Audience: Veterinary World readers represent education, industry and government, including research, teaching, administration, veterinary medicine and technical services in more than 150 countries. Veterinary World is of interest to those in veterinary medicine, infectious diseases, public health, parasitology, food science, epidemiology, immunology, virology, bacteriology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, gynaecology, wildlife.
18. Comparison of four polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection of Brucella spp. in clinical samples from dogs
Eduardo J. Boeri, Maria M. Wanke, Maria J. Madariaga, Maria L. Teijeiro, Sebastian A. Elena and Marcos D. Trangoni
Veterinary World, 11(2): 201-208
Aim: This study aimed to compare the sensitivity (S), specificity (Sp), and positive likelihood ratios (LR+) of four polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection of Brucella spp. in dog's clinical samples.
Materials and Methods: A total of 595 samples of whole blood, urine, and genital fluids were evaluated between October 2014 and November 2016. To compare PCR assays, the gold standard was defined using a combination of different serological and microbiological test. Bacterial isolation from urine and blood cultures was carried out. Serological methods such as rapid slide agglutination test, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, agar gel immunodiffusion test, and buffered plate antigen test were performed. Four genes were evaluated: (i) The gene coding for the BCSP31 protein, (ii) the ribosomal gene coding for the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region, (iii) the gene coding for porins omp2a/omp2b, and (iv) the gene coding for the insertion sequence IS711.
Results: The results obtained were as follows: (1) For the primers that amplify the gene coding for the BCSP31 protein: S: 45.64% (confidence interval [CI] 39.81-51.46), Sp: 95.62% (CI 93.13-98.12), and LR+: 10.43 (CI 6.04-18); (2) for the primers that amplify the ribosomal gene of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region: S: 69.80% (CI 64.42-75.18), Sp: 95.62 % (CI 93.13-98.12), and LR+: 11.52 (CI 7.31-18.13); (3) for the primers that amplify the omp2a and omp2b genes: S: 39.26% (CI 33.55-44.97), Sp: 97.31% (CI 95.30-99.32), and LR+ 14.58 (CI 7.25-29.29); and (4) for the primers that amplify the insertion sequence IS711: S: 22.82% (CI 17.89 - 27.75), Sp: 99.66% (CI 98.84-100), and LR+ 67.77 (CI 9.47-484.89).
Conclusion: We concluded that the gene coding for the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region was the one that best detected Brucella spp. in canine clinical samples.
17. Antimicrobial peptides of buffalo and their role in host defenses
Khangembam Victoria Chanu, Dimpal Thakuria and Satish Kumar
Veterinary World, 11(2): 192-200
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are highly conserved components of the innate immune system found among all classes of life. Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), an important livestock for milk and meat production, is known to have a better resistance to many diseases as compared to cattle. They are found to express many AMPs such as defensins, cathelicidins, and hepcidin which play an important role in neutralizing the invading pathogens. Buffalo AMPs exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Similar to its natural form, synthetic analogs of buffalo AMPs are also antimicrobial against bacteria and even fungus making them a good target for the development of therapeutic antimicrobials. In addition to its antimicrobial effect, AMPs have been demonstrated to have a number of immunomodulatory functions, and their genes are responsive to infections. Further, induction of their gene expression by external factors may help in preventing infectious diseases. This review briefly discusses the AMPs of buffalo identified to date and their possible role in innate immunity.
16. Identification and antibiogram pattern of Bacillus cereus from the milk and milk products in and around Jammu region
Umar Yusuf, S. K. Kotwal, Sanjolly Gupta and Touqeer Ahmed
Veterinary World, 11(2): 186-191
Aim: The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence, identification, and antibiogram pattern of Bacillus cereus from 215 samples of different milk and milk products in and around Jammu region.
Materials and Methods: In the present study, 215 samples of milk, rasgulla, burfi, rasmalai, kalaari, paneer, ice cream, and pastry were collected and analyzed for the isolation of the B. cereus using PEMBA, and antibiogram pattern was observed for all the milk and milk products.
