Tuesday, 21 November 2017

Advances in genome editing for improved animal breeding: A review

Review (Published online: 21-11-2017)
14. Advances in genome editing for improved animal breeding: A review
Shakil Ahmad Bhat, Abrar Ahad Malik, Syed Mudasir Ahmad, Riaz Ahmad Shah, Nazir Ahmad Ganai, Syed Shanaz Shafi and Nadeem Shabir
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1361-1366
Since centuries, the traits for production and disease resistance are being targeted while improving the genetic merit of domestic animals, using conventional breeding programs such as inbreeding, outbreeding, or introduction of marker-assisted selection. The arrival of new scientific concepts, such as cloning and genome engineering, has added a new and promising research dimension to the existing animal breeding programs. Development of genome editing technologies such as transcription activator-like effector nuclease, zinc finger nuclease, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats systems begun a fresh era of genome editing, through which any change in the genome, including specific DNA sequence or indels, can be made with unprecedented precision and specificity. Furthermore, it offers an opportunity of intensification in the frequency of desirable alleles in an animal population through gene-edited individuals more rapidly than conventional breeding. The specific research is evolving swiftly with a focus on improvement of economically important animal species or their traits all of which form an important subject of this review. It also discusses the hurdles to commercialization of these techniques despite several patent applications owing to the ambiguous legal status of genome-editing methods on account of their disputed classification. Nonetheless, barring ethical concerns gene-editing entailing economically important genes offers a tremendous potential for breeding animals with desirable traits.
Keywords: animal breeding, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats /Cas9, genome editing, transcription activator-like effector nuclease, zinc finger nucleases.

Sunday, 19 November 2017

The clinical impact of antimicrobial resistance genomics in competition with she-camels recurrent mastitis metabolomics due to heterogeneous Bacillus licheniformis field isolates

Research (Published online: 20-11-2017)
13. The clinical impact of antimicrobial resistance genomics in competition with she-camels recurrent mastitis metabolomics due to heterogeneous Bacillus licheniformis field isolates
Nesreen Allam Tantawy Allam, Doaa Sedky and Enshrah K. Mira
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1353-1360
Background and Aim: Recently, cases of mastitis refractory to treatment have been reported frequently. There are limited routine laboratory investigations on Camelidae infections. Mastitis has been estimated to affect more than 25% of lactating she-camel with up to 70% milk loss. The details of Bacillus spp. pathogenesis in mastitis are not yet fully described. The present study is the first detailed phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Bacillus licheniformis isolates from recurrent mastitic she-camels with sepsis in Egypt.
Materials and Methods: The udders of 100 she-camels were investigated, samples collected from smallholders' farmers in 10 localities within three governorates in Egypt: Marsa Matrouh, Giza, and Sharkia governorates. The pathogens ascend from udder inducing abortion at different trimesters of pregnancy. Polymerase chain reactions-mediated proofs of identity were applied for diagnostic and taxonomic purposes, where the 16S rRNA gene sequence and the β subunit of RNA polymerase encoding gene rpoB are the molecular targets.
Results: The genetic elements classified the subspecies to B. licheniformis 61.4%, in addition to, Corynebacterium bovis 29.8%. The somatic cell count (≤1x107 cells/ml) and California mastitis test reactivity (+3 or +4) of milk clinically classified the she-camels population (n=100) under investigation into 50, 20, and 30 as healthy, subclinical, and clinical mastitic she-camels, respectively. During bacterial isolation, 80 species were noticed, of which 71.25% (57/80) and 28.75% (23/80) were Gram-positive and negative, respectively, in two clinical forms: Single (40%, n=16/40) and mixed (60%, n=34/40) bacterial infections. In vitro, 100% sensitivity for gentamycin (10 μg) and ofloxacin (5 μg) was noted; however, it was reduced to 50% during in vivo treatments. Moreover, cloxacillin (5 μg) upraised as the most effective alternative with 90% sensitivity.
Conclusion: Neither recurrent mastitis nor Bacillus species are thoroughly investigated with regard to reproduction performance in Egypt and the usefulness of these strains as antimastitis probiotics. Both persistent bacteremia and dormant endospores formed but unaffected by standard schemes of antimicrobials injections proposed the risk of pathogenic bacilli contaminating row milk from apparently healthy she-camel. The discrepancies between treatment results were induced by the resistance that started to develop by the organisms due to frequent and/or faulty use of applied antibiotics.
Keywords: 16S rRNA gene, antimicrobial resistance, Bacillus species, Camelidae, Egypt, probiotics, recurrent mastitis, rpoβ gene.

