real-time monitoring of dairy cattle rectal temperature
Tridib Debnath, Santanu Bera, Suman Deb, Prasenjit Pal, Nibash Debbarma and Avijit Haldar
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1052-1056


Aim: Dairy cattle health monitoring program becomes vital for detecting the febrile conditions to prevent the outbreak of the animal diseases as well as ensuring the fitness of the animals that are directly affecting the health of the consumers. The aim of this study was to validate real-time rectal temperature (RT) data of radio frequency based digital (RFD) thermometer with RT data of mercury bulb (MB) thermometer in dairy cattle.

Materials and Methods: Two experiments were conducted. In experiment I, six female Jersey crossbred cattle with a mean (±standard error of the mean) body weight of 534.83±13.90 kg at the age of 12±0.52 years were used to record RT for 2 h on empty stomach and 2 h after feeding at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min using a RFD thermometer as well as a MB thermometer. In experiment II, six female Jersey crossbred cattle were further used to record RT for 2 h before exercise and 2 h after exercise at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc comparisons by Bonferroni test was done.

Results: Real-time RT data recorded by RFD thermometer as well as MB thermometer did not differ (p>0.05) before and after feeding/exercise. An increase (p<0.05) in RT after feeding/exercise in experimental crossbred cattle was recorded by both RFD thermometer and MB thermometer.

Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study suggest that the body temperature recordings from RFD thermometer would be acceptable and thus RFD thermometer could work well for monitoring real-time RT in cattle.

Keywords: cattle, exercise, feeding, radio frequency device, rectal temperature, thermometer.

Monday, 11 September 2017

Hydrophilic nanosilica as a new larvicidal and molluscicidal agent for controlling of major infectious diseases in Egypt

Research (Published online: 11-09-2017)
6. Hydrophilic nanosilica as a new larvicidal and molluscicidal agent for controlling of major infectious diseases in Egypt
Marwa M. Attia, Soliman M. Soliman and Mahmoud A. Khalf
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1046-1051

Aim: This research was conducted to evaluate the molluscicidal and mosquitocidal efficacy of silica nanoparticles in the eradication of the larvae and pupa of malaria and filariasis vector as well as vectors of rift-valley fever virus (Culex pipiens); Schistosoma mansoni vector (Biomphlaria alexandrina (snail and egg masses)).

Materials and Methods: Hydrophilic nanosilica particles (NSPs) were characterized using transmission electron microscope during the preliminary part of the study; the stages were exposed to upgrade concentrations of NSP from 50 to 1200 ppm each for 24-36 h exposure time. The highly effective concentrations were re-evaluated at lower exposure time as 3, 6, and 12 h.

Results: Lethal concentration (LC50) and LC90 versus mosquito larvae were (350 ppm/24 h and 1400 ppm/24 h, respectively). C. pipiens pupae proved slight high tolerance versus the effect of these nanoparticles as the two previous doses increased to 680 ppm/6 h and 1300 ppm/24 h. The LC50 and LC90 versus B. alexandrina were increased to 590 ppm/6 h and 980 ppm/48 h, respectively. Moreover, the embryonated snail egg masses appear more susceptible to the toxic effect of these nanoparticles than the non-embryonated eggs as the LC50 and LC90 were increased to 1450 ppm/12 h and 1250 ppm/48 h, respectively, for embryonated eggs, and it was 1400 ppm/24 h and 1890 ppm/48 h, respectively, for non-embryonated one.

Conclusion: The results open a new field for controlling the infectious diseases through eradication of their vectors by the way that avoids the resistance recorded from the successive chemical application in this field.

Keywords: Biomphalaria alexandrina, Culex pipiens, Egypt, nanosilica, rift valley fever, schistosomiasis.

Detection of food-borne bacteria in ready to eat betel leaf sold at local markets in Mymensingh