Results:B. cereus was detected in 61/215 samples with an overall prevalence of 28.37%. Biotyping revealed predominantly 5, 7, and 2 biotypes in raw milk. Burfi and ice cream revealed 2, 3, 5, and 7 biotypes. Rasgulla had 2, 3, and 5 biotypes; paneer and rasmalai had biotypes 2 and 5, while kalaari revealed biotype 5. Antibiogram pattern revealed that isolates were highly sensitive to gentamicin (100%), intermediate to ampicillin (40.98%), tetracycline (31.14%), erythromycin (29.50%), and amoxicillin (26.22%), and high resistance against penicillin G (100%). Adulteration of starch was detected in 16.66 % raw milk samples. All starch positive samples were positive for B. cereus. However, 12 starch negative samples also yielded B. cereus.
Conclusion: From this study, it was concluded that highest prevalence of B. cereus was found in ice cream. Several isolates of B. cereus showed toxigenic activity, so the presence of B. cereus in milk and milk products may be of public health hazard. The antibiogram pattern of B. cereus isolates showed sensitivity to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and resistance to penicillin-G and cephalexin. The presence of B. cereus in milk and milk products showed a strong association besides establishing the fact that starch adulteration can be indicative of the presence of B. cereus.
15. End-threaded intramedullary positive profile screw ended self-tapping pin (Admit pin) - A cost-effective novel implant for fixing canine long bone fractures
Mitin Chanana, Adarsh Kumar, Som Prakash Tyagi, Amit Kumar Singla, Arvind Sharma and Uiase Bin Farooq
Veterinary World, 11(2): 181-185
Aim: The current study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical efficacy of end-threaded intramedullary pinning for management of various long bone fractures in canines.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in two phases, managing 25 client-owned dogs presented with different fractures. The technique of application of end-threaded intramedullary pinning in long bone fractures was initially standardized in 6 clinical patients presented with long bone fractures. In this phase, end-threaded pins of different profiles, i.e., positive and negative, were used as the internal fixation technique. On the basis of results obtained from standardization phase, 19 client-owned dogs clinically presented with different fractures were implanted with end-threaded intramedullary positive profile screw ended self-tapping pin in the clinical application phase.
Results: The patients, allocated randomly in two groups, when evaluated postoperatively revealed slight pin migration in Group-I (negative profile), which resulted in disruption of callus site causing delayed union in one case and large callus formation in other two cases whereas no pin migration was observed in Group-II (positive profile). Other observations in Group-I was reduced muscle girth and delayed healing time as compared to Group-II. In clinical application, phase 21st and 42nd day post-operative radiographic follow-up revealed no pin migration in any of the cases, and there was no bone shortening or fragment collapse in end-threaded intramedullary positive profile screw ended self-tapping pin.
Conclusion: The end-threaded intramedullary positive profile screw ended self-tapping pin used for fixation of long bone fractures in canines can resist pin migration, pin breakage, and all loads acting on the bone, i.e., compression, tension, bending, rotation, and shearing to an extent with no post-operative complications.
14. The effect of moderate exercise on the elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in oral squamous epithelial cells induced by benzopyrene
Anis Irmawati, Nadira Jasmin and Sidarningsih
Veterinary World, 11(2): 177-180
Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of moderate exercise on the elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.
Materials and Methods: Eighteen Mus musculus strain Swiss Webster (Balb/c) were divided into three groups (n=6). K1 and K2 had contact with water 3 times/week for 12 weeks, while the members of the K3 group swam 3 times/week for 12 weeks while carrying load weighed 3% of their body weight. After 5 weeks, they were induced with 0.04 ml oleum olivarum (K1), 0.08 mg benzopyrene/0.04 ml oleum olivarum (K2, K3) 3 times/week for 4 weeks. Immunohistochemistry assays were used to determine the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 expression. The results were analyzed using an independent t-test.
Results: The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased significantly in K3 compared to K2 (p=0.00).
Conclusion: Moderate exercise could increase the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in oral squamous epithelial cells induced by benzopyrene.
13. Seroprevalence of small ruminant caprine arthritis encephalitis lentivirus among goats from selected small ruminant farms in Selangor, Malaysia
Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse, Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus, Yusuf Abba, Veenosha Nehru Raju, Idris Umar Hambali, Innocent Damudu Peter, Abd Wahid Haron, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila and Jefri Mohd Norsidin
Veterinary World, 11(2): 172-176
Background and Aim:Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) is an important viral disease of small ruminants particularly in dairy goats with severe social and economic implication. Hence, this study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of CAE virus (CAEV) among goat population in selected small ruminant farms in Selangor and the risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from a total of 91 goats selected at random. Blood serum was harvested and used for competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test to detect antibodies against CAE virus.
