Thursday, 19 January 2017
Research (Published online: 19-01-2017)
13. Gastrointestinal parasitism of goats in hilly region of Meghalaya, India - Meena Das, R. Laha, A. Goswami and A. Sen
Veterinary World, 10(1): 81-85
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infections in goats of hilly region of Meghalaya.
Materials and Methods: A total of 834 fecal samples of goats were screened for 1 year (2014-2015) using flotation techniques.
Results: The overall prevalence of GI parasitic infections in goats was 28.65%. Season-wise highest infections were recorded during rainy season (34.92%) followed by cool (26.87%), hot (26.62%), and cold (20.39%) seasons. Helminths and protozoa infections were recorded in 63.60% and 23.02% animals, respectively. Among the helminths, Strongyle spp. (32.63%) was recorded highest followed by Trichuris spp. (12.55%), Moniezia spp. (10.04%), and Trichuris spp. (8.36%). Among protozoa, only Eimeria spp. was detected. Seven different species of Eimeria spp. were identified, viz., Eimeria christenseni, Eimeria hirci, Eimeria caprina, Eimeria jolchijevi, Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae, Eimeria arloingi, and Eimeria kocharii for the first time from Meghalaya. Maximum egg per gram and oocyst per gram of feces were recorded in the month of August (932.4) and September (674.05), respectively. Mixed infections were recorded in 13.38% samples. Coproculture of goat fecal samples revealed the presence of Haemonchus contortus (72.16%), Oesophagostomum spp. (14.41%), Strongyloides spp. (8.91%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (4.50%) larvae.
Conclusion: This study indicates that GI helminths and protozoa infections are prevalent in goats of this hilly region of Meghalaya, throughout the year and highly prevalent during rainy season.
Keywords: gastrointestinal parasites, goat, helminths, Meghalaya, protozoa.
Research (Published online: 19-01-2017)
12. Protective effect of rutin in comparison to silymarin against induced hepatotoxicity in rats - M. Kasi Reddy, A. Gopala Reddy, B. Kala Kumar, D. Madhuri, G. Boobalan and M. Anudeep Reddy
Veterinary World, 10(1): 74-80
Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of rutin (RTN) in comparison to silymarin (SLM) against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
Materials and Methods: Male Wistar albino rats (n=24) of 3 months age were equally divided into four groups. Group 1 served as normal control. Hepatotoxicity was induced in the remaining three groups with administration of 500 mg/kg po APAP from day 1-3. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were subsequently administered orally with distilled water, 25 mg/kg of SLM, and 20 mg/kg of RTN, respectively, for 11 days. The mean body weights and biomarkers of hepatotoxicity were estimated on day 0, 4 (confirmation of toxicity), and 15 (at the end of treatment). Hematological parameters were evaluated on day 4 and 15. Antioxidant profile and adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) were assessed at the end of the experiment. Liver tissues were subjected to histopathology and transmission electron microscopy after the sacrifice on day 15.
Results: Antioxidant profile, ATPases, and hematological and sero-biochemical parameters were significantly altered, and histopathological changes were noticed in the liver of toxic control group. These changes were reversed in groups 3 and 4 that were administered with SLM and RTN, respectively.
Conclusion: The results of the present investigation enunciated that SLM has potent hepatoprotective activity though the RTN was found superior in restoring the pathological alterations in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats.
Keywords: acetaminophen, hepatotoxicity, rutin, silymarin.
Wednesday, 18 January 2017
Influence of training and competitive sessions on peripheral β-endorphin levels in training show jumping horses
Research (Published online: 18-01-2017)
11. Influence of training and competitive sessions on peripheral β-endorphin levels in training show jumping horses - Cristina Cravana, P. Medica, G. Ragonese and E. Fazio
Veterinary World, 10(1): 67-73
Aim: To investigate the effects of training sessions on circulating β-endorphin changes in sport horses before and after competition and to ascertain whether competition would affect this response.
Materials and Methods: A total of 24 trained jumping horses were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: Group A (competing) and Group B (not competing). To determined plasma β-endorphin concentrations, two pre- and postcompetition training weeks at aerobic workout and two competitive show jumping event days at anaerobic workout were measured before, 5 and 30 min after exercise. Exercise intensity is described using lactate concentrations and heart rate. The circuit design, intensity, and duration of training sessions were the same for both groups.