Research (Published online: 11-09-2017)
5. Detection of food-borne bacteria in ready to eat betel leaf sold at local markets in Mymensingh
Md. Mazedul Haque, Md. Atiqur Rahman Sarker, Rafia Afroze Rifa, Md. Ariful Islam and Mst. Minara Khatun
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1040-1045
Aim: The present study was undertaken to determine bacterial load as well as characterize bacterial flora of ready to eat (RTE) betel leaf sold at local markets in Mymensingh city.
Materials and Methods: A total of 25 RTE betel leaf samples were collected from five local markets such as Kamal-Ranjit (KR) market, Shesh more, Kewatkhali, Jobber more, and Ganginar par.
Results: Total viable count of bacteria in betel leaf (log10 mean colony forming unit±standard deviation/ml) was 7.58±0.04 for KR market, 7.72±0.06 for Shesh more, 7.62±0.04 for Kewatkhali, 7.40±0.03 for Jobber more, and 7.60±0.06 for Ganginar par. A total of 98 bacterial isolates belong to five genera (Escherichia coliSalmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus spp.) were identified. The prevalence of E. coli was 17.34%, Salmonella spp. was 25.51%, Vibrio spp. was 19.39%, Bacillus spp. was 18.37%, and Staphylococcus spp. was 19.39%. Antibiotic sensitivity test showed that all isolates were sensitive to two antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Four isolates (E. coliSalmonella spp., Vibrio spp., and Staphylococcus spp.) were resistant to two antibiotics (ampicillin and cephalexin). Antibiogram profile of bacterial isolates of betel leaf suggests that they were multidrug resistance.
Conclusion: Data of this study indicate that betel leaf sold at local market harbors multidrug resistance food-borne bacteria which might cause public health hazards if these antibiotic resistant transfer to human through food chain.
Keywords: betel leaf, food-borne bacteria, Mymensingh city, public health importance.

Wednesday, 6 September 2017

Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in cat's internal organs by immunohistochemistry methods labeled with-[strept] avidin-biotin

Research (Published online: 06-09-2017)
4. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in cat's internal organs by immunohistochemistry methods labeled with-[strept] avidin-biotin
Muhammad Hanafiah, Raden Wisnu Nurcahyo, Rika Yuniar Siregar, Joko Prastowo, Sri Hartati, Bambang Sutrisno and Dwinna Aliza
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1035-1039
Aim: The aims of the study are to detect the presence of Toxoplasma gondii antigen and to determine its distribution location in several organs of domestic cat using immunohistochemistry (IHC) method with Labeled-[Strept] Avidin-Biotin (LAB-SA).
Materials and Methods: Four domestic cats aged 1-2 years were used as sample in this research. The sample divided into two groups with two cats each. Cats in Group I were positive Toxoplasma based on serologically screening test, while cats in Group II were orally infected with 1x106 Toxoplasma oocyst. All samples then necropsied, and the organs including brain, liver, kidney, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, lungs, and spleen were collected for IHC method with LAB-SA.
Result: The result showed that Toxoplasma antigens were detected in ileum of both serologically positive domestic cat and the experimentally infected cats. Toxoplasma was also observed in kidney of serologically positive domestic cat. In the serologically positive domestic cat, necrotic lesions were found on ileum, kidney, and liver, whereas in experimentally infected cat, the lesion was only found on ileum.
Conclusion: The presence of Toxoplasma antigen is successfully detected in several organs of domestic cat using IHC method with the LAB-SA.
Keywords: cat, immunohistochemistry, labeled-[strept] avidin-biotin, Toxoplasma gondii.

Monday, 4 September 2017

Zoo agent's measure in applying the five freedoms principles for animal welfare

Research (Published online: 05-09-2017)
3. Zoo agent's measure in applying the five freedoms principles for animal welfare
Argyo Demartoto, Robertus Bellarminus Soemanto and Siti Zunariyah
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1026-1034
Background: Animal welfare should be prioritized not only for the animal's life sustainability but also for supporting the sustainability of living organism's life on the earth. However, Indonesian people have not understood it yet, thereby still treating animals arbitrarily and not appreciating either domesticated or wild animals.
Aim: This research aimed to analyze the zoo agent's action in applying the five freedoms principle for animal welfare in Taman Satwa Taru Jurug (thereafter called TSTJ) or Surakarta Zoo and Gembira Loka Zoo (GLZ) of Yogyakarta Indonesia using Giddens structuration theory.
Materials and Methods: The informants in this comparative study with explorative were organizers, visitors, and stakeholders of zoos selected using purposive sampling technique. The informants consisted of 19 persons: 8 from TSTJ (Code T) and 10 from GLZ (Code G) and representatives from Natural Resource Conservation Center of Central Java (Code B). Data were collected through observation, in-depth interview, and Focus Group Discussion and Documentation. Data were analyzed using an interactive model of analysis consisting of three components: Data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing. Data validation was carried out using method and data source triangulations.
Results: Food, nutrition, and nutrition level have been given consistent with the animals' habit and natural behavior. Animal keepers always maintain their self-cleanliness. GLZ has provided cages according to the technical instruction of constructing ideal cages, but the cages in TSTJ are worrying as they are not consistent with standard, rusty, and damaged, and animals have no partner. Some animals in GLZ are often sick, whereas some animals in TSTJ are dead due to poor maintenance. The iron pillars of cages restrict animal behavior in TSTJ so that they have not had freedom to behave normally yet, whereas, in GLZ, they can move freely in original habitat. The animals in the two zoos have not been free from disruption, stress, and pressure due to the passing over vehicles.
Conclusion: There should be strategic communication, information, and education, community development, and law enforcement for the animal welfare.
Keywords: agent, animal welfare, structure, the five freedoms, zoo.

