Audience: Veterinary World readers represent education, industry and government, including research, teaching, administration, veterinary medicine and technical services in more than 150 countries. Veterinary World is of interest to those in veterinary medicine, infectious diseases, public health, parasitology, food science, epidemiology, immunology, virology, bacteriology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, gynaecology, wildlife.
15. Virulence gene profiling of porcine Pasteurella multocida isolates of Assam
L. Babita Devi, Durlav Prasad Bora, S. K. Das, R. K. Sharma, S. Mukherjee and R. A. Hazarika
Veterinary World, 11(3): 348-354
Aim: The present study was conducted to detect and identify the virulence genes in Pasteurella multocida isolates of porcine origin from Assam.
Materials and Methods: A total of 21 porcine P. multocida isolates were subjected to capsular typing and detection of virulence-associated genes (pfhA, tbpA, hgbB, toxA, oma87, ompH, and nanB) using various polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods reported elsewhere. Further, pathogenicity of the porcine isolates of P. multocida was studied in mice. For each strain of P. multocida selected for pathogenicity trial, the group of mice was injected intraperitoneally (i/p) with 0.1 ml of the inoculum prepared from respective field isolates, containing 109 organisms per ml.
Results: Capsular typing of the isolates by multiplex PCR showed two capsular types, type A (66.66%) and type D (33.33%). All the isolates were positive for outer membrane protein genes, oma87 and ompH genes. Iron acquisition genes, tbpA and hgbB, were detected in 14.28% and 19.04% of the isolates. The dermonecrotoxin encoding gene, toxA, was present in 23.80% of the isolates. Filamentous hemagglutinin encoding gene, pfhA, was detected in 28.57%. The virulence gene distribution pattern of the isolates indicates the important role of the genes in disease pathogenesis.
Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that toxA gene is an important marker gene for defining the pathogenic potential of P. multocida strains in swine.
14. Antibacterial activity of fig leaf (Ficus carica Linn.) extract against Enterococcus faecalis and its cytotoxicity effects on fibroblast cells
Intan Nirwana, Devi Rianti, R. Helal Soekartono, Rr. Dwi Listyorini and Desi Putri Basuki
Veterinary World, 11(3): 342-347
Background:Enterococcus faecalis is one of the bacteria that commonly found in root canal and pulp infection after root canal treatment. Sodium hypochlorite is the most widely used root canal irrigation, but it has toxic properties if exposed to periradicular tissues. It is necessary to develop an alternative for root canal irrigation. Fig leaf (Ficus carica Linn.) extract contains active substances such as flavonoid, tannin, and terpenoid which have been known for their antibacterial potency.
Aim: This study aimed to determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of fig leaf (F. carica Linn.) extract against E. faecalis and its cytotoxicity on fibroblast cells in vitro.
Materials and Methods: A serial dilution method was used to determine the MBC of fig leaf extract on E. faecalis which grown on nutrient agar media. Inoculation was carried out at concentrations that suspected minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), MBC, concentration between MIC and MBC, and control groups on different nutrient agar. MIC and MBC of fig leaf extract against E. faecalis were known by counting the growth of bacteria colonies on nutrient agar media in CFU/ml. The cytotoxicity of MIC and MBC of the extract acquired were tested using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the results were read using an ELISA reader. Data of E. faecalis colonies were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test.
Results: The result showed a significant difference among the groups (p<0.05). Fig leaf extract at a concentration of 50% showed no bacterial growth, and cell viability at this concentration was 77.7%.
Conclusion: Fig leaf extract has antibacterial effect on E. faecalis with MBC at 50% and not cytotoxic to fibroblast cells.
Aim: Theileriosis is a protozoal disease caused by Theileria spp. mostly in warm-blooded vertebrates worldwide. It is one of the common tick-borne diseases among domestic animals in tropical and sub-tropical regions, which have a variety of unlikable effects on health economy and animal welfare. In the present study, the prevalence of theileriosis among domestic farm animals in Iran was systematically evaluated.
Methods: To identify the related papers, 10 English and Persian databases, including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Medical Subject Headings, Google Scholar, Magiran, Barakatns (formerly Iranmedex), Elm net, and Scientific Information Database, were appraised for articles published throughout 1999-2017.