Results: The result obtained showed that 8/91 (8.8%) of the goats were seropositive for CAEV. In addition, biosecurity management, source of origin and sex of the animal were observed to be important risk factors associated with the occurrence of CAE in goats.
Conclusion: The findings of this study affirmed that the seroprevalence of CAEV infection among goat population in small ruminant farms in Selangor, Malaysia, is low. However, there is need to institute strict control measures such as testing and culling positive animals or separation of infected animals from those that tested negative to the disease for effective eradication of the disease.
12. Effect of temperature (cooking and freezing) on the concentration of oxytetracycline residue in experimentally induced birds
Ezenduka Ekene Vivienne, Okorie-kanu Onyinye Josephine and Nwanta John Anaelom
Veterinary World, 11(2): 167-171
Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of varying temperatures (different cooking methods and freezing) on the concentration of oxytetracycline (OTC) residues in tissues of broiler birds.
Materials and Methods: Fifty, 5-week-old birds were purchased and acclimatized for 3 weeks while being fed antibiotic-free feed and water. Four birds were then tested for residue and in the absence; the remaining birds were injected intramuscularly with oxytetracycline at its therapeutic dose. Muscle and liver samples of the treated birds were harvested and checked for OTC residues before subjecting them to boiling, microwaving, and roasting. The three plate test was used for the residue detection.
Results: OTC was detected at both pH 6.0 and pH 7.2 but not detected at pH 8.0. Roasting and boiling significantly reduced the concentration of oxytetracycline in muscle by 53.6% and 69.6%, respectively, at pH 6.0, microwaving reduced the concentration by 49.1% but was not statistically significant. The same pattern was followed at pH 7.2 with reduction of 34.3%, 53.2%, and 67.7% for microwaved, roasted, and boiled. For the liver tissues, there was a significant reduction in the concentration for both pH: 6.0 (57.75%, 79.75%, and 89%; pH 7.2 (48.06%, 79.6%, and 88.79%) for boiled, microwaved, and roasted samples. Boiling had a greater reduction effect for muscle samples while roasting had a greater reduction in liver samples at both pHs. Freezing at -10°C had no effect on the concentration of OTC even after 9 days.
Conclusion: The significant reduction of OTC concentration by cooking indicates that consumers may not be at risk of the effects of OTC residues in meat, but microwaving meat may not reduce the concentration below the maximum residue limit if the initial concentration is very high. Therefore, routine monitoring of drug residues in farms and abattoirs is still advocated.
Keywords: antimicrobials, cooking methods, drug residue, oxytetracycline.
11. Effect of lipopolysaccharide derived from surabaya isolates of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitanson alveolar bone destruction
Rini Devijanti Ridwan, Sidarningsih, Tuti Kusumaningsih and Sherman Salim
Veterinary World, 11(2): 161-166
Background:Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans' lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has a high virulence factor. It interacts with serum protein through receptors on the epithelial cell surface, thereby increasing both interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 which results in damage to periodontal tissue.
Aim: The aim of the study was to identify and evaluate the effect of LPS derived from local isolates (A. actinomycetemcomitans) on the destruction of alveolar bone by means of several biomarkers, including; the number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, the expression of IL-6, matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP-1), and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-? ligand (RANKL).
Materials and Methods: The isolation of LPS from A. actinomycetemcomitans was calculated using phenol, while purification was performed using Sephadex C-18 column chromatography. 40 Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 10. Each treatment was divided into two groups which were 0.9% NaCl and LPS induced for 7 and 14 days, respectively. Gingival and alveolar bones were further introduced into the induction area, followed by the measuring of osteoblast and osteoclast with hematoxylin-eosin staining, IL-6, MMP-1 and RANKL expression with immunohistochemical.
Results: Reduced numbers of osteoblasts at the 7th and 14th day of treatment were detected, while those of osteoclasts increased. There was an increased expression of IL-6, MMP-1, and RANKL in the 7th and 14th-day treatment group. Treatment of LPS from A. actinomycetemcomitans over 7 and 14 days resulted in damage to periodontal tissue and alveolar bone in Wistar rats.
