Saturday, 20 January 2018

Exploring knowledge and management practices on ticks and tick-borne diseases among agro-pastoral communities in Southern Highlands, Tanzania

Research (Published online: 21-01-2018)
10. Exploring knowledge and management practices on ticks and tick-borne diseases among agro-pastoral communities in Southern Highlands, Tanzania
Isack Ibrahim Kerario, Martin Simuunza, Emmanuel L. K. Laisser and Sebastian Chenyambuga
Veterinary World, 11(1): 48-57
ABSTRACT
Aim: The current study was conducted to assess the farmers' knowledge and management practices on ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) through individual interview using a structured questionnaire in Mbarali and Momba districts of Mbeya region.
Materials and Methods: A total of 240 households, 120 from each district were asked to mention TBDs of cattle which they thought were the most important in their localities and period of the year when the diseases occurred more frequently. In addition, farmers were asked to describe clinical signs and management practices associated with the common TBDs that they knew.
Results: The majority of respondents (46.2%) reported that East Coast fever (ECF) was the most important disease of cattle in the region, followed by anaplasmosis (33.8%), heartwater (15.4%), and babesiosis (4.6%). According to the farmers, ECF and anaplasmosis occurred more frequently during the dry season, while babesiosis and heartwater occurred more frequently during the rainy season. The majority of farmers were able to describe properly the signs of the common TBDs. Most farmers (80.4%) reported that they used acaricide to control ticks at a frequency of after every 2 weeks and a small proportion (15.8%) vaccinated their animals against ECF.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that farmers in Mbeya have considerable knowledge on tick species and clinical signs of TBDs affecting their cattle. Based on the findings of the current study, it is recommended that integrated approach to the control of ticks and TBDs be adopted in the study area and many other areas that utilize agro-pastoral and pastoral cattle production systems.
Keywords: acaricide, cattle, East Coast fever, indigenous knowledge.

Seroprevalence of selected viral pathogens in pigs reared in organized farms of Meghalaya from 2014 to 16

Research (Published online: 20-01-2018)
9. Seroprevalence of selected viral pathogens in pigs reared in organized farms of Meghalaya from 2014 to 16
Priyanka Mukherjee, Amarjit Karam, Uttam Singh, Amit Kumar Chakraborty, Surmani Huidrom, Arnab Sen and Indu Sharma
Veterinary World, 11(1): 42-47
ABSTRACT
Aim: A pilot study was carried out to find out the seroprevalence of Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRS) in pig population of Meghalaya.
Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from piglets of 40-45 days age group, growers, and sows reared under organized and unorganized management in 11 districts of Meghalaya situated in the Khasi, Jaintia, and Garo hills divisions in the time period of 2014-2016 from apparently healthy and suspected pigs. Seroprevalence of PCV2, CSFV, and PRRS specific antibodies was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: A total of 1899 serum samples were collected and screened using antibody ELISA kits specific for PCV2, CSFV, and PRRS. The highest antibody prevalence during the selected time periods was detected for PCV2 (80.8% in 2014, 79.1% in 2015, and 96.2% in 2016) followed by CSFV (76.4% in 2014, 66.09% in 2015, and 25.5% in 2016) and PRRS (2.8% in 2014, 2.7% in 2015, and 3.62% in 2016). The result indicates high seroprevalence for PCV2, which can be considered as an inducement factor due to the immunosuppressive nature of the virus, for animals being susceptible to other pathogens in farms where airborne transmission of PCV2 and postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome among animals reared in close pens can be a major possibility.
Conclusion: The data from this study indicates ubiquitous prevalence of PCV2 antibodies in the farm animals along with the endemic presence of swine fever and emergence of PRRS in an organized farm. There are few reports regarding PCV2 infections/outbreaks in pigs associated with reproductive failure from northern and southern part of India, but till date, there are no reports regarding concomitant infection of CSFV and PCV2 from India. Considerable high seropositivity of PCV2 indicates the need for high impact hygiene practice in farms, routine seromonitoring and implementation of the vaccination program. To the author's best knowledge, this is the first documented report on the seroprevalence of PCV2, CSFV, and PRRS from pig population of Meghalaya.
Keywords: antibody, classical swine fever virus, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Meghalaya, Porcine circovirus, Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus, seroprevalence, virus.