Results: A total of 56 papers, providing the examination of 11,317 cattle, 9394 sheep, 2991 buffaloes, 1504 horses, 600 goats, and 212 donkeys were analyzed, matching for the prevalence of theileriosis from different parts of Iran were permitted for our allowing checklist. The overall prevalence of theileriosis among domestic herbivores was expected to be 19% (95% confidence interval: 15%, 22%). Our findings highlighted the average of the maximum prevalence in Razavi Khorasan (60.4%) and West Azerbaijan (49.1%) and the minimum in Mazandaran (1.1%) and East Azerbaijan provinces (2.2%), respectively. The high prevalence of Theileriainfection in the herbivores (mainly sheep) verifies the well-known enzootic episode of theileriosis in Iran, predominantly in northeastern and western parts of the country.
Conclusion: Our results suggested updated and imperative information on the true burden of theileriosis in Iran. Moreover, it could be supporting the gaps among monitoring, prevention, and control arrangements to improve the health economy, particularly among dairy farm animals.
12. Serum cortisol level and survival rate of juvenile Epinephelus fuscoguttatus following exposure to different salinities
Diyana Tahir, M. Shariff, Fadhil Syukri and F. M. Yusoff
Veterinary World, 11(3): 327-331
Background and Aim: Brown-marbled grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus is a premium marine food fish with high demand in Asia. In fish, stress due to environmental changes such as fluctuations in the salinity can result in increased cortisol level. Stress in fish increases susceptibility to diseases ultimately resulting in death. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the salinity tolerance of E. fuscoguttatus and their survival in lower salinities.
Materials and Methods: In this study, grouper juveniles (92.43±standard error of the mean 0.51 mm) maintained in 31 ppt seawater were transferred into five tanks with seawater diluted to 25, 20, 15, 10, and 5 ppt. The salinity of the control group was not changed and was maintained at 31 ppt. Serum cortisol was measured using ELISA at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min after the fish were transferred to the different concentrations of salinity.
Results: The survival percentage was recorded for 14 days following the transfer and the results revealed that serum cortisol of fish in a high change in salinity (15, 10, and 5 ppt) was significantly higher than the control group immediately after exposure. At the high salinity change, the cortisol levels gradually decrease at 30 min and 60 min, until no difference in cortisol concentration was observed at 120 min. No mortality was observed in fish exposed to low salinity change (25 and 20 ppt) while in higher salinity change (5 ppt), the survival percentage was 50%.
Conclusion: The study revealed that the serum cortisol concentration was high initially and continues to decrease to resting cortisol level at 120 min indicating that cortisol hormone is released following acute stress as a primary response in grouper juveniles.
11. The activity of pomegranate extract standardized 40% ellagic acid during the healing process of incision wounds in albino rats (Rattus norvegicus)
Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti, Hardany Primarizky and Bambang Sektiari Lukiswanto
Veterinary World, 11(3): 321-326
Aim: This research aimed to evaluate the effects of pomegranate extract standardized to 40% ellagic acid on the incised wound in albino rats.
Materials and Methods: Fifty albino rats were divided into 10 treatment groups. The five groups were sacrificed on the 8th day, while the others were sacrificed on the 15th day. Two groups of albino rats with incised wound were not treated at all (P0), the other two groups of albino rats with incised wound were treated with Betadine® (P1) ointment, and the rest of the groups were treated with pomegranate extract standardized to 40% ellagic acid with a concentration of 2.5% (P2), 5% (P3), and 7.5% (P4). The treatments were carried out twice a day with an interval of 12 h for 7 and 14 days. At the end of the research, the skin tissue of those albino rats had been taken for histopathologic preparations before H and E staining was performed.
Results: Collagen deposition, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) infiltration, angiogenesis, and fibrosis degree in Group P4 treated with 7.5% pomegranate extract standardized to 40% ellagic acid for 14 days were significantly different from those in Groups P0, P1, P2, and P3, especially in the case of PMN inflammation (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The administration of 7.5% pomegranate extract standardized to 40% ellagic acid for 14 days on incised wounds of those albino rats can accelerate the wound healing process characterized by collagen deposition improvement, PMN infiltration in the wound area, angiogenesis, and fibrosis degree.