Conclusion: LPS of A. actinomycetemcomitans administration for 7 and 14 days causes periodontal and alveolar tissue destruction in Wistar rats.
Keywords:Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans local isolate, lipopolysaccharide, interleukineIL-6, matrix metallopeptidase-1, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand.
10. Projected economic losses due to vector and vector-borne parasitic diseases in livestock of India and its significance in implementing the concept of integrated practices for vector management
B. W. Narladkar
Veterinary World, 11(2): 151-160
Broadly, species of arthropods infesting livestock are grouped into flies (biting and non-biting), fleas, lice (biting and sucking), ticks (soft and hard), and mites (burrowing, non-burrowing, and follicular). Among which, biting and non-biting flies and ticks are the potent vectors for many bacterial, viral, rickettsial, and protozoan diseases. Vectors of livestock are having economic significance on three points (1) direct losses from their bite and annoyance, worries, and psychological disturbances produced during the act of biting and feeding, (2) diseases they transmit, and (3) expenditure incurred for their control. Flies such as Culicoides spp. and Musca spp. and various species of hard ticks play important role in disease transmission in addition to their direct effects. For control of vectors, recent concept of integrated pest management (IPM) provides the best solution and also addresses the problems related to acaricide resistance and environmental protection from hazardous chemicals. However, to successfully implement the concept of IPM, for each vector species, estimation of two monitory benchmarks, i.e., economic injury level (EIL) and economic threshold level (ETL) is essential prerequisite. For many vector species and under several circumstances, estimation of EIL and ETL appears to be difficult. Under such scenario, although may not be exact, an approximate estimate can be accrued by taking into account several criteria such as percent prevalence of vectors in a geographical area, percent losses produced, total livestock population, and current prices of livestock products such as milk, meat, and wool. Method for approximate estimation is first time described and elaborated in the present review article.
9. Prevalence of liver flukes infections and hydatidosis in slaughtered sheep and goats in Nishapour, Khorasan Razavi, Iran
Majid Aminzare, Mohammad Hashemi, Samaneh Yaghoobi Faz, Mojtaba Raeisi and Hassan Hassanzadazar
Veterinary World, 11(2): 146-150
Background: Food-borne trematode infections and hydatidosis are endemic diseases caused by helminths in Iran that are responsible for great economic loss and getting public health at risk.
Aim: Aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of fasciolosis, dicrocoeliasis, and hydatidosis infections in slaughtered sheep and goats in Nishapour, Khorasan Razavi province of Iran.
Materials and Methods: A survey was implemented on 130,107 sheep and goats slaughtered at an abattoir in Nishapour (Neyshbur) city, north central Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran, to determine the prevalence of fascioliasis, dicrocoeliosis and presence of hydatidosis.
Results: During a 1-year period of study, among 130,107 of sheep and goats slaughtered at Nishapour abattoir, 1064 and 7124 livers were condemned totally and partially, respectively. A total of 255 (0.19%), 181 (0.12 %), and 7751 (5.95%) of livers were condemned due to cysts of Echinococcus granulosus, flukes of Fasciola spp., and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, respectively. Totally, 1932 (1.48%) lungs were condemned due to hydatidosis. The significant seasonal pattern was seen for fasciolosis, dicrocoeliosis, and hydatidosis, statistically (p<0.01).
Conclusion: According to this study, it seems that Neyshabour is considered as an endemic region for Fasciola spp. and D. dendriticum infections and D. dendriticum is the most widespread liver fluke found in sheep and goats.
Keywords:Dicrocoeliasis, Fascioliasis, Hydatidosis, sheep and goat, slaughterhouse.
8. Ethnoveterinary treatments for common cattle diseases in four districts of the Southern Province, Zambia
Michelo Syakalima, Martin Simuunza and Victor Chisha Zulu
Veterinary World, 11(2): 141-145
Aim: Ethnoveterinary knowledge has rarely been recorded, and no or limited effort has been made to exploit this knowledge despite its widespread use in Zambia. This study documented the types of plants used to treat important animal diseases in rural Zambia as a way of initiating their sustained documentation and scientific validation.