Friday, 19 January 2018

Milk amyloid A as a biomarker for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in cattle

Research (Published online: 19-01-2018)
8. Milk amyloid A as a biomarker for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in cattle
Hany Ahmed Hussein, Khaled Abd El-Hamid Abd El-Razik, Alaa Mohamed Gomaa, Mohamed Karam Elbayoumy, Khaled A. Abdelrahman and H. I. Hosein
Veterinary World, 11(1): 34-41
Background and Aim: Mastitis is one of the most vital noteworthy monetary risks to dairy ranchers and affects reproductive performance in dairy cattle. However, subclinical mastitis (SCM) negatively affects milk quality and quantity and associated with economic losses as clinical mastitis. It is recognizable only by additional testing. Somatic cell count (SCC) is currently used worldwide for the screening of intramammary infection (IMI) infections. However, somatic cells (SC) are affected by numerous factors and not always correlate with infection of the udder. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the milk amyloid A (MAA) in the milk of normal and SCM cows and compare the sensitivity of both MAA secretion and SCC in response to mammary gland bacterial infection.
Materials and Methods: A total of 272 quarter milk samples collected from 68 Friesian cows after clinical examination for detection of clinical mastitis were employed in this study. All quarter milk samples (272) were subjected to bacteriological examination, while SCs were assessed in samples (220). Following SCC estimation and bacteriological examination, the apparently normal quarter milk samples were categorized into 7 groups and MAA concentration was estimated in normal and subclinical mastitic milk samples.
Results: Prevalence of clinical mastitis was 19.12 % (52 quarters), while 80.88 % (220 quarters) were clinically healthy with normal milk secretion. Of those 220 clinically healthy quarter milk samples, 72 (32.73%) showed SCM as detected by SCC (SCC 500,000 cells/ml). The most prevalent bacteria detected in this study were streptococci (48.53%), Staphylococcus aureus (29.41%), Escherichia coli (36.76%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (11.76%). Results of MAA estimation revealed a strong correlation between MAA secretion level and SCC in agreement with the bacteriological examination. Interestingly, there was a prompt increase in MAA concentration in Group III (G III) (group of milk samples had SCC 200,000 cells/ml and bacteriologically positive) than Group I (G I) (group of milk samples with SCC 500,000 cells/ml and bacteriologically negative), as MAA concentration in G III was about 4 times its concentration in G I.
Conclusion: Our study provides a strong evidence for the significance of MAA measurement in milk during SCM, and MAA is more sensitive to IMI than SCC. This can be attributed to rapid and sensitive marker of inflammation. The advantage of MAA over other diagnostic markers of SCM is attributed the minute or even undetectable level of MAA in the milk of healthy animals, it is not influenced by factors other than mastitis, and could be estimated in preserved samples. Therefore, we recommend that estimation of MAA concentration in milk is a more useful diagnostic tool than SCC to detect SCM and to monitor the udder health in dairy cattle.
Keywords: biomarkers, milk amyloid A, somatic cell count, subclinical mastitis.

Thursday, 18 January 2018

Detection of Schmallenberg virus antibody in equine population of Northern and Northeast of Iran

Research (Published online: 18-01-2018)
7. Detection of Schmallenberg virus antibody in equine population of Northern and Northeast of Iran
M. Rasekh, A. Sarani and S. H. Hashemi
Veterinary World, 11(1): 30-33


ABSTRACT
Aim: Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a newly emerging virus in Simbu group that 1st time is reported in 2011 in Germany and now spread to Europe. The clinical signs of infection to this virus are fever, loss of appetite, reduced milk yield and in some cases, diarrhea and in pregnant animals congenital malformations in calves, lambs, and kid goats.
Materials and Methods: In this study for a serologic survey of SBV, blood samples from 200 horse in different rural areas of the northern and northeast of Iran with the high equine population collected and were analyzed using an indirect ELISA test.
Results: Based on our results 5% (n=10) of total 200 samples were positive for SBV antibody and 2% (n=4) was doubtful and 93% (n=186) was negative. There were no significant differences between age and sex and breed properties (p>0.05).
Conclusion: This study demonstrated the presence of antibodies against the SBV on horse populations in Iran. The high population and activity of Culicoides biting midges and their proper living conditions, especially the areas of temperate and humid environmental conditions, are the possible causes of arboviruses related diseases seen in this country.
Keywords: horse, Iran, new emerging disease, Schmallenberg virus.

