Audience: Veterinary World readers represent education, industry and government, including research, teaching, administration, veterinary medicine and technical services in more than 150 countries. Veterinary World is of interest to those in veterinary medicine, infectious diseases, public health, parasitology, food science, epidemiology, immunology, virology, bacteriology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, gynaecology, wildlife.
16. Seroprevalence and risk factors of caprine brucellosis in Khartoum state, Sudan
Eman Mohamed-Ahmed Mohamed, Abdelhamid Ahemd Mohamed Elfadil, Enaam Mohamed El-Sanousi, Hatim Hamad Ibrahaem, Saad El-Tiab Mohamed-Noor, Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla and Yassir Adam Shuaib
Veterinary World, 11(4): 511-518
Aim: This cross-sectional study was conducted from April to July 2012 in Khartoum state, Sudan, to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in goats and to investigate potential risk factors associated with this disease.
Materials and Methods: A total of 307 serum samples were collected from both sexes of goats in four different localities and were subjected to testing for brucellosis using rose bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT), and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA).
Results: The overall seroprevalence was 11.4% (n=35) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) ranging from 7.80 to 15.0. Out of these 35 RBPT-positive samples, the positivity of 18 and 17 were confirmed by SAT and cELISA, respectively. A significant statistical variation was observed between brucellosis seroprevalences in goats purchased from local animal markets and goats that were raised at the farm. Conversely, such significant variations were not observed among the categories of other risk factors with seroprevalences ranging from 3.0% (95% CI between 0.40 and 7.20) to 16.3% (95% CI between 10.4 and 22.3). Location (χ2=9.33, df=3, p=0.02), breed (χ2=3.52, df=1, p=0.05), herd size (χ2=6.59, df=2, p=0.03), and herd expansion (χ2=5.39, df=1, p=0.02) were associated with RBPT-positive status for brucella in the two-tailed Chi-square test. In addition, Sharq an-Nil locality and goats raised at the farm had increased odds of being RBPT positive.
Conclusion: Brucellosis was detected in goats in all surveyed localities. An effort should be made to educate goat owners/herders about brucellosis as well as about the importance of vaccination.
15. Viability test of fish scale collagen (Oshpronemus gouramy) on baby hamster kidney fibroblasts-21 fibroblast cell culture
Chiquita Prahasanti, Denny Tri Wulandari and Noer Ulfa
Veterinary World, 11(4): 506-510
Aim: This study aims to examine the toxicity of collagen extracted from gouramy fish scales (Oshpronemus gouramy) by evaluating its viability against baby hamster kidney fibroblasts-21.
Materials and Methods: Collagen was extracted from gouramy fish scales (O. gouramy) with 6% acetic acid. Its results were analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and freeze-dried technique. Its morphology then was analyzed with scanning electron microscope. Afterward, 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)2.5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was conducted to compare cells with and without fish scale collagen treatment.
Results: Collagen extracted from gouramy fish scales had no influence statistically on cultured fibroblast cells with a statistical significance (2-tailed) value of 0.754 (p>00025).
Conclusion: Collagen extracted from gouramy fish scales has high viability against BHK21 fibroblast cells.
Keywords: bone graft, collagen, gouramy fish scale, viability, 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)2.5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide.
14. Genetic characterization of 11 microsatellite loci in Egyptian pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and their cross-species amplification in other Columbidae populations
Sherif Ramadan, Ahmed Dawod, Osama El-Garhy, Amira M. Nowier, Marwa Eltanany and Miho Inoue-Murayama
Veterinary World, 11(4): 497-505
Aim: This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationships of 10 Egyptian pigeon populations belonging to Columba livia domestica species using 11 microsatellite markers and to investigate the success of these markers amplification across another eight pigeon species.
Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated from feather samples of 179 pigeon samples from 10 Egyptian breeds: Asfer Weraq (n=14), Austoraly (n=20), Reehani (n=21), Messawed (n=17), Nemssawy (n=27), Otatti (n=12), Morasla (n=17), Tumbler (n=22), Halaby Asfer (n=10), and Karakandy (n=19) in addition to Japanese feral pigeons (n=30). Genotyping was done using 11 specific polymorphic microsatellite makers. Moreover, 37 samples not belonging to C. livia domestica but belonging to another eight pigeon species were genotyped. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were electrophoresed on an ABI 3130xl DNA Sequencer. The basic measures of genetic diversity and phylogenetic trees were computed using bioinformatics software.