Results: In Group A, one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures (RM-ANOVA) showed significant effects of exercise on β-endorphin changes (F=14.41; p<0.001), only in the post-competition training sessions, while in Group B showed no significant effects. Two-way RM-ANOVA showed, after post-competition training sessions, a significant difference between Group A and Group B (F=6.235; p=0.023), with higher β-endorphin changes in Group A, compared to Group B. During the competitive show jumping sessions, one-way RM ANOVA showed significant effects of exercise on β-endorphin changes (F=51.10; p<0.001). The statistical analysis, in Group A, showed a significant difference between postcompetition training and competitive exercise (F=6.32; p=0.024) with higher β-endorphin values in competitive sessions compared to those of post-competition training.
Conclusion: Lactate concentrations seem to be the main factors being correlated with the raise of β-endorphin during anaerobic exercise of competitive events. Exercise of low intensity, as well as that one of training sessions, does not appear to stimulate a significant increased release of β-endorphin and it may depend on the duration of the exercise program. Moreover, the responses during exercise in the course of post-competition training sessions seem to be significantly different from those the pre-competition training. These data show that the preliminary competitive stress induced additional significant changes of β-endorphin pattern. It would reflect the need of a long-lasting modulation of fatigue and pain perception related to the effect of an additional physical and mental effort for the consecutive competitive and training sessions.
Keywords: β-endorphin, competition, horse, show jumping, training.
Tuesday, 17 January 2017
Research (Published online: 17-01-2017)
10. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitism in small ruminants in western zone of Punjab, India - E. Singh, P. Kaur, L. D. Singla and
M. S. Bal
Veterinary World, 10(1): 61-66
Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitism in small ruminants in relation to various risk factors in the western zone of Punjab.
Materials and Methods: During the study, 603 fecal samples (391 of sheep and 212 of goats) were examined qualitatively by floatation and sedimentation techniques, and quantitatively by McMaster technique.
Results: Out of the 603 fecal (391 sheep and 212 goats) samples examined, 501 were found positive for endoparasitic infection with an overall prevalence of 83.08%, consisting of 85.16% and 79.24% in sheep and goats, respectively. Egg per gram in sheep was apparently more 1441.88±77.72 than goats 1168.57±78.31. The associated risk factors with the prevalence of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) parasites showed that females (85.97%) were significantly more susceptible than males (69.23%). Age wise the adults (>6 months) were significantly more prone to parasitic infection as compared to young ones (<6 months). Seasonal variation was recorded throughout the year and was significantly highest during monsoon (90.10%), followed by winter (83.84%) and summer (78.35%).
Conclusion: The study revealed an overall prevalence of 83.08% of GIT parasitic infections in small ruminants constituting 85.16% in sheep and 79.24% in goats in the western zone of Punjab. The most relevant risk factors for the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitism in ruminants were sex, age, and season.
Keywords: gastrointestinal parasitism, goat, prevalence, Punjab, sheep, western zone.
Friday, 13 January 2017
Transcriptomic comparison of primary bovine horn core carcinoma culture and parental tissue at early stage
Research (Published online: 13-01-2017)
8. Transcriptomic comparison of primary bovine horn core carcinoma culture and parental tissue at early stage - Sharadindu Shil, R. S. Joshi, C. G. Joshi, A. K. Patel, Ravi K. Shah, Namrata Patel, Subhash J. Jakhesara, Sumana Kundu, Bhaskar Reddy, P. G. Koringa and D. N. Rank
Veterinary World, 10(1): 38-55
Aim: Squamous cell carcinoma or SCC of horn in bovines (bovine horn core carcinoma) frequently observed in Bos indicus affecting almost 1% of cattle population. Freshly isolated primary epithelial cells may be closely related to the malignant epithelial cells of the tumor. Comparison of gene expression in between horn’s SCC tissue and its early passage primary culture using next generation sequencing was the aim of this study.
Materials and Methods: Whole transcriptome sequencing of horn’s SCC tissue and its early passage cells using Ion Torrent PGM were done. Comparative expression and analysis of different genes and pathways related to cancer and biological processes associated with malignancy, proliferating capacity, differentiation, apoptosis, senescence, adhesion, cohesion, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and metabolic pathways were identified.