Materials and Methods: The study was done in selected districts of the Southern Zambia, Africa. The research was a participatory epidemiological study conducted in two phases. The first phase was a pre-study exploratory rapid rural appraisal conducted to familiarize the researchers with the study areas, and the second phase was a participatory rural appraisal to help gather the data. The frequency index was used to rank the commonly mentioned treatments.
Results: A number of diseases and traditional treatments were listed with the help of local veterinarians. Diseases included: Corridor disease (Theileriosis), foot and mouth disease, blackleg, bloody diarrhea, lumpy skin disease, fainting, mange, blindness, coughing, bloat, worms, cobra snakebite, hemorrhagic septicemia, and transmissible venereal tumors. The plant preparations were in most diseases given to the livestock orally (as a drench). Leaves, barks, and roots were generally used depending on the plant type.
Conclusion: Ethnoveterinary medicine is still widespread among the rural farmers in the province and in Zambia in general. Some medicines are commonly used across diseases probably because they have a wide spectrum of action. These medicines should, therefore, be validated for use in conventional livestock healthcare systems in the country to reduce the cost of treatments.
Keywords: cattle, ethnomedicines, traditional farmers, Zambia.
7. The analysis of hippocampus neuronal density (CA1 and CA3) after Ocimum sanctum ethanolic extract treatment on the young adulthood and middle age rat model
Dwi Liliek Kusindarta, Hevi Wihadmadyatami and Aris Haryanto
Veterinary World, 11(2): 135-140
Aim: This study aimed to assess the changes in neuronal density in CA1 and CA3 regions in the hippocampus of young adulthood and middle age rat model after feeding by Ocimum sanctum ethanolic extract.
Materials and Methods: In this research, 30 male Wistar rats consist of young to middle-aged rats were divided into three groups (3, 6, and 9 months old) and treated with a different dosage of O. sanctum ethanolic extract (0, 50, and 100 mg/kg b.w.) for 45 days. Furthermore, cresyl violet staining was performed to analyze hippocampus formation mainly in CA1 and CA3 area. The concentrations of acetylcholine (Ach) in brain tissues were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: In our in vivo models using rat model, we found that the administration of O. sanctum ethanolic extract with a dosage of 100 mg/kg b.w. for 45 days induced the density of pyramidal cells significantly in CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus. These results were supported by an increase of Ach concentrations on the brain tissue.
Conclusion: The administration of O. sanctum ethanolic extract may promote the density of the pyramidal cells in the CA1 and CA3 mediated by the up-regulated concentration of Ach.
Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of exogenous melatonin under different photoperiods on oxidative status in Chhotanagpuri ewe.
Materials and Methods: A total of 42 non-pregnant, non-lactating Chhotanagpuri ewe, having body weight ranging between 14.11±0.09 and 15.38±0.06 kg, were selected and were isolated from rams 2 months before melatonin administration. The selected animals were allocated randomly into seven groups, namely, Group I (normal control), Group II (long day [LD] control), Group III (LD+melatonin administration orally, 3 mg/day), Group IV (LD+melatonin administration subcutaneously, 1 mg/day), Group V (short day [SD] control), Group VI (SD+melatonin administration orally, 3 mg/day), and Group VII (SD+melatonin administration subcutaneously, 1 mg/day) comprising six animals in each group. Rams were then introduced into each group after completion of exogenous administration of melatonin. Blood samples with anticoagulant in vials were collected from each animal day before the start of the experiment and thereafter every month up to 5th month. Hemolysate was prepared for estimation of oxidative stress parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT).
Results: It was observed that the level of MDA was significantly (p<0.05) higher in LD groups (Group II, III and IV) in comparison to control and SD groups (VI and VII) at 1st month. MDA concentration after exogenous administration of melatonin was significantly (p<0.05) decreased in Group IV and VI in comparison to 1st month. SOD was significantly (p<0.05) higher in SD groups (V, VI, and VII) at the 1st month in comparison to 0 day. After exogenous administration of melatonin, SOD concentration was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups III and IV in comparison to 1st month. CAT was significantly (p<0.05) higher in SD groups (V, VI, and VII) in comparison to control and LD groups. After exogenous administration of melatonin, CAT concentration was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups III, IV, VI, and VIII in comparison to Groups I, II, and V. At the 3rd month, CAT concentration significantly (p<0.05) decreased in Groups III, IV, VI, and VII in comparison to 2nd month of experiment. However, a decreasing trend of CAT was observed in all the groups from 3rd to 5th month.