Thursday, 16 November 2017

Reducing zoonotic and internal parasite burdens in pigs using a pig confinement system

Research (Published online: 16-11-2017)
12. Reducing zoonotic and internal parasite burdens in pigs using a pig confinement system
Kadek Karang Agustina, Ida Bagus Ngurah Swacita, Ida Bagus Made Oka, I Made Dwinata, Rebecca Justin Traub, Colin Cargill and I Made Damriyasa
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1347-1352
Aim: This study was designed to validate the effectiveness of the pig confinement system (PCS) in reducing the prevalence of zoonotic and internal parasite burdens in pigs.
Materials and Methods: Ten PCS households were selected together with 10 households practising traditional scavenging systems. Five pigs were monitored per household every 3 months for 15 months and blood and feces collected. Pigs received a single dose of oxfendazole at 30 mg/kg at baseline. Qualitative fecal examinations for intestinal parasite stages were performed, and serum was tested for antibodies to cysticercus of Taenia soliumTrichinella spp., and Toxoplasma gondii.
Results: Based on fecal examination, the prevalence of pigs positive for parasite eggs was reduced in PCS pigs over consecutive samplings (Ascaris suum [14.3% to 0%], Trichuris suis [46.9% to 8.3%], Strongyle-type eggs [81.6% to 8.3%], Physocephalus spp. [6.1% to 0%], and Metastrongylus apri [20.8% to 0%]) compared with increases in the number of pigs positive for parasite eggs in non-PCS pigs (T. suis [20-61.5%], Strongyle-type [60.4-80.8%], Physocephalus spp. [8.3-15.4%], and M. apri [20.8-34.6%]) and little change in pigs positive for A. suum (18.8-19.2%). While the prevalence of pigs with antibodies against to cysticerci of T. solium reduced in PCS pigs from 18% to 14%, the prevalence in non-PCS pigs increased from 42% to 52%. Antibodies to Trichinella were not detected, but the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies increased from 6% to 10% in PCS pigs and from 7% to 24% in non-PCS pigs.
Conclusion: These data demonstrate the potential of a PCS to reduce the prevalence of pigs infected with zoonotic and internal parasites and thus the risk to human and pig health.
Keywords: confinement, parasite, pig, system, zoonotic.

Wednesday, 15 November 2017

Determination of serum adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase activity in Kangal dogs with maternal cannibalism

Research (Published online: 15-11-2017)
11. Determination of serum adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase activity in Kangal dogs with maternal cannibalism
N. Ercan, M. Kockaya, S. Kapancik and D. Bakir
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1343-1346
Aim: Kangal dogs, known as guard dogs in many countries of the world, have been found to eat their own puppies during their first 24 h following birth, which is called as maternal cannibalism. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and xanthine oxidase (XO) are important enzymes for purine metabolism. In this study, the aim is to evaluate ADA and XO activities in Kangal dogs with maternal cannibalism.
Materials and Methods: The material of the study consists of the blood sera of Kangal dog breed with and without maternal cannibalism in the breeders around Sivas city and its districts. ADA and XO activities in blood serum of these animals were investigated by spectrophotometric method.
Results: ADA activities in Kangal dogs with maternal cannibalism were increased to the control group without maternal cannibalism (p<0.01).
Conclusion: Postnatal measurement of ADA activity in dogs may be useful in assessing maternal cannibalism.
Keywords: adeosine deaminase, Kangal dog, maternal cannibalism.

Tuesday, 14 November 2017

Effects of hyperbaric therapy on liver morphofunctional of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) after hind limb ischemia-reperfusion injury

Research (Published online: 14-11-2017)
10. Effects of hyperbaric therapy on liver morphofunctional of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) after hind limb ischemia-reperfusion injury
Bambang Sektiari Lukiswanto, Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti and Y. Yosis Motulo
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1337-1342