10. Prevalence and characterization of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus in bovine milk in Jabalpur district of Madhya Pradesh, India
Neeraj Shrivastava, Varsha Sharma, Arpita Shrivastav, Anju Nayak and Ajay Kumar Rai
Veterinary World, 11(3): 316-320
Aim: The study aimed to investigate the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive Staphylococcus aureus in bovine milk due to its public health significance.
Materials and Methods: A total of 400 milk samples of bovines taken from different dairy farms and outlets of Jabalpur were screened for the S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The strains were tested for the PVL gene and antimicrobial sensitivity toward 10 different classes of antimicrobial agents. The PVL-positive S. aureus strains were further characterized by staphylococcal protein A or spa typing.
Results: The prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus was 10.53%. All the isolates positive for the PVL were resistant to methicillin, while the methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates were negative for the PVL. Five different spa types were found.
Conclusion: The presence of PVL-positive MRSA in bovine milk close to consumer poses a potential public health risk to the community.
9. Three Strigeid cercariae from Littorina littorea snail, Qarun Lake, Fayoum, Egypt
Fayez A. Bakry, Marwa Th. Atwa and Marwa M. Attia
Veterinary World, 11(3): 310-315
Aim: The present study aims to focus on the role of common marine snails (Littorina littorea) as a vector for some trematode parasites.
Materials and Methods: A total of 327 marine water L. littorea snails were collected during the summer of 2016 from a Qarun lake in the EL-Fayoum Governorate, Egypt. The snails were investigated for infection by trematode parthenitae through induction of cercarial shedding by exposure to light and crushing the snails. The species were stored in Search Laboratory of Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University.
Results: Three species of Strigeid littorina cercaria were identified from the infected snails. They are described here and they identified in relation to close-up morphological features and linked to its snail hosts. They give the following names: Cercaria strigeid littorina type 1, C. strigeid littorina type 2, and C. strigeid littorina type 3. The incidence of infection by these cercariae was 33%, 25.7%, and 2.4%, respectively.
Conclusion: This study is clarifying the importance of this marine snail as intermediate hosts for new trematode species.
Keywords:Littorina littorea, Qarun Lake, Strigeid Cercaria.
8. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in Apis melliferaLawang propolis extract gel-treated traumatic ulcers in diabetic rats
Diah Savitri Ernawati and Ade Puspa
Veterinary World, 11(3): 304-309
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Apis mellifera propolis extract gel on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in the traumatic ulcers of rats afflicted with diabetes mellitus (DM).
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 24 male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) induced with DM by injecting 50 mg/kg of Streptozotocin, intraperitoneally, and a traumatic ulcer on their lower lip mucosa. These were divided into eight groups: Four each for control and treatment groups. Each control and treatment group consisted of three rats. The control groups treated with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 5% gel and treatment groups were administered with propolis extract gel. The expression of VEGF and MMP-9 was observed on days 3, 5, 7, and 9. Furthermore, mice sacrificed and the lower lip labial mucosa tissue of mice has been taken to make the histopathology anatomy preparation by means of immunohistochemical examination with monoclonal antibodies anti-VEGF and anti-MMP-9.
Results: This experiment revealed higher VEGF expression and lower MMP-9 expression in the treatment group as compared to that of the control group. Analysis of Variance showed significant differences (p<0.01) of both VEGF expression and MMP-9 expression between the two groups. A Tukey's analysis did not find strong contrasts in VEGF and MMP-9 expressions between various treatment groups. However, those between treatment and control groups were found to be considerable.
Conclusion: Propolis extract gel increased the expression of VEGF and decreased that of MMP-9 during the healing process of traumatic ulcers on the oral mucosa of diabetes afflicted Wistar rats (R. norvegicus).
7. Meta-analysis of classical swine fever prevalence in pigs in India: A 5-year study
S. S. Patil, K. P. Suresh, S. Saha, A. Prajapati, D. Hemadri and P. Roy
Veterinary World, 11(3): 297-303
Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the overall prevalence of classical swine fever (CSF) in pigs in India, through a systematic review and meta-analysis of published data.
