Friday, 22 September 2017
Research (Published online: 22-09-2017)
9. Aboveground burial for managing catastrophic losses of livestock - Gary Alan Flory, Robert W. Peer, Robert A. Clark, Mohamed Naceur Baccar, Thanh-Thao Le, Aziz Ben Mbarek and Sami Farsi
International Journal of One Health, 3: 50-56
Background and Aim: Environmental impacts from carcass management are a significant concern globally. Despite a history of costly, ineffective, and environmentally damaging carcass disposal efforts, large animal carcass disposal methods have advanced little in the past decade. An outbreak today will likely be managed with the same carcass disposal techniques used in the previous decades and will likely result in the same economic, health, and environmental impacts. This article overviews the results of one field test that was completed in Virginia (United States) using the aboveground burial (AGB) technique and the disposal of 111 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) infected sheep in Tunisia using a similar methodology.
Materials and Methods: Researchers in the United States conducted a field test to assess the environmental impact and effectiveness of AGB in decomposing livestock carcasses. The system design included a shallow trench excavated into native soil and a carbonaceous base placed on the bottom of the trenches followed by a single layer of animal carcasses. Excavated soils were subsequently placed on top of the animals, and a vegetative layer was established. A similar methodology was used in Tunisia to manage sheep infected with FMDs, Peste des Petits Ruminants virus, and Bluetongue Virus.
Results: The results of the field test in the United States demonstrated a significant carcass degradation during the 1-year period of the project, and the migration of nutrients below the carcasses appears to be limited thereby minimizing the threat of groundwater contamination. The methodology proved practical for the disposal of infected sheep carcasses in Tunisia.
Conclusions: Based on the analysis conducted to date, AGB appears to offer many benefits over traditional burial for catastrophic mortality management. Ongoing research will help to identify limitations of the method and determine where its application during large disease outbreaks or natural disasters is appropriate.
Keywords: aboveground burial, carcass disposal, foot-and-mouth disease, foreign animal diseases, mesophilic static pile composting.
Thursday, 21 September 2017
Tuesday, 19 September 2017
Monday, 18 September 2017
Wednesday, 13 September 2017
Tuesday, 12 September 2017
Application of radio frequency based digital thermometer for real-time monitoring of dairy cattle rectal temperature
Aim: Dairy cattle health monitoring program becomes vital for detecting the febrile conditions to prevent the outbreak of the animal diseases as well as ensuring the fitness of the animals that are directly affecting the health of the consumers. The aim of this study was to validate real-time rectal temperature (RT) data of radio frequency based digital (RFD) thermometer with RT data of mercury bulb (MB) thermometer in dairy cattle.
Materials and Methods: Two experiments were conducted. In experiment I, six female Jersey crossbred cattle with a mean (±standard error of the mean) body weight of 534.83±13.90 kg at the age of 12±0.52 years were used to record RT for 2 h on empty stomach and 2 h after feeding at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min using a RFD thermometer as well as a MB thermometer. In experiment II, six female Jersey crossbred cattle were further used to record RT for 2 h before exercise and 2 h after exercise at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc comparisons by Bonferroni test was done.
Results: Real-time RT data recorded by RFD thermometer as well as MB thermometer did not differ (p>0.05) before and after feeding/exercise. An increase (p<0.05) in RT after feeding/exercise in experimental crossbred cattle was recorded by both RFD thermometer and MB thermometer.
Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study suggest that the body temperature recordings from RFD thermometer would be acceptable and thus RFD thermometer could work well for monitoring real-time RT in cattle.
Keywords: cattle, exercise, feeding, radio frequency device, rectal temperature, thermometer.
Monday, 11 September 2017
Wednesday, 6 September 2017
Monday, 4 September 2017
Friday, 1 September 2017
Electrocardiographic reference values and configuration of electrocardiogram waves recorded in Black Bengal goats of different age groups
Aim: A study on age-related electrocardiographic (ECG) changes was conducted on 20 apparently healthy Black Bengal goats with no history of cardiac disorders during 2015-2016.
Materials and Methods: The goats selected for the study belonged to four different age groups; Group 1: Goats up to 6 months of age, Group 2: Above 6 months and below 1 year of age, Group 3: Above 1 year and below 2 years of age, and Group 4: Above 2 years of age. The ECG was recorded with the animals in standing position using a 12-lead standard ECG recorder (Model-Cardiart-108 MK VII, manufactured by BPL, India). The paper speed was set to 25 mm/s with the sensitivity of the machine was adjusted at 1 (1 cm=mV).
Results: The ECG parameters were compared within different age groups, and the data were analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 taking a significant level of 95% (p<0.05) in all cases. The lead-I ECG revealed a significant difference in amplitude of QRS complex, PR interval, QT interval, RR interval, PQ segment, ST segment, TP segment, and heart rate among some age groups. In bipolar limb lead-II, the amplitude of T-wave, RR interval, ST segment, TP segment, and heart rate was a significant difference among some age groups. Lead-III presented significant difference among age groups in different parameters such as QRS complex duration, T-wave duration, RR interval, ST segment, TP segment, and heart rate.
Conclusion: The study concluded that there is a significant variation in the ECG parameters both in terms of values and configuration of ECG waves when age is taken into consideration. The results of the study might be used as a reference value for field veterinarians.
Keywords: age, Black Bengal goats, electrocardiogram.