Wednesday, 31 January 2018
Monday, 29 January 2018
Sunday, 28 January 2018
Review (Published online: 29-01-2018)
2. One health: The interface between veterinary and human health - Kshitiz Shrestha, Krishna Prasad Acharyaand Sujan Shrestha
International Journal of One Health, 4: 8-14
One Health is an emerging global key concept integrating human and animal health through international research and policy. The complex relationships between the human and animal have resulted in a human-animal-environment interface since prehistorical times. The people, animals, plants, and the environment are so intrinsically linked that prevention of risks and the mitigation of effects of crises that originate at the interface between humans, animals, and their environments can only improve health and wellbeing. The “One Health” approach has been successfully implemented in numerous projects around the world. The containment of pandemic threats such as avian influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome within months of outbreak are few examples of successful applications of the One Health paradigm. The paper begins with a brief overview of the human-animal interface and continues with the socio-economic and public health impact caused by various zoonotic diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome, Influenza, and Ebola virus. This is followed by the role of “One Health” to deal the global problem by the global solution. It emphasizes the interdisciplinary collaboration, training for health professionals and institutional support to minimize global health threats due to infectious diseases. The broad definition of the concept is supposed to lead multiple interpretations that impede the effective implementation of One Health approach within veterinary profession, within the medical profession, by wildlife specialists and by environmentalists, while on the other side, it gives a value of interdisciplinary collaboration for reducing threats in human-animal-environment interface.
Keywords: emerging infectious diseases, one health, viral zoonoses.
Saturday, 27 January 2018
Friday, 26 January 2018
Tuesday, 23 January 2018
Saturday, 20 January 2018
Friday, 19 January 2018
Thursday, 18 January 2018
Wednesday, 17 January 2018
Tuesday, 16 January 2018
A cross-sectional study on prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in Indian and crossbred cattle in Gangetic delta region of West Bengal, India
Research (Published online: 16-01-2018)
1. A cross-sectional study on prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in Indian and crossbred cattle in Gangetic delta region of West Bengal, India - Ratan Das, Premanshu Dandapat, Arijit Chakrabarty, Pramod Kumar Nanda, Samiran Bandyopadhyay and Subhasish Bandyopadhyay
International Journal of One Health, 4: 1-7
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), an old chronic disease having zoonotic potential, covering four districts in Gangetic delta region of West Bengal, India, and to find the prevalence in organized as well as backyard herds and variation in relation to their age, sex, and breeds.
Methods: The incidence of BTB in exotic and indigenous breeds of cattle (n=173) of various age groups was investigated employing tuberculin (single intradermal tuberculin and comparative cervical tuberculin) tests and gamma interferon assay. Further, milk samples (n=96) from milching animals and antemortem (n=519) samples (nasal swab, buccal swab, and aspirates from pre-scapular lymph nodes) were also screened employing bacteriological and molecular techniques.
Results: In total, 36 (25.4%) animals from organized and one (3.2%) from backyard farming sector were found positive to BTB. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of milk samples based on 16S rRNA amplified the 1030 bp band in four samples indicating them belonging to genus Mycobacterium. Species-specific primers used to differentiate between Mycobacterium bovis and M. tuberculosis confirmed the presence of M. bovis. Prevalence of BTB in exotic crossbred animals (34.6%) was significantly higher (p<0.001) compared to indigenous cattle (10.5%). Further, gender-wise analysis of data with respect to BTB revealed higher positivity (p<0.05) among cows/heifers (25.8%) compared to bulls/bullocks (7.3%). Although BTB-positive cattle were detected in all the age groups, no statistical difference (p=0.779) was found among them.
Conclusion: The findings indicate a higher prevalence of BTB in exotic crossbred animals in Gangetic delta and variation in breed susceptibility, thereby suggesting an urgent review of the present policy on adopting national crossbreeding program and implementation of “One Health” approach.
Keywords: bovine tuberculosis, cattle, India, prevalence, West Bengal.