Materials and Methods: Consortium for e-Resources in Agriculture, India, Google Scholar, PubMed, annual reports of All India Coordinated Research Project on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance,and All India Animal Disease database of NIVEDI (NADRES) were used for searching and retrieval of CSF prevalence data (seroprevalence, virus antigen, and virus nucleic acid detection) in India using a search strategy combining keywords and related database-specific subject terms from January 2011 to December 2015 in English only.
Results: A total of 22 data reports containing 6,158 samples size from 18 states of India were used for the quantitative synthesis, and overall 37% (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.24, 0.51) CSF prevalence in India was estimated. The data were classified into 4 different geographical zones of the country: 20% (95% CI=0.05, 0.55), 31% (95% CI=0.18, 0.47), 55% (95% CI=0.32, 0.76), and 34% (95% CI=0.14, 0.62). CSF prevalence was estimated in northern, eastern, western, and southern regions, respectively.
Conclusion: This study indicates that overall prevalence of CSF in India is much lower than individual published reports.
Keywords: Classical swine fever, India, meta-analysis, pigs, prevalence.
6. Giardiasis: Serum antibodies and coproantigens in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Grenada, West Indies
Keshaw Tiwari, Camille Coomansingh Springer, Alfred Chikweto, Josephine Tang, Yvette Sepulveda, Amanda Leigh Smith, Nia Rametta and Ravindra Nath Sharma
Veterinary World, 11(3): 293-296
Aim:Giardia is a serious zoonotic parasite, which causes diarrheal disease in humans and animals including rodents. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Giardia spp. in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Grenada.
Materials and Methods: Intestinal contents from 99 and serum samples from 169 brown rats (R. norvegicus) from Grenada were collected. These samples were examined for the Giardia coproantigens using Cryptosporidium/Giardia Quik Chek assay (Tech lab® Inc., USA), and the serum was screened through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit for Giardia antibody (anti-GD) ELISA kit (MyBioSource, San Diego, CA, USA).
Results:Giardia coproantigens were positive in 17.17% (95% confidence interval [CI]; 10.33-26.06%) rats, whereas 55% (95% CI: 47.20-62.68) were positive with serum antibodies (anti-GD) to Giardia.
Conclusion: The prevalence of Giardia spp. in brown rats in Grenada was moderate based on the presence of coproantigens in the intestinal contents and antibody in serum. The findings of Giardia infections and prevalence in brown rats will help veterinarians and physicians to better plan diagnostic and preventative strategies. This is the first report of prevalence of Giardia in brown rats in Grenada.
Keywords: antibody, brown rat, coproantigens, Giardia, Grenada.
3. Bovine cysticercosis and human taeniasis: Animal-human health and economic approach with treatment trends in Kombolcha Town, Wollo, Ethiopia
Aragaw Tegegne, Adem Hiko and Kemal Kedir Elemo
International Journal of One Health, 4: 15-21
Background and Aim: Bovine cysticercosis and human taeniasis accounted for parasitic zoonotic implications with economic losses from organ contamination and treatment cost. The disease is common where hygienic conditions are poor and the inhabitants traditionally eat raw or insufficiently cooked meat under inadequate community awareness on the associated risk factors for the occurrences of infections in developing countries such as Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess bovine cysticercosis and Taenia saginata human taeniasis considering animal-human health and economic approach with treatment trends in Kombolcha Town, Wollo, Ethiopia.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in cattle slaughtered at Kombolcha ELFORA abattoir from November 2016 to April 2017. A questionnaire survey was applied for community awareness, exposure risk, and treatment trends for taeniasis assessment in Kombolcha Town with economic losses from organ condemnation, and drug cost for taeniasis treatments were estimated.