Wednesday, 17 January 2018

Anti-inflammatory properties of a wound dressing combination of zinc oxide and turmeric extract

Research (Published online: 17-01-2018)
6. Anti-inflammatory properties of a wound dressing combination of zinc oxide and turmeric extract
Asti Meizarini, Aryati, Wibi Riawan and Astari Puteri
Veterinary World, 11(1): 25-29
ABSTRACT
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a wound dressing consisting of a zinc oxide with turmeric extract combination as an anti-inflammatory on the healing process through the expression of MAC387 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2).
Materials and Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four control and four treatment groups (n=5). On day 1, a 6 mmx6 mm square of skin in the area of the vertebralis thoracis was excised from all subjects. The wound was then dressed with a combination of zinc oxide and turmeric extract for the treatment groups, while the control groups were left undressed. Both the control and treatment groups were then sequentially sacrificed on days 3, 5, 7, and 14 to obtain subepithelial excision samples. These samples subsequently underwent immunohistochemistry examination through the expression of MAC387 and COX-2 to ascertain the anti-inflammatory reaction to the wound healing process.
Results: The highest expression of MAC387 was found in the treatment group to which a dressing of zinc oxide with turmeric extract had been applied on the day 5 before slowly reducing on days 7 and 14. MAC387 peaked in the undressed control group on day 14. The COX-2 expression results in control groups showed their higher expression on day 3, increased up to day 5, began to decline on day 7 before, and finally, decreasing on day 14. This result was different to those treatment groups which presented a high COX-2 expression on day 3, before gradually decreasing between days 5 and 7 and reaching its lowest point on day 14.
Conclusion: A wound dressing consisting of a combination of zinc oxide and turmeric extract has been proven effective as an anti-inflammatory in the healing process.
Keywords: cyclooxygenase-2, MAC387, turmeric, wound dressing, zinc oxide.

Tuesday, 16 January 2018

A cross-sectional study on prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in Indian and crossbred cattle in Gangetic delta region of West Bengal, India

Research (Published online: 16-01-2018)
1. A cross-sectional study on prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in Indian and crossbred cattle in Gangetic delta region of West Bengal, India - Ratan Das, Premanshu Dandapat, Arijit Chakrabarty, Pramod Kumar Nanda, Samiran Bandyopadhyay and Subhasish Bandyopadhyay
International Journal of One Health, 4: 1-7



  doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2018.1-7

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), an old chronic disease having zoonotic potential, covering four districts in Gangetic delta region of West Bengal, India, and to find the prevalence in organized as well as backyard herds and variation in relation to their age, sex, and breeds.
Methods: The incidence of BTB in exotic and indigenous breeds of cattle (n=173) of various age groups was investigated employing tuberculin (single intradermal tuberculin and comparative cervical tuberculin) tests and gamma interferon assay. Further, milk samples (n=96) from milching animals and antemortem (n=519) samples (nasal swab, buccal swab, and aspirates from pre-scapular lymph nodes) were also screened employing bacteriological and molecular techniques.
Results: In total, 36 (25.4%) animals from organized and one (3.2%) from backyard farming sector were found positive to BTB. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of milk samples based on 16S rRNA amplified the 1030 bp band in four samples indicating them belonging to genus Mycobacterium. Species-specific primers used to differentiate between Mycobacterium bovis and M. tuberculosis confirmed the presence of M. bovis. Prevalence of BTB in exotic crossbred animals (34.6%) was significantly higher (p<0.001) compared to indigenous cattle (10.5%). Further, gender-wise analysis of data with respect to BTB revealed higher positivity (p<0.05) among cows/heifers (25.8%) compared to bulls/bullocks (7.3%). Although BTB-positive cattle were detected in all the age groups, no statistical difference (p=0.779) was found among them.
Conclusion: The findings indicate a higher prevalence of BTB in exotic crossbred animals in Gangetic delta and variation in breed susceptibility, thereby suggesting an urgent review of the present policy on adopting national crossbreeding program and implementation of “One Health” approach.
Keywords: bovine tuberculosis, cattle, India, prevalence, West Bengal.