Results: Across the 10 studied Egyptian populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 19 and the average number of alleles observed was 9.091. The lowest value of expected heterozygosity (0.373) was obtained for the Reehani breed, and the highest value (0.706) was found for Morasla breed. The overall expected heterozygosity of Egyptian pigeons was 0.548. The FST coefficient which indicates fixation coefficients of subpopulations within the total population for the 11 loci varied from 0.318 to 0.114 with a relatively high mean (0.226). In our study, the FIS showed a relatively high average (0.037). The pairwise Reynolds's genetic distance between the 11 studied pigeon populations recorded lower values between Otatti and Austoraly (0.025) and between Morasla and Japanese feral pigeons (0.054). These results are supported by clustering pattern either by the neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree or by a Bayesian clustering of STRUCTURE with the admixture method.
Conclusion: We confirm the applicability of the CliμD17, CliμT17, CliμD16, CliμD32, CliμT13, CliμD01, PG1, PG2, PG4, PG6, and PG7 microsatellite markers among Egyptian domestic pigeons and across other pigeon species using cross-species amplification method. The information from this study should be useful for genetic characterization and for developing conservation programs of this important species.
13. Radiographic prediction of metallic foreign body penetration in the reticulum of cows and buffaloes
Shanib Mehraj Makhdoomi, Vandana Sangwan, and Ashwani Kumar
Veterinary World, 11(4): 488-496
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the role of radiography in the standing (right and left) and recumbent (right) lateral positions for the detection and prediction of metallic foreign body penetration in the reticular wall.
Materials and Methods: A total of 41 bovines (23 cows and 18 buffaloes) having at least one sharp metallic foreign body (>1 cm) detected on reticular radiographs were investigated, and their extent of penetration in the reticular wall was confirmed on the left flank laparorumenotomy.
Results: Of total sharp metallic foreign bodies retrieved on rumenotomy, the maximum percent were detected on the right recumbent radiographic view (75.00% in cows and 57.14% in buffaloes) compared to the right standing (54.38% in cows and 40.42% in buffaloes) and left standing (51.06% in cows and 27.08% in buffaloes) radiographic views. The presence of gas pocket or nodule adjoining a foreign body, faintly visible foreign body, foreign body that appeared partially or completely out of the reticulum, and foreign body that appeared parallel, into, or directed toward the diaphragm indicated a high probability in the prediction of penetrating foreign body in the left standing (100%) followed by the right recumbent (85.71% in cattle and 90% in buffaloes) and right standing (94.74% in cattle and 55.56% in buffaloes) radiographic views.
Conclusion: The right recumbent radiographic view is most reliable to detect sharp metallic foreign bodies in bovine. Buffaloes engulf more number of foreign bodies; however, comparatively, the number of completely or partially penetrating foreign bodies is high in cattle. The hypothesized radiographic parameters for the prediction of penetrability of the metallic foreign body were 100% reliable in the left standing radiographic view in both the species.
12. Molecular characterization of canine parvovirus variants (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c) based on the VP2 gene in affected domestic dogs in Ecuador
David De la Torre, Eulalia Mafla, Byron Puga, Linda Erazo, Claudete Astolfi-Ferreira and Antonio Piantino Ferreira
Veterinary World, 11(4): 480-487
Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the presence of the variants of canine parvovirus (CPV)-2 in the city of Quito, Ecuador, due to the high domestic and street-type canine population, and to identify possible mutations at a genetic level that could be causing structural changes in the virus with a consequent influence on the immune response of the hosts.
Materials and Methods: Thirty-five stool samples from different puppies with characteristic signs of the disease and positives for CPV through immunochromatography kits were collected from different veterinarian clinics of the city. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were used to determine the mutations in residue 426 of the VP2 gene, which determines the variants of CPV-2; in addition, four samples were chosen for complete sequencing of the VP2 gene to identify all possible mutations in the circulating strains in this region of the country.
Results: The results revealed the presence of the three variants of CPV-2 with a prevalence of 57.1% (20/35) for CPV-2a, 8.5% (3/35) for CPV-2b, and 34.3% (12/35) for CPV-2c. In addition, complete sequencing of the VP2gene showed amino acid substitutions in residues 87, 101, 139, 219, 297, 300, 305, 322, 324, 375, 386, 426, 440, and 514 of the three Ecuadorian variants when compared with the original CPV-2 sequence.