Results: Of the 234 examined carcasses, 21 (8.97%) were found infected with bovine cysticercosis. Organ distribution of the cysts showed highest proportions in liver 40 (29.2%), followed by heart 26 (18.9%), tongue 22 (16.1%), masseter muscle 20 (14.6%), triceps 15 (10.9%), diaphragm 9 (6.7%), and lung 5 (3.6%). Both male, i.e., 15 (6.4%), and female, i.e., 6 (12.8%), were infected. Regardless of sample size, Cysticercus bovis infection was found 8 (21.62%) in adults and 13 (6.60%) older aged. Of 110 interviewed individuals, about 31.8% aware of taeniasis and they also have exposure risk for taeniasis with no differences (p>0.05) within studied demography. The majorities (54.3%) of exposed groups use pharmaceutical drugs, while 28.6% use herbal medicine, but 17.2% use both for treatment. Of 31,469 clinical cases in Kombolcha Town, 22 (0.07%) were positive for taeniasis over the year 2016. An inventory of pharmaceutical shops revealed the supply of 6998 adult taenicidal drug doses for a cost of 19,621.00 Ethiopian Birr (ETB) where mebendazole and albendazole were the most frequent. A total annual economic loss of 1,841,311.00 ETB (73,652.44 USD) consisting of 1,831,890.00 ETB from organ condemnation and 19,421.00 ETB from taenicidal drug cost was estimated.
Conclusion: The present finding indicates the need for community awareness creation regarding the disease condition, associated risk factors, and application of environmental hygiene which could bring a paramount reduction of diseases in human and beef industry which prevent the associated economic loss.
5. Androctonus genus species in arid regions: Ecological niche models, geographical distributions, and envenomation risk
Moulay Abdelmonaim El Hidan, Oulaid Touloun, Abdellah Bouazza, Mehdi Ait Laaradia and Ali Boumezzough
Veterinary World, 11(3): 286-292
Aim: The objective of this study was to establish environmental factors related to scorpion species occurrence and their current potential geographic distributions in Morocco, to produce a current envenomation risk map and also to assess the human population at risk of envenomation.
Materials and Methods: In this study, 71 georeferenced points for all scorpion species and nine environmental indicators were used to generate species distribution models in Maxent (maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions) version 3.3.3k. The models were evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC), using the omission error and the binomial probability. With the data generated by Maxent, distribution and envenomation risk maps were produced using the "ESRI® ArcGIS 10.2.2 for Desktop" software.
Results: The models had high predictive success (AUC >0.95±0.025). Altitude, slope and five bioclimatic attributes were found to play a significant role in determining Androctonus scorpion species distribution. Ecological niche models (ENMs) showed high concordance with the known distribution of the species. Produced risk map identified broad risk areas for Androctonus scorpion envenomation, extending along Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz, Souss-Massa-Draa, and some areas of Doukkala-Abda and Oriental regions.
Conclusion: Considering these findings ENMs could be useful to afford important information on distributions of medically important scorpion species as well as producing scorpion envenomation risk maps.
4. Prevalence of American foulbrood in asymptomatic apiaries of Kurdistan, Iran
M. Khezri, M. Moharrami, H. Modirrousta, M. Torkaman, B. Rokhzad and H. Khanbabaie
Veterinary World, 11(3): 281-285
Aim:Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae is the etiological agent of American foulbrood (AFB), the most virulent bacterial disease of honey bee brood worldwide. In many countries, AFB is a notifiable disease since it is highly contagious, in most cases incurable, and able to kill affected colonies. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of P. larvae subsp. larvae in Kurdistan province apiaries by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique.
Materials and Methods: A total of 100 samples were randomly purchased from apiaries in Kurdistan, Iran. Apiaries were randomly sampled in accordance with the instructions of the veterinary organization from different provinces and were tested using PCR method and an exclusive primer of 16S rRNA for the presence of P. larvae subsp. larvae.
Results: The results of this study indicated a low level of contamination with P. larvae subsp. larvae in the Kurdistan province. The number of positive samples obtained by PCR was 2%.
Conclusion: Therefore, monitoring programs for this honeybee disease in Kurdistan should be developed and implemented to ensure that it is detected early and managed.
Keywords: American foulbrood, honeybee, Kurdistan province, Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, polymerase chain reaction.