Saturday, 13 January 2018

Prevalence and bacterial etiology of subclinical mastitis in goats reared in organized farms

Research (Published online: 13-01-2018)
5. Prevalence and bacterial etiology of subclinical mastitis in goats reared in organized farms
A. K. Mishra, Nitika Sharma, D. D. Singh, K. Gururaj, Abhishek, Vijay Kumar and D. K. Sharma
Veterinary World, 11(1): 20-24
ABSTRACT
Aim: Assessment of the status of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in Jamunapari and Barbari goats in Indian organized farms, the involvement of bacterial pathogens and their sensitivity to antibiotics.
Materials and Methods: A total of 181 composite milk samples were aseptically collected from the apparently healthy Barbari (n=95) and Jamunapari (n=86) goats. The California mastitis test (CMT) and somatic cell count (SCC) were used to diagnose SCM. The milk samples with CMT scores of 0 and +1 were considered as negative, while the samples with the score of +2 or +3 were taken as positive, and further, the positive samples were used for the bacteriological examination. An antibiotic sensitivity test was performed by disk diffusion method using seven commercially available antibiotic discs.
Results: All the samples having CMT score of +2 or +3 demonstrated SCC more than 1 million. Overall, the prevalence of SCM in the goats was assessed as 19.89% (36/181). The prevalence of SCM in Barbari and Jamunapari goats was found as 24.21% (23/95) and 15.12% (13/86), respectively. Out of 11 isolates of Staphylococci, 9 isolates were identified as coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS), whereas 2 isolates were found as Staphylococcus aureus. The identified bacterial isolates (n=30) did not show antibiotic resistance.
Conclusion: The current investigation showed the considerable prevalence of SCM among Jamunapari and Barbari goats which may have a negative impact on quantity and quality of the milk. CNS was found as the most prevalent cause of SCM in the goats. Negligible antibiotic resistance was found among the identified udder pathogens.
Keywords: California mastitis test, coagulase-negative Staphylococci, goat, somatic cell count, subclinical mastitis.

Friday, 12 January 2018

Detection of Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Babesia spp. in dogs of Cebu, Philippines

Research (Published online: 12-01-2018)
4. Detection of EhrlichiaAnaplasma, and Babesia spp. in dogs of Cebu, Philippines
Rochelle Haidee D. Ybanez, Adrian P. Ybanez, Lyra Lee A. Arnado, Laila Monika P. Belarmino, Knowlie Gay F. Malingin, Paul Bien C. Cabilete, Ziggy Ryan O. Amores, Maxfrancis G. Talle, Mingming Liu and Xuenan Xuan
Veterinary World, 11(1): 14-19
ABSTRACT
Background: EhrlichiaAnaplasma, and Babesia spp. are canine pathogens transmitted by the Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick which can cause varied clinical signs. These pathogens have been investigated in the Philippines, but coinfection has not been reported yet.
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Ehrlichia/Anaplasma and Babesia spp. in Philippine dogs.
Materials and Methods: A total of 100 dogs from seven different veterinary establishments in Cebu, Philippines, were examined for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma and Babesia spp. infection using peripheral blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Inclusion criteria included a history or presence of tick infestation, anemia, and/or thrombocytopenia. Clinical signs were recorded. Statistical analyses were performed between PCR positivity and clinical signs and hematological results.
Results: A total of 10 and 18 dogs were found to be positive for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma and Babesia spp., respectively. One animal was PCR positive for both pathogens, which is the first report of coinfection in the country. The most common clinical signs observed include inappetence (89%), lethargy (80%), thrombocytopenia (85%), and anemia (74%). Analyses revealed that inappetence (p=0.044) and weight loss (p=0.028) were found statistically significant with Ehrlichia/Anaplasma infection. Basophil (p=0.001) and eosinophil counts (p=0.000) were also found significantly different between Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp.-positive and -negative dogs. On the other hand, differential monocyte count (p=0.009) was found significantly different between Babesia spp.-positive and -negative dogs.
Conclusion: The present study showed low infection rates of canine ehrlichiosis/anaplasmosis and babesiosis and provided additional evidence for the presence of the pathogens in the area.
Keywords: Babesia, Cebu, dogs, Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, Philippines.