Aim: The objective of this research was to study and to prove the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) starting time on liver morphofunctional changes after ischemia-reperfusion in the hind limb of rabbits.
Materials and Methods: This research used a complete randomized design with 4 groups and 6 repetitions on each. After 6 h artery femoral is ligation, reperfusion was performed for 100 min (G1), HBOT for 90 min after 10 min reperfusion (G2), 10 min reperfusion (G3), and HBOT 90 min after 60 min reperfusion (G4). Then, all of the rabbits were sacrificed. The liver and blood were taken for histopathological changes examination as well as for measuring the level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The statistical test using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney showed that the score of degeneration, necrosis, and portal inflammation in groups without HBOT (G1 and G3) were not significantly different, as well as in group with HBOT (G2 and G4) (p>0.05). However, the scores of histopathological changes in G1 and G3 were significantly different from those in G2 and G4 (p<0.05). The levels of AST and ALT in the groups without hyperbaric therapy (G1 and G3) were not significantly different from those in the groups treated with hyperbaric therapy (G2 and G4) (p>0.05).
Results: Hind limb ischemia injury reperfusion can trigger damage for liver morphology, but not lead to liver dysfunction. Reperfusion can trigger increased activity of neutrophils, while neutrophil infiltration in the organ will lead to dysfunction. HBOT can inhibit the activity of neutrophils and the dysfunction of organs caused by ischemic reperfusion.
Conclusion: HBOT for 90 min, both 10 and 60 min after the reperfusion, can protect hepatocytes from damage.
Keywords: hyperbaric oxygen therapy, ischemia, liver, morphofunctional, reperfusion.

Monday, 13 November 2017

Immunoglobulin subclass in experimental murine Toxocara cati infection

Research (Published online: 13-11-2017)
9. Immunoglobulin subclass in experimental murine Toxocara cati infection
Kusnoto, Setiawan Koesdarto, Sri Mumpuni and R. Heru Prasetyo
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1333-1336
Aim: The aim of this study was to detect specific immunoglobulin (Ig) that could be used to determine monoclonal antibody in conjugate-making an effort for the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) diagnostic kit of toxocariasis in human.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted to assess the Ig profile, based on ELISA-isotyping, in mice infected with second stage larvae eggs of Toxocara cati. The optical density values of anti-T. cati mice serum IgG subclasses were analyzed by applying ANOVA factorial.
Results: The specific IgG subclass in mice infected with T. cati mice was found to be IgG2β.
Conclusion: Subclass of IgG, especially IgG2β, can provide leads about the use of the monoclonal antibody in conjugate making an effort for the indirect ELISA diagnostic kit.
Keywords: diagnostic kit, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, human, immunoglobulin G subclass, monoclonal antibody, toxocariasis, Toxocara cati.

Saturday, 11 November 2017

Production of aldosterone in cardiac tissues of healthy dogs and with dilated myocardiopathy

Research (Published online: 12-11-2017)
8. Production of aldosterone in cardiac tissues of healthy dogs and with dilated myocardiopathy
Alejandro Reynoso Palomar, Georgina Mena Aguilar, Marisol Cruz Garcia, Cesar Pastelin Rojas and Abel Villa Mancera
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1329-1332
Background and Aim: Aldosterone is a hormone, belonging to the group of mineralocorticoids, mainly synthesized in the adrenal cortex, basically its function is to regulate blood pressure and sodium potassium levels in the body; high levels of this hormone have harmful effects in the organism and mainly in the heart in chronic form. Dilated cardiomyopathy is a progressive disease of heart muscle that is characterized by ventricular chamber enlargement and contractile dysfunction, is one of the most common cardiac conditions in dogs of medium and large breeds. The aim of the study was to determine and quantify if a dog's cardiac cells possess the capacity to synthesize aldosterone, as well as, the differences that appear between a healthy heart and with dilated myocardiopathy (DMC).
Materials and Methods: Cardiac tissues were used from six healthy dogs and six with DMC. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was performed to determine if the dog's heart cells synthesized this mineralocorticoid in a similar way to rat, rabbit, and human tissues, as well as quantitative differences between the healthy heart and DMC.
Results: In healthy dog hearts, aldosterone values were 62.5 pG for both the atria and right ventricle and 125 pG for the left ventricle. As for dog hearts' with DMC, results were 125 pG in all four cavities.
Conclusion: Both the healthy and DMC dog hearts produce aldosterone in all four cavities, observing that production increases in the atria and right ventricle of those hearts with DMC, as an intrinsic mechanism of cardiac remodeling.
Keywords: cardiac insufficiency, dog heart, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, mineralocorticoids.