Conclusion: The present experiment revealed that exogenous melatonin was able to reduce significantly the level of MDA and increased the activity of SOD and CAT in Chhotanagpuri ewe.
5. Bacteriological cure rate and changes in milk composition in mastitis vaccinated ewes affected with subclinical mastitis
Myassar O. Alekish, Z. Bani Ismail, H. M. Hammouri, M. H. Daradka, S. Al Taha and I. Olymat
Veterinary World, 11(2): 125-129
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of using a commercially-available polyvalent mastitis vaccine on the bacteriological cure rate of existing subclinical mastitis in Awassi sheep.
Materials and Methods: A total of 164 lactating ewes were divided into two main groups according to udder health and milk somatic cell count (SCC): Group 1=normal (N; n=80) and Group 2=subclinical mastitis (SC; n=84). Each group was then subdivided randomly into two treatment groups: N vaccinated (Nvax; n=38), N non-vaccinated (Nnvax; n=42), SC vaccinated (SCvax; n=42), and SC non-vaccinated (SCnvax; n=42). The vaccine was administered as per manufacturer's recommendations. Milk samples were collected aseptically from all ewes before vaccine administration (T0) and again on days 28 (T2) and 42 (T3) of the experiment.
Results: In the SC group, the bacteriological cure rates in vaccinated and non-vaccinated ewes were 76% and 69%, respectively. In N group, the new intramammary infection rates in vaccinated and non-vaccinated ewes were 48% and 50%, respectively. Vaccination of normal ewes resulted in a significant (p<0.05) reduction in bacterial growth rate both at day 28 and day 42 of the study. The prevalence of new intramammary infection rate in Nvax ewes on days 28 and 42 was 19% and 20%, respectively. The prevalence of new intramammary infection rate in Nnvax group on days 28 and 42 was 33% and 30%, respectively. In SCvax group, the bacterial growth rate on days 28 and 42 was 44% and 35%, respectively. In SCnvax group, the bacterial growth rate on days 28 and 42 was 27% and 32%, respectively. There was no statistically significant effect of vaccination on any of the studied milk composition parameters.
Conclusion: This is a preliminary study that indicated a possible protective effect of vaccination against mastitis in sheep. Further, case-controlled studies are indicated to estimate the level of immunity this vaccine provides to vaccinated sheep.
4. Market potential and opportunities for commercialization of traditional meat products in North East Hill Region of India
G. Kadirvel, Bandita B. Banerjee, Surajit Meitei, S. Doley, Arnab Sen and M. Muthukumar
Veterinary World, 11(2): 118-124
The North Eastern (NE) India is renowned for its preference for animal-based food. This region is known for its traditional meat products. However, the popularity of these products remains confined to the specific community/location. The knowledge on the traditional preparation methods is generally passed across generations through practice and word of mouth. The traditional style of preparation and the specific ingredients added to each product makes them unique. In this review, an attempt has been made to identify the initiatives, opportunities, and market potential for commercialization of the traditional meat products. These unique features and properties of the traditional meat products have been highlighted. The commercialization of these products will enhance entrepreneurship development and ensure quality ethnic products to the consumer in the NE hill region of India.
Keywords: commercialization, North East India, meat, products, property, traditional.
3. Hepato nephropathology associated with inclusion body hepatitis complicated with citrinin mycotoxicosis in a broiler farm
Asok Kumar Mariappan, Palanivelu Munusamy, Shyma K. Latheef, Shambu Dayal Singh and Kuldeep Dhama
Veterinary World, 11(2): 112-117
Aim: Mortality in a broiler chicken farm was investigated for identifying the cause of mortality.
Materials and Methods: A broiler farm with a population of 16000 succumbed to a disease outbreak. Clinical signs, vaccination history and mortality, were recorded. Necropsy examination and microscopic examination were carried out along with toxicological and molecular studies.