Veterinary World reviewer acknowledgment 2017

Reviewer Acknowledgment (Published online: 12-01-2018)
3. Veterinary World reviewer acknowledgment 2017
A. V. Sherasiya and Nazir
Veterinary World, 11(1): 10-13

Thursday, 11 January 2018

Third wave of African swine fever infection in Armenia: Virus demonstrates the reduction of pathogenicity

Research (Published online: 11-01-2018)
2. Third wave of African swine fever infection in Armenia: Virus demonstrates the reduction of pathogenicity
M. A. Sargsyan, H. E. Voskanyan, E. M. Karalova, L. H. Hakobyan and Z. A. Karalyan
Veterinary World, 11(1): 5-9
ABSTRACT
Aim: First cases of clinically uncommon African swine fever (ASF), caused by virus genotype II are described in this article. These cases occurred in Armenia, Tavush region, Dilijan municipality in 2011. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the new pathogenic forms of ASF in Armenia.
Materials and Methods: The isolation and identification of ASF virus (ASFV) were carried out using conventional techniques. Clinical signs of infection were recorded daily. Gross anatomical pathology characteristics were observed during routine postmortem examinations. Blood and serum were obtained by puncture of the jugular vein using a vacutainer system.
Results: The presence of ASFV DNA in the spleens was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Sequenced sections of p72 showed phylogenetic identity to genotype 2. The pathology exhibits unusual manifestations of the main disease. The unusual form of ASF demonstrates characteristics of a subacute form of the disease, with the possibility of conversion to a chronic form. Decreased lethality, low level of hemorrhages, and absence of severe pancytopenia in smears from spleen, lymph nodes, and blood are common features of the new form of ASF. Unlike severe thrombocytopenia in the typical ASF, the unusual form exhibited moderate or minor decrease of this feature. Despite a moderate decrease in hemadsorption titers, the unusual pattern of the disease was characterized by viremia and the presence of the virus in the visceral organs, including the brain.
Conclusion: Our data allow assuming that new nosological form of ASF (genotype II) may present as a transitional form of the disease with the possibility of chronization.
Keywords: African swine fever, chronization, new isolate, viremia.

In vitro potential anthelmintic activity of Biophytum petersianum on Haemonchus contortus

Research (Published online: 11-01-2018)
1. In vitro potential anthelmintic activity of Biophytum petersianum on Haemonchus contortus
Priyo Sambodo, Joko Prastowo, Kurniasih Kurniasih and Sudarmanto Indarjulianto
Veterinary World, 11(1): 1-4
ABSTRACT
Aim: Haemonchus contortus is a major problem in small ruminants in Indonesia. The frequent use of the anthelmintic drugs has given rise to drug-resistant populations which increase the need for new anthelminthic compounds, particularly from endemic plants. This study evaluated the in vitro effects of Biophytum petersianum crude aqueous extract (BAE) as an anthelmintic compound against H. contortus adult worm isolated from goats.
Materials and Methods: Adult worm collected from naturally infected abomasums were obtained from slaughtered goats on the day of slaughter. BAE was prepared in six different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/ml) which were tested for their efficacies on ten actively moving worms. Ivermectin (1 mg/ml) was included as a reference drug, while saline water was included as a control. The dead worms from anthelmintic test then went through sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Results: Highest mean mortality in treatments group both at 2 h and 4 h observations was BAE 10%. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed the presence of five protein bands with molecular weights 9.3, 17.1, 50.0, 63.2, and 72.7 kDa based on BAE 10%. The SEM changes observed in the in vitro trials revealed the occurrence of interactions between the BAE and the cuticle.
Conclusion: The SEM and SDS-PAGE analysis revealed ultrastructural structural changes and the decrease numbers of polypeptides on treated worms when compared to the control worms. It can thus be concluded that the BAE exhibits good anthelmintic activity against H. contortus adult worm.
Keywords: Biophytum petersianum, crude aqueous extract, Haemonchus contortus, scanning electron microscopy, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.