Conclusion: This study describes the detection of CPV variants in the city of Quito, Ecuador. Variants of CPV-2 (2a, 2b, and 2c) have been reported in South America, and there are cases in Ecuador where CVP-2 is affecting even vaccinated puppies.
11. Evaluation of multiplex polymerase chain reaction as an alternative to conventional antibiotic sensitivity test
K. Rathore, B. Joseph, D. K. Sharma, A. Gaurav, S. K. Sharma, M. Milind, P. Patel, C. Prakash and L. Singh
Veterinary World, 11(4): 474-479
Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the potential of the use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as an alternative to conventional antibiotic sensitivity test.
Materials and Methods: Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (total = 36) from clinical cases presented to Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex of College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (CVAS), Navania, Udaipur, were characterized by morphological, cultural, and biochemical methods. Then, the isolates were further subjected to molecular characterization by PCR targeting S. aureus-specific sequence (107 bp). Phenotypic antibiotic sensitivity pattern was analyzed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method against 11 commonly used antibiotics in veterinary medicine in and around Udaipur region. The genotypic antibiotic sensitivity pattern was studied against methicillin, aminoglycosides, and tetracycline targeting the gene mecA, aacA-aphD, and tetK by multiplex PCR.
Results: There was 100% correlation between the phenotype and genotype of aminoglycoside resistance, more than 90% correlation for methicillin resistance, and 58.3% in the case tetracycline resistance.
Conclusion: As there is a good correlation between phenotype and genotype of antibiotic resistance, multiplex PCR can be used as an alternative to the conventional antibiotic susceptibility testing, as it can give a rapid and true prediction of antibiotic sensitivity pattern.
Aim: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae have frequently been reported, in both human and veterinary medicine, from different parts of the world as a consequence of antibiotic usage. However, there is a lack of published data regarding antimicrobial resistance in non-Escherichia coli (E. coli) Enterobacteriaceae from animals in Algeria. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of resistance to antibiotics with a focus on quinolones and to investigate the presence of qnr genes in Enterobacteriaceae of poultry origin.
Materials and Methods: A total of 310 samples of poultry origin were collected from 2010 to 2014 from broiler and layer farms and hatcheries located in different geographic areas of Western Algeria (including Mostaganem, Oran, Mascara, Relizane, Chlef, Tiaret, and Tissemsilt). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using disc diffusion assay. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing accomplished the characterization of qnr genes (qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS).
Results: A total of 253 Enterobacteriaceae strains were isolated in this study. These isolates exhibited high levels of resistance to quinolones and other families of antibiotics. All the strains isolated in this study were resistant to at least one antibiotic. Among them, 233 (92.09%) were considered MDR. Among the 18 randomly selected nalidixic acid (NA)- resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates, one E. coli and one Enterobacter cloacaewere carrying qnrS1. By contrast, qnrA and qnrB were not detected in this study.
Conclusion: This is the first report on the identification of the qnrS gene in E. cloacae isolated from animal source in Algeria. Further studies have to be conducted to determine the real prevalence of qnr genes.
Background and Aim: In Tamil Nadu, a southern state of India, rice is readily available at a low cost, hence, is cooked (cooking akin to human consumption) and fed irrationally to cross-bred dairy cattle with poor productivity. Hence, a study was carried out with the objective to examine the prevalence of acidosis sequelae to rice-based feeding regimen and assess its magnitude.
Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted in all the 32 districts of Tamil Nadu, by randomly selecting two blocks per districts and from each block five villages were randomly selected. From each of the selected village, 10 dairy farmers belonging to the unorganized sector, owning one or two cross-bred dairy cows in early and mid-lactation were randomly selected so that a sample size of 100 farmers per district was maintained. The feeding regimen, milk yield was recorded, and occurrence of acidosis and incidence of laminitis were ascertained by the veterinarian with the confirmative test to determine the impact of feeding cooked rice to cows.