Results: The clinical signs in the affected broiler birds were of non-specific nature with a total mortality of 26.39%. Postmortem examination and microscopical findings revealed hepatitis with basophilic intranuclear inclusion, splenitis, myocarditis, and nephritis. Glomerulonephritis was the prominent renal pathology recorded in this study. Polymerase chain reaction test confirmed the presence of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) genome in the target organs, and toxicological examination by thin-layer chromatography revealed the presence of a toxic level of citrinin in the feed samples.
Conclusion: Based on various diagnostic investigations, the mortality in the flock was attributed to inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) complicated with citrinin mycotoxicosis. Thus, apart from liver pathology which occurs in a classical IBH cases, glomerulonephritis too occurs which are also a prominent finding which pathologists often miss. Thus, kidneys should also be examined histologically to assess the microscopic tissue alterations in poultry suspected for IBH along with a mycotoxicological analysis of feed. This will definitely throw light on the synergistic pathology elicited and exhibited by FAdV and mycotoxins in the poultry.
Keywords: citrinin, fowl adenovirus, glomerulonephritis, inclusion body hepatitis, thin-layer chromatography.
2. Occurrence and quantification of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from food matrices
C. Sethulekshmi, C. Latha and C. J. Anu
Veterinary World, 11(2): 104-111
Aim: The objective of the study was to detect Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and develop a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to quantify the bacterial DNA present in different food matrices.
Materials and Methods: A total of 758 samples were collected during a period from January 2015 to December 2016 from Kozhikode, Thrissur, and Alappuzha districts of Kerala. The samples consisted of raw milk (135), pasteurized milk (100), beef (132), buffalo meat (130), chevon (104), beef kheema (115), and beef sausage (42). All the samples collected were subjected to isolation and identification of STEC by conventional culture technique. Confirmation of virulence genes was carried out using PCR. For the quantification of STEC in different food matrices, a qPCR was standardized against stx1 gene of STEC by the construction of standard curve using SYBR green chemistry.
Results: The overall occurrence of STEC in raw milk (n=135), beef (n=132), buffalo meat (n=130), chevon (n=104), and beef kheema (n=115) samples collected from Kozhikode, Thrissur, and Alappuzha districts of Kerala was 19.26%, 41.6%, 16.92%, 28.85%, and 41.74%, respectively. PCR revealed the presence of stx1 and stx2 genes in 88.46 and 83.64 and 30.77 and 40.00% of STEC isolates from raw milk and beef samples, respectively, while 100% of the STEC isolates from buffalo beef and beef kheema samples carried stx1 gene. Real-time qPCR assay was used to quantify the bacterial cells present in different food matrices. The standard curve was developed, and the slopes, intercept, and R2 of linear regression curves were -3.10, 34.24, and 0.99, respectively.
Conclusion: The considerably high occurrence of STEC in the study confirms the importance of foods of animal origin as a vehicle of infection to humans. In the present study, on comparing the overall occurrence of STEC, the highest percentage of occurrence was reported in beef kheema samples. The study shows the need for rigid food safety measures to combat the potential pathogenic effects of harmful bacteria throughout the production chain from production to consumption.
1. Anti-inflammatory activity of Jatropha curcas Linn. latex in cream formulation on CD68 expression in mice skin wound
Muhammad Nur Salim, Dian Masyitha, Abdul Harris, Ummu Balqis, Cut Dahlia Iskandar, Muhammad Hambal and Darmawi
Veterinary World, 11(2): 99-103
Aim: The purpose of the present study was to determine the potential of Jatropha curcas latex in the cream formulation on CD68 immune expression (macrophages) during inflammatory phase wound healing process in mice skin.
Materials and Methods: Amount of 12 two-months-old male mice were used between 30 and 40 g. To surgical procedures, wound skin incision was performed 2.0 cm in length until subcutaneous on the paravertebral of each animal. The treatment was carried under locally anesthetized with procaine cream. The mice were allotted into four groups of each, entire surface of each group wound covered by base cream control, sulfadiazine 0.1% cream, J. curcas latex cream 10% and, 15%, respectively. All experiments were performed twice a day for 3 days. The wound healing was assayed in stained histological sections in immunohistochemical of the wounds. CD68 expression was investigated under a microscope.
Results: The results showed that the cream from the 10% and 15% latex of J. curcas revealed moderate immune reaction to CD68 on wound healing.
Conclusion: We concluded that the latex cream of J. curcas possesses anti-inflammatory activity in wound healing process of mice skin.