Results: Up-regulated genes in SCC of horn’s early passage cells were involved in transporter activity, catalytic activity, nucleic acid binding transcription factor activity, biogenesis, cellular processes, biological regulation and localization and the down-regulated genes mainly were involved in focal adhesion, extracellular matrix receptor interaction and spliceosome activity.
Conclusion: The experiment revealed similar transcriptomic nature of horn’s SCC tissue and its early passage cells.
Keywords: cummerbund, gene ontology, primary culture, RNA-sequencing, squamous cell carcinoma of horn, transcriptome profiling.
Thursday, 12 January 2017
Research (Published online: 12-01-2017)
7. Incidence and virulence characteristics of Aeromonas spp. in fish - Ashraf M. Abd-El-Malek
Veterinary World, 10(1): 34-37
Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Aeromonas spp. in raw and ready-to-eat (RTE) fish commonly consumed in Assiut city, Egypt, and to determine virulence factors due to they play a key role in their pathogenicity.
Materials and Methods: A total of 125 samples of raw and RTE fish samples were taken from different fish markets and fish restaurants in Assiut Governorate and screened for the presence of Aeromonas spp. by enrichment on tryptic soy broth then incubated at 30°C for 24 h. Plating unto the sterile Petri dishes containing Aeromonas agar base to which Aeromonas selective supplement was added. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Presumptive Aeromonas colonies were biochemically confirmed and analyzed for pathogenicity by hemolysin production, protease, and lipase detection.
Results: The results indicated that raw fish were contaminated with Aeromonas spp. (40% in wild and 36% in cultured Nile tilapia). Regarding RTE, Aeromonas spp. could be isolated with the percentage of 16%, 28% and 20% in fried Bolti, grilled Bolti and fried Bayad, respectively. Out of 35 isolates obtained, 22 were categorized as Aeromonas hydrophila, 12 were classified as Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas caviae were found in only one isolate. The virulence factors of Aeromonas spp. were detected and the results showed that all isolates produced of hemolysin (91.4%), protease (77.1%), and lipase enzyme (17.1%).
Conclusion: This study indicates that the presence of A. hydrophila with virulence potential in fresh and RTE fish may be a major threat to public health.
Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila, fish, hemolysin, lipase, protease enzyme, public health.
Wednesday, 11 January 2017
Research (Published online: 11-01-2017)
6. Prevalence of colibacillosis in chickens in greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh - Md. Abdul Matin, Md. Ariful Islam and Mst. Minara Khatun
Veterinary World, 10(1): 29-33
Aim: This study was conducted for determination of the prevalence of colibacillosis in chicken in poultry farms in Mymensingh and Tangail districts. Isolation, identification, and antibiogram profile of Escherichia coli were also performed.
Materials and Methods: A total of 25 chickens manifested clinical signs of colibacillosis were collected from five different poultry farms during natural outbreaks.
Results: In broiler, the prevalence of colibacillosis was 0.84%, and in layer, prevalence was 0.80%. The prevalence of colibacillosis was 1.0% and 0.5% in 25-30 days old and 31-35 days old broiler, respectively. In case of layer birds, the prevalence was 0.6% in 40-45 days old bird and 1% in 46-50 days old bird. Identity of the E. coli isolate of chicken was confirmed by sugar fermentation, biochemical tests, and polymerase chain reaction assay. Antibiogram profile of E. coli isolate of chicken revealed that it was multidrug resistant (resistant against two antibiotics, such as ampicillin and cefalexin).
Conclusion: Data of this study suggest that colibacillosis is prevalent in the study areas which underscore the need of implementation of prevention and control measure against this disease.
Keywords: chicken, colibacillosis, multidrug resistant Escherichia coli, Mymensingh, Tangail.
Tuesday, 10 January 2017
Research (Published online: 10-01-2017)
5. M-mode echocardiographic reference values in Pantja goats - Parul Singh, Narendra Singh Jadon, Deepti Bodh and Manjul Kandpal
Veterinary World, 10(1): 22-28
Aim: The aim of this study was to establish M-mode echocardiographic reference values in Pantja goats and to study the effect of gender and body weight (BW) on these parameters.