Results: It is observed that 71.5% of farmers in unorganized sector feed cooked rice to their cattle. The incidence of acidosis progressively increased significantly (p<0.05) from 29.00% in cows fed with 0.5 kg of cooked rice to 69.23% in cows fed with more than 2.5 kg of cooked rice. However, the incidence of acidosis remained significantly (p<0.05) as low as 9.9% in cows fed feeding regimen without cooked rice which is suggestive of a correlation between excessive feeding cooked rice and onset of acidosis. Further, the noticeable difference in the incidence of acidosis observed between feeding cooked rice and those fed without rice and limited intake of oil cake indicates that there is a mismatch between energy and protein supply to these cattle. Among cooked rice-based diet, the incidence of laminitis increased progressively (p<0.05) from 9.2% to 37.9% with the increase in the quantum of cooked rice in the diet.
Conclusion: The study points out the importance of protein supplementation in rice-based feeding regimen to set right the mismatched supply between nitrogen and fermentable organic matter in the rumen. This research has practical implications for animal health, welfare, nutrition, and management.
Background and Aim: In the recent past, few studies have been carried out in chicken to assess the effect of Azolla meal and raw Azolla feeding on the performance of chicken. If turkeys effectively use unconventional feedstuffs like Azolla without reducing the performance, it will increase the profitability of turkey business. Hence, a study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dried Azolla pinnata vis-a-vis raw Azolla as choice feeding on the growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR), blood biochemical attributes, and immune competence traits of growing turkeys under intensive system.
Materials and Methods: A total of 72, 8-week-old grower turkey poults of black variety were randomly distributed into three dietary treatments having three replicates each with eight birds. The birds of the control group (T1) were fed a basal diet (CP - 19.71% and ME - 2789.79 Kcal/kg), while the other group (T2) and choice-feeding group (T3) were fed 5% of basal diet replaced by dry Azolla powder on DM basis and ad libitum Azolla along with basal diet, respectively.
Results: There was no significant difference among the different groups in the average weekly weight gain during the entire experiment. FCR was significantly better (p<0.05) in the choice-feeding group compared to the other two experimental groups during 8-16 weeks of age. There was no significant difference among the treatment groups in any of the blood biochemical indices except plasma uric acid, which was significantly decreased (p<0.01) in T2 compared to T1 at 16 weeks of age. HA and IgM response to 1% sheep red blood cells (log2 titer) were numerically better in T2 and T3 compared to the T1.
Conclusion: Thus, it may be inferred that choice feeding with Azolla, and basal diet may improve FCR without any adverse effect on blood biochemical attributes and immune competence traits.
Keywords:Azolla, biochemical attributes, body weight, immunity, turkeys.
7. Standardization and application of real-time polymerase chain reaction for rapid detection of bluetongue virus
I. Karthika Lakshmi, Kalyani Putty, Satya Samparna Raut, Sunil R. Patil, P. P. Rao, B. Bhagyalakshmi, Y. Krishna Jyothi, B. Susmitha, Y. Vishnuvardhan Reddy, Sowmya Kasulanati, J. Shiva Jyothi and Y. N. Reddy
Veterinary World, 11(4): 452-458
Aim: The present study was designed to standardize real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting the bluetongue virus from blood samples of sheep collected during outbreaks of bluetongue disease in the year 2014 in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states of India.
Materials and Methods: A 10-fold serial dilution of Plasmid PUC59 with bluetongue virus (BTV) NS3 insert was used to plot the standard curve. BHK-21 and KC cells were used for in vitro propagation of virus BTV-9 at a TCID50/ml of 105 ml and RNA was isolated by the Trizol method. Both reverse transcription -PCR and real-time PCR using TaqMan probe were carried out with RNA extracted from virus-spiked culture medium and blood to compare the sensitivity by means of finding out the limit of detection (LoD). The results were verified by inoculating the detected and undetected dilutions onto cell cultures with further cytological (cytopathic effect) and molecular confirmation (by BTV-NS1 group-specific PCR). The standardized technique was then applied to field samples (blood) for detecting BTV.
Results: The slope of the standard curve obtained was -3.23, and the efficiency was 103%. The LoD with RT-PCR was 8.269Ex103 number of copies of plasmid, whereas it was 13 with real-time PCR for plasmid dilutions. Similarly, LoD was determined for virus-spiked culture medium, and blood with both the types of PCR and the values were 103 TCID 50/ml and 104 TCID 50/ml with RT-PCR and 10° TCID 50/ml and 102 TCID 50/ml with real-time PCR, respectively. The standardized technique was applied to blood samples collected from BTV suspected animals; 10 among 20 samples were found positive with Cq values ranging from 27 to 39. The Cq value exhibiting samples were further processed in cell cultures and were confirmed to be BT positive. Likewise, Cq undetected samples on processing in cell cultures turned out to be BTV negative.