3. Prevailing practices in the use of antibiotics by dairy farmers in Eastern Haryana region of India
Vikash Kumar and Jancy Gupta
Veterinary World, 11(3): 274-280
Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the antibiotic use in dairy animals and to trace its usage pattern among the small, medium, and large dairy farmers in Eastern Haryana region of India.
Materials and Methods: Karnal and Kurukshetra districts from Eastern region of Haryana state were purposively selected, and four villages from each district were selected randomly. From each village, 21 farmers were selected using stratified random sampling by categorizing into small, medium, and large farmers constituting a total of 168 farmers as respondents. An antibiotic usage index (AUI) was developed to assess usage of antibiotics by dairy farmers.
Results: Frequency of veterinary consultancy was high among large dairy farmers, and they mostly preferred veterinarians over para-veterinarians for treatment of dairy animals. Small farmers demanded low-cost antibiotics from veterinarians whereas large farmers rarely went for it. Antibiotics were used maximum for therapeutic purposes by all categories of farmers. Completion of treatment schedules and follow-up were strictly practiced by the majority of large farmers. AUI revealed that large farmers were more consistent on decision-making about prudent use of antibiotics. Routine use of antibiotics after parturition to prevent disease and sale of milk without adhering to withdrawal period was responsible for aggravating the antibiotic resistance. The extent of antibiotic use by small farmers depended on the severity of disease. The large farmers opted for the prophylactic use of antibiotics at the herd level.
Conclusion: Antibiotic usage practices were judicious among large dairy farmers, moderately prudent by medium dairy farmers and faulty by small farmers. The frequency of veterinary consultancy promoted better veterinary-client relationship among large farmers.
2. Semi-nested polymerase chain reaction-based detection of Babesia spp. in small ruminants from Northwest of Iran
Ahad Bazmani, Amir Abolhooshyar, Abbas Imani-Baran and Hamid Akbari
Veterinary World, 11(3): 268-273
Aim: The present study aimed to detect Babesia ovis and Babesia motasi in the blood samples of sheep and goats from Northwest of Iran by the semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique.
Materials and Methods: A total of 166 whole blood samples (including 123 sheep and 43 goats) were collected. In the first stage, the PCR was performed to amplify a piece of 18S rRNA gene of Babesia and Theileriagenera. Then, semi-nested PCR was carried out on all PCR products to differentiate B. ovis and B. motasi.
Results: The PCR indicated that totally, 19 (11.44%) out of 166 samples were positive for Babesia or Theileria spp. The semi-nested PCR showed that 38 samples (22.89%) were positive only for B. ovis. No significant association was found between the infection rate of B. ovis and age, gender and species of animals.
Conclusion: In the present study, there was no evidence for B. motasi infection in small ruminants from Northwest of Iran. Therefore, B. ovis was the main causative agent of ovine Babesiosis in this region.
1. Modeling the potential risk factors of bovine viral diarrhea prevalence in Egypt using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses
Abdelfattah M. Selim, Mahmoud M. Elhaig, Sherif A. Moawed and Ehab El-Nahas
Veterinary World, 11(3): 259-267
Aim: The present cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and potential risk factors associated with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) disease in cattle and buffaloes in Egypt, to model the potential risk factors associated with the disease using logistic regression (LR) models, and to fit the best predictive model for the current data.
Materials and Methods: A total of 740 blood samples were collected within November 2012-March 2013 from animals aged between 6 months and 3 years. The potential risk factors studied were species, age, sex, and herd location. All serum samples were examined with indirect ELIZA test for antibody detection. Data were analyzed with different statistical approaches such as Chi-square test, odds ratios (OR), univariable, and multivariable LR models.
Results: Results revealed a non-significant association between being seropositive with BVDV and all risk factors, except for species of animal. Seroprevalence percentages were 40% and 23% for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. OR for all categories were close to one with the highest OR for cattle relative to buffaloes, which was 2.237. Likelihood ratio tests showed a significant drop of the -2LL from univariable LR to multivariable LR models.
Conclusion: There was an evidence of high seroprevalence of BVDV among cattle as compared with buffaloes with the possibility of infection in different age groups of animals. In addition, multivariable LR model was proved to provide more information for association and prediction purposes relative to univariable LR models and Chi-square tests if we have more than one predictor.