Materials and Methods: A total of 18, clinically healthy, adult Pantja goats of either sex, aged 2-4 years and weighing 10-44 kg were included in the study. Echocardiographic examination was performed in the standing unsedated animal. All measurements were made from the right parasternal long-axis left ventricular outflow tract view of the heart. The following parameters were recorded: Left ventricular internal diameter at diastole and systole, interventricular septal thickness at diastole and systole, left ventricular posterior wall (LVPW) thickness at diastole and systole, end diastolic and systolic volumes, stroke volume, fractional shortening, ejection fraction, percent systolic thickening of interventricular septum, percent systolic thickening of LVPW, cardiac output, left atrial (LA) diameter at diastole and systole, aortic (AO) root diameter at diastole and systole, LA/AO, LA posterior wall thickness at diastole and systole, left ventricular ejection time, DE amplitude, EF slope, AC interval and e-point to septal separation.
Results: This study demonstrated specific reference ranges of M-mode echocardiographic parameters and indices in healthy Pantja goats. Normal echocardiographic values obtained in Pantja goats were quite different from other goat breeds. Gender had no influence on echocardiographic parameters, while high correlations were found between most echocardiographic parameters and BW.
Conclusion: The echocardiographic values obtained in the study may serve as a reference for future studies in this breed, for cardiovascular disease diagnosis and for utilizing the goat as a model for cardiac disorders in humans.
Keywords: echocardiography, goats, heart disease, M-mode, Pantja.
Monday, 9 January 2017
Research (Published online: 09-01-2017)
4. Study of the dairy characters of lactating Murrah buffaloes on the basis of body parts measurements - Sandeep Dhillod, Dipankar Kar, C. S. Patil, Subhasish Sahu and Narender Singh
Veterinary World, 10(1): 17-21
Aim: The aim of the study was to correlate the milk yield of Murrah buffaloes with certain body parts measurements.
Materials and Methods: A total of 70 lactating Murrah buffaloes were selected from Buffalo Farm, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Science, Hisar and were randomly selected in a range from first to fifth parity. Traits studied were 305 days milk yield (MY), body weight (BW), body length (BL), muzzle width (MW), height at wither (HW), abdominal girth (AG), chest girth (CG), body depth fore, body depth rear, hip bone distance (HBD), pin bone distance (PBD), skin thickness (STK), and tail length (TL). Data were collected and statically analyzed by Pearson’s correlation method.
Result: The result of this study showed that Murrah buffaloes had the average 2604.8±39.5 kg for MY, 556.1±4.9 kg for BW, and 152.2±0.8 cm for BL. This study showed that buffaloes had positive significant (p<0.05) correlation between MY and BW (0.26). Highly significant (p<0.01) correlation was observed between MY and AG (0.64), MW (0.42). Significant (p<0.01) negative correlation was observed between MY and STK (−0.79). Different body part measurements (BW, BL, HW, AG, CG, MW, TL, BD, PBD, HBD, STK) were significantly correlated with each other.
Conclusion: This study can be helpful as a selection tool to enhance and evaluate the production potential by setting standards of Murrah buffalo breed. BW, abdominal growth, muzzle thickness, and STK were found key factors while selecting a dairy Murrah buffalo.
Keywords: body parts measurements, correlation, dairy characters, regression.
Saturday, 7 January 2017
Effects of different vegetable oils on rumen fermentation and conjugated linoleic acid concentration in vitro
Research (Published online: 08-01-2017)
3. Effects of different vegetable oils on rumen fermentation and conjugated linoleic acid concentration in vitro - Amitava Roy, Guru Prasad Mandal and Amlan Kumar Patra
Veterinary World, 10(1): 11-16
Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different vegetable oils on rumen fermentation and concentrations of beneficial cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-11 C18:1 fatty acid (FA) in the rumen fluid in an in vitro condition.
Materials and Methods: Six vegetable oils including sunflower, soybean, sesame, rice bran, groundnut, and mustard oils were used at three dose levels (0%, 3% and 4% of substrate dry matter [DM] basis) in three replicates for each treatment in a completely randomized design using 6 × 3 factorial arrangement. Rumen fluid for microbial culture was collected from four goats fed on a diet of concentrate mixture and berseem hay at a ratio of 60:40 on DM basis. The in vitro fermentation was performed in 100 ml conical flakes containing 50 ml of culture media and 0.5 g of substrates containing 0%, 3% and 4% vegetable oils.