The phylogenetics of Leucocytozoon caulleryi infecting broiler chickens in endemic areas in Indonesia

Research (Published online: 11-11-2017)
7. The phylogenetics of Leucocytozoon caulleryi infecting broiler chickens in endemic areas in Indonesia
Endang Suprihati and Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1324-1328
Aim: The objective of this research was to determine the species and strains of Leucocytozoon caulleryi and study the phylogenetics of L. caulleryi of broiler chickens in endemic areas in Indonesia.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from broiler chickens originated from endemic area in Indonesia, i.e., Pasuruan, Lamongan, Blitar, Lumajang, Boyolali, Purwokerto, and Banjarmasin in 2017. Collected blood was used for microscopic examination, sequencing using BLAST method to identify the nucleotide structure of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene that determines the species, and the phylogenetics analysis of L. caulleryi that infected broiler chickens in endemic areas in Indonesia, using Mega 5 software.
Results: The results showed that Plasmodium sp. and L. caulleryi were infected broiler chickens in endemic areas in Indonesia. L. caulleryi in one area had very close phylogenetic relations with those in other areas. The genetic distance between L. caulleryi taxa from various endemic areas is very close (<5%).
Conclusion: There is a very close phylogenetics among strains of L. caulleryi that infected broiler chickens in various endemic areas in Indonesia.
Keywords: broiler chickens, cytochrome b gene, endemic, Indonesia, Leucocytozoon caulleryi.

Friday, 10 November 2017

High prevalence of small Babesia species in canines of Kerala, South India

Research (Published online: 10-11-2017)
6. High prevalence of small Babesia species in canines of Kerala, South India
Kollannur Jose Jain, Bindu Lakshmanan, Karunakaran Syamala, Jose E Praveena and Thazhathuveetil Aravindakshan
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1319-1323
Aim: Canine babesiosis is an important vector-borne hemoparasitic disease caused by Babesia canis vogeli and Babesia gibsoni, in India. The communication places on record the salient findings of the study directed to detect and characterize the pathogenic B. gibsoni isolates of Kerala state.
Materials and Methods: A total of 150 dogs were examined for the presence of hemoparasites by light microscopy as well as by PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene of B. gibsoni. Hematological parameters were also analysed. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on Tamura kei model adopting ML method.
Results: A sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction assay was developed with newly designed primer pair BAGI-F/ BAGI-R for the amplification of 488 bp fragment of 18S rRNA gene of B. gibsoni. Out of the 150 dogs examined, molecular evidence of B. gibsoni was recorded in 47.3% animals, while light microscopy detected the infection in 26.67% cases. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that B. gibsoni, Kerala, isolate was closest and occurred together with Bareilly isolate. Anemia and thrombocytopenia were the significant hematological alterations in chronic B. gibsoni infection.
Conclusion: A high prevalence of natural infection of B. gibsoni was detected among the study population. The affected animals showed anaemia and thrombocytopenia. Phylogenetic analysis of this pathogenic isolate from south India revealed the closest similarity with Bareilly isolates.
Keywords: 18S rRNA gene, Babesia gibsoni, dogs, hematology, phylogeny, polymerase chain reaction.

Wednesday, 8 November 2017

Dermatophilus congolensis infection in sheep and goats in Delta region of Tamil Nadu

Research (Published online: 09-11-2017)
5. Dermatophilus congolensis infection in sheep and goats in Delta region of Tamil Nadu
M. Ananda Chitra, K. Jayalakshmi, P. Ponnusamy, R. Manickam and B. S. M. Ronald
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1314-1318
Aim: The study was conducted to isolate and identify Dermatophilus congolensis (DC) using conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques in scab materials collected from skin infections of sheep and goats in the Delta region of Tamil Nadu.
Materials and Methods: A total of 20 scab samples collected from 18 goats and 2 sheep from Nagapattinam, Thanjavur, and Tiruvarur districts of Tamil Nadu. Smears were made from softened scab materials and stained by either Gram's or Giemsa staining. Isolation was attempted on blood agar plates, and colonies were stained by Gram's staining for morphological identification. Identification was also done by biochemical tests and confirmed by 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the amplified product.
Results: The peculiar laddering arrangement of coccoid forms in stained smears prepared from scab materials revealed the presence of DC. Isolated colonies from scab materials of sheep and goats on bovine blood agar plate were small, hemolytic, rough, adherent, and bright orange-yellow in color, but some colonies were white to cream color. Gram-staining of cultured organisms revealed Gram-positive branching filaments with various disintegration stages of organisms. 16S rRNA PCR yielded 500 bp amplicon specific for DC. Sequence analysis of a sheep DC isolate showed 99-100% sequence homology with other DC isolates available in NCBI database, and phylogenetic tree showed a close cluster with DC isolates of Congo, Nigeria, and Angola of Africa. Genes for virulence factors such as serine protease and alkaline ceramidase could not be detected by PCR in any of the DC strains isolated of this study."
Conclusion: The presence of dermatophilosis in Tamil Nadu was established from this study.
Keywords: 16S rRNA sequence analysis, Dermatophilus congolensis, sheep and goats, Tamil Nadu.