Conclusion: Real-time PCR was found to be a very sensitive as well as reliable method to detect BTV present in different types of samples, including blood samples collected from BTV-infected sheep, compared to RT-PCR. The LoD of BTV is likely influenced by sample type, possibly by the interference by the other components present in the sample.
Keywords: bluetongue virus, limit of detection, real-time polymerase chain reaction.
6. Effects of lipid extraction on nutritive composition of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), rubber seed (Hevea brasiliensis), and tropical almond (Terminalia catappa)
Anuraga Jayanegara, Rakhmad P. Harahap, Richard F. Rozi and Nahrowi
Veterinary World, 11(4): 446-451
Aim: This experiment aimed to evaluate the nutritive composition and in vitro rumen fermentability and digestibility of intact and lipid-extracted winged bean, rubber seed, and tropical almond.
Materials and Methods: Soybean, winged bean, rubber seed, and tropical almond were subjected to lipid extraction and chemical composition determination. Lipid extraction was performed through solvent extraction by Soxhlet procedure. Non-extracted and extracted samples of these materials were evaluated for in vitro rumen fermentation and digestibility assay using rumen: Buffer mixture. Parameters measured were gas production kinetics, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, ammonia, in vitro dry matter (IVDMD) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD). Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test.
Results: Soybean, winged bean, rubber seed, and tropical almond contained high amounts of ether extract, i.e., above 20% DM. Crude protein contents of soybean, winged bean, rubber seed, and tropical almond increased by 17.7, 4.7, 55.2, and 126.5% after lipid extraction, respectively. In vitro gas production of intact winged bean was the highest among other materials at various time point intervals (p<0.05), followed by soybean > rubber seed > tropical almond. Extraction of lipid increased in vitro gas production, total VFA concentration, IVDMD, and IVOMD of soybean, winged bean, rubber seed, and tropical almond (p<0.05). After lipid extraction, all feed materials had similar IVDMD and IVOMD values.
Conclusion: Lipid extraction improved the nutritional quality of winged bean, rubber seed, and tropical almond.
5. Validation of immunomodulatory effects of lipopolysaccharide through expression profiling of Th1 and Th2 biased genes in Newcastle disease virus vaccinated indigenous chicken
Rabia Bhardwaj, Ramneek Verma, Dipak Deka, P. P. Dubey, J. S. Arora, R. S. Sethi, T. C. Tolenkhomba and C. S. Mukhopadhyay
Veterinary World, 11(4): 437-445
Background and Aim: Newcastle disease (ND) is considered one of the most important poultry diseases with chicken morbidity and mortality rates up to 100%. Current vaccination programs allow the use of live attenuated vaccines in the field to protect against the disease, which alone is inefficient and requires repeat booster doses. Toll-like receptor agonists (e.g., lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) as adjuvants are the ones, most extensively studied and have shown to be very promising in delivering a robust balanced immune response. In the present study, we have evaluated the potential of LPS to elicit a strong immune response with respect to the elicitation of both Th1 (cell-mediated) and Th2 (humoral) immune arms.
Materials and Methods: A total of 72 apparently healthy 1-day-old indigenous unvaccinated chicks were randomly divided into six experimental Groups A to F (n=12). At 8-week of age chicks in Group A, C, and E were vaccinated with live attenuated La Sota strain ND vaccine along with LPS, bovine serum albumin, and normal saline solution, respectively, and those in Group B, D, and E were kept separately without vaccination. Sampling was done on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 35, and 60 after vaccination. After vaccination and respective adjuvant application, Th1 and Th2 cytokine expression were measured in mRNA of both blood and tissue samples.
Results: The results were validated by, hemagglutination inhibition and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests, to check for the humoral as well as cell-mediated immune response in blood serum levels. The results showed an increase in mRNA expression of the Th1 biased cytokines in Group A (LPS+NDV) as compared to the control groups. Similar mRNA expression pattern was seen in blood as well as tissue samples. Validation of results also indicates an increase in Cell-mediated Immunity as well as a humoral immune response in Group A (LPS+NDV).