Results: Oils supplementation did not affect (p>0.05) in vitro DM digestibility, and concentrations of total volatile FAs and ammonia-N. Sunflower oil and soybean oil decreased (p<0.05) protozoal numbers with increasing levels of oils. Other oils had less pronounced effect (p>0.05) on protozoal numbers. Both trans-11 C18:1 FA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations were increased (p<0.05) by sunflower and soybean oil supplementation at 4% level with the highest concentration observed for sunflower oil. The addition of other oils did not significantly (p>0.05) increase the trans-11 C18:1 FA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations as compared to the control. The concentrations of stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were not altered (p>0.05) due to the addition of any vegetable oils.
Conclusion: Supplementation of sunflower and soybean oils enhanced beneficial trans-11 C18:1 FA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations in rumen fluid, while sesame, rice bran, groundnut, and mustard oils were ineffective in this study.
Keywords: conjugated linoleic acid, goat, rumen fluid, vaccenic acid, vegetable oil.
Thursday, 5 January 2017
Research (Published online: 05-01-2017)
2. Molecular characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates in equines - Rabyia Javed, A. K. Taku, R. K. Sharma and Gulzaar Ahmed Badroo
Veterinary World, 10(1): 6-10
Aim: The aim was to determine the occurrence of Rhodococcus equi in equines and their environment in Jammu (R.S. Pura, Katra), molecular characterization and to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of R. equi.
Materials and Methods: A total of 96 nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from equines. The organism was isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and was later confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of R. equi isolates was done by 16S rRNA gene amplification followed by virulence associated protein A (Vap A) gene amplification. Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics, viz., amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin.
Results: During the study, 9 R. equi isolates were identified on the basis of cultural and biochemical tests. In the polymerase chain reaction based detection, 3 among the 9 rhodococcal isolates were positive for species-specific 16S rRNA gene and revealed amplicon of 450 bp for confirmation of 16S rRNA gene. None of the sample was found positive for Vap A gene. In antibiogram, R. equi isolates were found sensitive for amoxicillin, while some isolates were also found resistant to the most conventional antibiotic penicillin G.
Conclusion: From this study, it was concluded that R. equi infection is prevalent in equines in Jammu region of India and the indiscriminate use of the antibiotics is leading toward the development of resistant strains of R. equi.
Keywords: 16S rRNA, polymerase chain reaction, Rhodococcus equi.
Wednesday, 4 January 2017
Identification of suitable housing system for dairy cattle in North East Zone of Tamil Nadu, India, with respect to microclimate
Research (Published online: 04-01-2017)
1. Identification of suitable housing system for dairy cattle in North East Zone of Tamil Nadu, India, with respect to microclimate -
T. Sivakumar, P. T. Suraj, A. Yasotha and Jayashree Phukon
Veterinary World, 10(1): 1-5
Aim: To identify the suitable roofing pattern for dairy cattle in North East Zone of Tamil Nadu, India, based on micro climatic conditions.
Materials and Methods: Initially, survey was conducted to identify and categorize the major housing patterns existing in the region for further detailed investigation. In total, 30 farmers/farms consisting of five housing types with six replicates were selected. Temperature and temperature humidity index (THI) were recorded using the maximum-minimum thermometer and digital thermo-hygrometers. The study was conducted for 1 year covering four seasons namely South West monsoon (June-August), North East monsoon (September-November), cold season (December-February), and summer season (April-May). The data were statistically analyzed using statistical package SPSS 17.
Results: Animal shelters with cement sheets recorded the highest temperature (26.71±1.13°C) and THI (77.23±1.76) at 8.00 am, whereas the lowest temperature (24.83±1.17°C) and THI (74.54±1.72) were recorded in the thatched shed. There was significant difference (p<0.01) in temperature and THI at 8.00 am during South West monsoon and North East monsoon seasons between the housing types. During cold and summer seasons, there was no significant difference (p≥0.05) in the environmental variables among various shelter systems.
Conclusion: Thatched housing is found to be the suitable one with respect to the climatic variables, followed by tile roof and metal roof. The cement sheet roofed housing is found to be the most unsuitable one in the region for dairy cattle.
Keywords: dairy cattle, micro-climate, roofing pattern.