Tuesday, 7 November 2017

Immunocytochemical study of canine lymphomas and its correlation with exposure to tobacco smoke

Research (Published online: 08-11-2017)
4. Immunocytochemical study of canine lymphomas and its correlation with exposure to tobacco smoke
K. C. Pinello, M. Santos, L. Leite-Martins, J. Niza-Ribeiro and A. J. de Matos
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1307-1313

Aim: Canine lymphoma is one of the most common canine neoplasms, but little is known regarding the effects of exposure to tobacco smoke on their biologic behavior. As cytology is the most frequent diagnostic method of canine lymphoma, the aims of this study were to perform an immunocytochemical study of canine lymphomas, including subtyping and cell proliferation analysis, and to establish their correlation with tobacco smoke exposure.

Materials and Methods: A total of 23 dogs diagnosed with lymphoma were subjected to careful fine-needle biopsies of enlarged lymph nodes. The smears were air-dried, fixed with cold acetone, and immunocytochemically stained using CD3, PAX5, and Ki-67. Owners were requested to complete an epidemiologic questionnaire.

Results: According to the updated Kiel classification, 65% were B-cell lymphomas - three low grade (LG) and 12 high grade (HG) and 35% were T-cell - two LG and six HG. Thirteen tumors presented high Ki67 indexes (>40%) (11 HG and 2 LG), two revealed moderate ones (20-40%) (1 HG and 1 LG), and three had low indexes (≤20%) (1 HG and 2 LG). Both a significant positive correlation and a significant linear-by-linear association (p=0.018) were observed between high Ki67 indexes and smoking owners (r=0.753, p=0.002) as well as with the number of smokers in the household (r=0.641, p=0.001). Moreover, the mean percentage of Ki67+ cells from the group of "smoker owners" was statically higher (p=0.011) than that from the "non-smoker owners."

Conclusion: The results suggest that cytological diagnosis of canine lymphomas benefits from being complemented with immunocytochemical studies that include subtyping and assessment of proliferative activity, both contributing for the prognosis and therapeutic planning. Furthermore, exposure to tobacco smoke seems to be related to the biological behavior of canine lymphomas.

Keywords: canine lymphoma, immunocytochemistry, proliferation, tobacco smoke.

Saturday, 4 November 2017

Prevention, detection, and response to anthrax outbreak in Northern Tanzania using one health approach: A case study of Selela ward in Monduli district

Research (Published online: 04-11-2017)
11. Prevention, detection, and response to anthrax outbreak in Northern Tanzania using one health approach: A case study of Selela ward in Monduli district - Elibariki R. Mwakapeje, Justine A. Assenga, John S. Kunda, Ernest E. Mjingo, Zachariah E. Makondo, Hezron E. Nonga, Robinson H. Mdegela and Eystein Skjerve

International Journal of One Health, 3: 66-76

doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2017.66-76


Background: Anthrax is an infectious fatal zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax outbreak was confirmed in samples of wild animals following rumors of the outbreak in wild animals, livestock, and humans in Selela ward, Monduli district of Northern Tanzania. Therefore, a multi-sectorial team was deployed for outbreak response in the affected areas.
Objectives: The aim of the response was to manage the outbreak in a One Health approach and specifically: (i) To determine the magnitude of anthrax outbreak in humans, livestock, and wild animals in Selela ward, (ii) to assess the outbreak local response capacity, (iii) to establish mechanisms for safe disposal of animal carcasses in the affected areas, and (iv) to mount effective control and preventive strategies using One Health approach in the affected areas.
Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional field survey using: (i) Active searching of suspected human cases at health facilities and community level, (ii) physical counting and disposal of wild animal carcasses in the affected area, (iii) collection of specimens from suspected human cases and animal carcasses for laboratory analysis, and (iv) meetings with local animal and human health staff, political, and traditional leaders at local levels. We analyzed data by STATA software, and a map was created using Quantum GIS software.
Results: A total of 21 humans were suspected, and most of them (62%) being from Selela ward. The outbreak caused deaths of 10 cattle, 26 goats, and three sheep, and 131 wild animal carcasses were discarded the majority of them being wildebeest (83%). Based on laboratory results, three blood smears tested positive for anthrax using Giemsa staining while two wildebeest samples tested positive and five human blood samples tested negative for anthrax using quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques. Clinical forms of anthrax were also observed in humans and livestock which suggest that wild animals may contribute as reservoir of anthrax which can easily be transmitted to humans and livestock.
Conclusion: The rapid outbreak response by multi-sectoral teams using a One Health approach managed to contain the outbreak. The teams were composed of animal and human health experts from national to village levels to control the outbreak. The study testifies the importance of multi-sectoral approach using One Health approach in outbreak preparedness and response.
Keywords: anthrax outbreak, human – livestock and wild animal’s interface, response, Tanzania.