Conclusion: The results of the study provided enough evidence to consider LPS as a potential vaccine adjuvants candidate against ND in chicken.
4. Molecular detection of serotype groups of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from gallbladder of cattle and sheep in Iraq
Hamza Jawad Al-Ali, Mohsen Abd Al-Rodhan, Samer Abdulsahib Al-Hilali, Alaa Hani Al-Charrakh, Ali Muhsin Al-Mohana and Zainab Jaber Hadi
Veterinary World, 11(4): 431-436
Aim: This study was designed to investigate the occurrence of serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes, an important food-borne pathogen, in gallbladder samples from cattle and sheep.
Materials and Methods: Three hundred samples were collected and screened for the presence of L. monocytogenes. The identification of the isolates was confirmed by API-Listeria system and by the presence of hemolysin (hyl) gene. The isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction-based serotype identification with d1 (division 1), d2 (division 2), glt, mama (mismatch amplification mutation assay), and flaA (flagellin protein) genes.
Results: A total of 8 (2.7%) L. monocytogenes were recovered from 6 (4.0%) samples of sheep and 2 (1.3%) samples of cattle. All isolates showed positive results with Hly primers. Four isolates carried d1 gene, did not possess glt gene and harbored mama gene. The serotypes of these isolates were identified as 4a or 4c. The other 4 isolates carried d2 gene, 3 of them were positive with the FlaA primers, and hence, determined to be a 1/2a or 3a serotype, and 1 isolate was determined to be 1/2c or 3c serotype.
Conclusion: This study concluded that the presence of 1/2a serotype in gallbladder samples indicates public health risk through cross-contamination of meat at slaughterhouses.
3. Molecular typing of Staphylococcus aureus based on coagulase gene
Faizan Javid, Anil Taku, Mohd Altaf Bhat, Gulzar Ahmad Badroo, Mir Mudasir and Tanveer Ahmad Sofi
Veterinary World, 11(4): 423-430
Aim: This study was conducted to study the coagulase gene-based genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from different samples of cattle using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and their sequence-based phylogenetic analysis.
Materials and Methods: A total of 192 different samples from mastitic milk, nasal cavity, and pus from skin wounds of cattle from Military Dairy Farm, Jammu, India, were screened for the presence of S. aureus. The presumptive isolates were confirmed by nuc gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The confirmed S. aureus isolates were subjected to coagulase (coa) gene PCR. Different coa genotypes observed were subjected to RFLP using restriction enzymes Hae111 and Alu1, to obtain the different restriction patterns. One isolate from each restriction pattern was sequenced. These sequences were aligned for maximum homology using the Bioedit software and similarity in the sequences was inferred with the help of sequence identity matrix.
Results: Of 192 different samples, 39 (20.31%) isolates of S. aureus were confirmed by targeting nuc gene using PCR. Of 39 S. aureus isolates, 25 (64.10%) isolates carried coa gene. Four different genotypes of coa gene, i.e., 514 bp, 595 bp, 757 bp, and 802 bp were obtained. Two coa genotypes, 595 bp (15 isolates) and 802 bp (4 isolates), were observed in mastitic milk. 514 bp (2 isolates) and 757 bp (4 isolates) coa genotypes were observed from nasal cavity and pus from skin wounds, respectively. On RFLP using both restriction enzymes, four different restriction patterns P1, P2, P3, and P4 were observed. On sequencing, four different sequences having unique restriction patterns were obtained. The most identical sequences with the value of 0.810 were found between isolate S. aureus 514 (nasal cavity) and S. aureus 595 (mastitic milk), and thus, they are most closely related. While as the most distant sequences with the value of 0.483 were found between S. aureus 514 and S. aureus 802 isolates.
Conclusion: The study, being localized to only one farm, yielded different RFLP patterns as observed from different sampling sites, which indicates that different S. aureus coagulase types have a site-specific predilection. Two coa patterns were observed in mastitic milk indicating multiple origins of infection, with 595 bp coa genotype being predominant in mastitic milk. The coa genotypes and their restriction patterns observed in the present study are novel, not published earlier. 514 and 595 coa variants of S. aureus are genetically most related.