Friday, 1 September 2017

Electrocardiographic reference values and configuration of electrocardiogram waves recorded in Black Bengal goats of different age groups

Research (Published online: 01-09-2017)
2. Electrocardiographic reference values and configuration of electrocardiogram waves recorded in Black Bengal goats of different age groups
Ranjeeta Rashmee Pradhan, Ambika Prasad Khadanga Mahapatra, Swagat Mohapatra, Tushar Jyotiranjan and Akshaya Kumar Kundu
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1020-1025


Aim: A study on age-related electrocardiographic (ECG) changes was conducted on 20 apparently healthy Black Bengal goats with no history of cardiac disorders during 2015-2016.

Materials and Methods: The goats selected for the study belonged to four different age groups; Group 1: Goats up to 6 months of age, Group 2: Above 6 months and below 1 year of age, Group 3: Above 1 year and below 2 years of age, and Group 4: Above 2 years of age. The ECG was recorded with the animals in standing position using a 12-lead standard ECG recorder (Model-Cardiart-108 MK VII, manufactured by BPL, India). The paper speed was set to 25 mm/s with the sensitivity of the machine was adjusted at 1 (1 cm=mV).

Results: The ECG parameters were compared within different age groups, and the data were analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 taking a significant level of 95% (p<0.05) in all cases. The lead-I ECG revealed a significant difference in amplitude of QRS complex, PR interval, QT interval, RR interval, PQ segment, ST segment, TP segment, and heart rate among some age groups. In bipolar limb lead-II, the amplitude of T-wave, RR interval, ST segment, TP segment, and heart rate was a significant difference among some age groups. Lead-III presented significant difference among age groups in different parameters such as QRS complex duration, T-wave duration, RR interval, ST segment, TP segment, and heart rate.

Conclusion: The study concluded that there is a significant variation in the ECG parameters both in terms of values and configuration of ECG waves when age is taken into consideration. The results of the study might be used as a reference value for field veterinarians.

Keywords: age, Black Bengal goats, electrocardiogram.

Acute toxicity of commercial atrazine in Piaractus mesopotamicus: Histopathological, ultrastructural, molecular, and genotoxic evaluation

Research (Published online: 01-09-2017)
1. Acute toxicity of commercial atrazine in Piaractus mesopotamicus: Histopathological, ultrastructural, molecular, and genotoxic evaluation
Paula Pereira de Paiva, Mariana Cruz Delcorso, Valquiria Aparecida Matheus, Sonia Claudia do Nascimento de Queiroz, Carla Beatriz Collares-Buzato and Sarah Arana
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1008-1019
Aim: The aim of this work was to evaluate the sensitivity of Pacu fingerlings (Piaractus mesopotamicus) by measuring the effects of median lethal concentration (LC50) of atrazine (ATZ - 28.58 mg/L) after acute exposure (up to 96 h).
Materials and Methods: The fish were exposed to the LC50 of ATZ for 96 h (28.58 mg/L) in a static system. During the experiment, the fingerlings were randomly distributed in four glass tanks (50 L) containing dechlorinated water. Four glass tanks were for the control group, and four were for the ATZ-exposed group (n=4 per glass tank), given a total number of 16 animals tested per group. The genotoxicity was evaluated by micronucleus (MN) test in erythrocytes from peripheral blood. Qualitative and semi-quantitative histopathological analyses, and also ultrastructural study, were applied in liver and kidney samples. Finally, the content of heat shock protein (Hsp70) in the liver was evaluated by the western blotting method.
Results: The morphological alterations in the liver, which was associated with increased expression of Hsp70, included nuclear and cytoplasmic vacuolization, cytoplasmic hyaline inclusions, and necrosis. The kidney presented edema and tubular cell degeneration with cytoplasmic hyaline inclusion. The semi-quantitative histopathological analyses indicated that the liver was more sensitive than kidney to ATZ-induced damage. Ultrastructural analysis showed that ATZ caused membrane alterations in several organelles and increased the number of lysosomes in hepatocytes and kidney proximal tubular cells. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in MN frequency in erythrocytes comparing treated and control groups.
Conclusion: These results indicated that ATZ-induced damage to the kidney and liver function, ATZ at the concentration tested did not induce a significant difference in MN frequency in Pacu erythrocytes comparing treated and control groups, and also that Pacu fingerlings may be a good bioindicator for testing freshwater contamination.
Keywords: Brazilian ichthyofauna, kidney lesions, liver lesions, micronucleus test, oxidative stress.