Friday, 3 November 2017

Nutritional enrichment of broiler breast meat through dietary supplementation of Indian ginseng Withania somnifera and synbiotic substances under semi-arid climatic conditions

Research (Published online: 03-11-2017)
3. Nutritional enrichment of broiler breast meat through dietary supplementation of Indian ginseng Withania somnifera and synbiotic substances under semi-arid climatic conditions
Sonal Thakur, Tribhuwan Sharma, Radhe Shyam Arya, Basant Bais and Vijay Kumar Agrawal
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1301-1306
Aim: The present study was conducted to explore the effect of supplementation of Withania somnifera and synbiotics alone or in combination on the composition of broiler breast meat under heat stress conditions.
Materials and Methods: A 42-day feeding trial was conducted on 360 broiler chicks randomly allotted into eight treatment groups with three replicates each under completely randomized design. The T1 group was kept as control whereas T2-T4 were supplemented with 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% W. somnifera root powder; T5 and T6 were supplemented with 0.025% and 0.050% synbiotic and T7 and T8 were fed on diet containing 0.25% W. somnifera+0.025% synbiotic and 0.50% W. somnifera+0.05% synbiotic, respectively. Three broilers from each replicate were sacrificed at the end of the trial to estimate crude protein (CP), ether extract and ash content of the breast muscle on dry matter basis.
Results: Significantly higher CP values and lower ether extract values were observed in 1.5% W. somnifera supplemented group (T4) or in group supplemented with 0.50% W. somnifera and 0.05% synbiotic (T8). The ash content of breast meat was observed non-significant in T1-T4 groups however the inclusion of synbiotics in T5-T8 groups significantly raised the ash contents.
Conclusion: The study concluded that inclusion of 0.5% W. somnifera with 0.05% synbiotic substance enriches the total protein content and reduces the total lipids content of broiler breast meat under heat stress conditions.
Keywords: breast meat, broiler, heat stress, synbiotics, Withania somnifera.

Wednesday, 1 November 2017

Preliminary study of Malaysian fruit bats species diversity in Lenggong Livestock Breeding Center, Perak: Potential risk of spill over infection

Research (Published online: 02-11-2017)
2. Preliminary study of Malaysian fruit bats species diversity in Lenggong Livestock Breeding Center, Perak: Potential risk of spill over infection
Muhammed Mikail, T. A. Tengku Rinalfi Putra, Arshad Siti Suri, Mohd Noor Mohd Hezmee and M. T. Marina
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1297-1300
Aim: Farms that are neighboring wildlife sanctuaries are at risk of spillover infection from wildlife, and the objective of this research is to examine the species diversity of Malaysian fruit bats in livestock farm in determining the possible risk of spill over infection to livestock.
Materials and Methods: Fifty individual fruit bats were captured using six mists net, from May to July 2017. The nets were set at dusk (1830 h) as bats emerge for foraging and monitored at every 30-min intervals throughout the night until dawn when they returned to the roost. The nets were closed for the day until next night, and captured bats were identified to species levels.
Results: All the captured bats were mega chiropterans, and Cynopterus brachyotis was the highest captured species, representing 40% of the total capture. Shannon-Weiner index is 2.80, and Simpson index is 0.2. Our result suggests that there is a degree of species dominance with low diversity in Lenggong Livestock Breeding Center.
Conclusion: We concluded that fruit bats are indeed, encroaching livestock areas and the species identified could be a potential source of infection to susceptible livestock. Hence, an active surveillance should be embarked on farms that border wildlife sanctuaries.
Keywords: Fruit bats, Lyssaviruses, Nipah virus, Wildlife sanctuaries, Zoonotic diseases.