2. Comparative occurrence of diabetes in canine, feline, and few wild animals and their association with pancreatic diseases and ketoacidosis with therapeutic approach
Kamal Niaz, Faheem Maqbool, Fazlullah Khan, Fatima Ismail Hassan, Saeideh Momtaz and Mohammad Abdollahi
Veterinary World, 11(4): 410-422
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder in which blood glucose level raises that can result in severe complications. However, the incidence increased mostly by obesity, pregnancy, persistent corpus luteum, and diestrus phase in humans and animals. This review has focused on addressing the possible understanding and pathogenesis of spontaneous DM in canine, feline, and few wild animals. Furthermore, pancreatic associated disorders, diabetic ketoacidosis, hormonal and drug interaction with diabetes, and herbal remedies associated with DM are elucidated. Bibliographic search for the present review was done using PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar for articles on concurrent DM in small and wild animals. Persistent corpus luteal and pseudopregnancy in female dogs generate gestational DM (GDM). GDM can also be caused by extensive use of drugs/hormones such as glucocorticosteroids. Although many similarities are present between diabetic cats and diabetic humans which present islet amyloidosis, there was a progressive loss of β- and α-cells and the normal number of δ-cells. The most prominent similarity is the occurrence of islet amyloidosis in all cases of diabetic cat and over 90% of human non-insulin dependent DM Type-2. Acute pancreatic necrosis (APN) occurs due to predisposing factors such as insulin antagonism, insulin resistance, alteration in glucose tolerance, obesity, hyperadrenocorticism, and persistent usage of glucocorticoids, as these play a vital role in the progression of APN. To manage such conditions, it is important to deal with the etiological agent, risk factors, diagnosis of diabetes, and hormonal and drug interaction along with its termination with suitable therapy (herbal) protocols. It should be noted that the protocols used for the diagnosis and treatment of human DM are not appropriate for animals. Further investigations regarding diabetic conditions of pets and wild animals are required, which will benefit the health status of all animals health worldwide.
1. Immunohistochemical, histopathological study and chemoprotective effect of Solanum nigrum in N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in Wistar rats
G. M. Akshatha, S. K. Raval, G. M. Arpitha, S. H. Raval and D. J. Ghodasara
Veterinary World, 11(4): 402-409
Background and Aim: Cancer is a devastating disease with a severe impact on the physical and psychological well-being of patients. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been reported in various species of animals including dogs, cats, sheep, and pigs. The present study aimed to study the immunohistochemical and histopathological changes and chemoprotective effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Solanum nigrum on N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced HCC rat model.
Materials and Methods: Eighty-two male Wistar rats of 15 weeks of age weighing 200-250 g were selected for the experiment. They were randomly divided into ten groups. Group I served as normal control consisted of healthy rats. HCC was induced in Group II, IV, V, VI, VII, and X rats using NDEA as inducing agent followed by phenobarbitone as a promoter for 16 weeks. Group II rats were kept untreated as HCC control. Group III rats were kept as vehicle control (0.05% Sodium bicarbonate). Group IV and V rats were treated with aqueous extract of S. nigrum at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, respectively, and Group VI and VII rats were treated with an alcoholic extract of S. nigrum at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, respectively, daily orally for 28 days. Group X rats were treated with sorafenib as reference drug at a dose of 11.4 mg/kg daily orally for 28 days. Group VIII and IX rats were kept as aqueous and alcoholic extract control for studying the effect of the same on normal rats. Liver samples were collected to study the gross and histopathological lesions and the activity of cleaved caspase-3 and chemopreventive effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of S. nigrum on HCC.
Results: The liver sections of rats from HCC control (Group II) showed loss of lobular architecture, necrosis, fatty change, enlarged and darkened nuclei with variable size, dilatation of hepatic sinusoids with Kupffer cell hyperplasia, dilatation and proliferation of bile duct, and intranuclear vacuoles and also showed the presence of more than one nucleolus. Administration of alcoholic extract of S. nigrum and sorafenib to NDEA/phenobarbital-treated rats reduced the severity of lesions in the liver. Immunohistochemical analysis of liver sections for caspase-3-positive cells of hepatic cancer-induced group showed immunoreactivity to rarely few. The immunoreactivity of the hepatocytes treated with a higher dose of alcoholic extract of S. nigrum was limited and was comparable to a standard drug, sorafenib.
Conclusion: Oral administration of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of S. nigrum for 28 days showed significant rejuvenation in the structure of the liver in the histopathological section in a dose-dependent manner in rats.
4. Immunologic determination of chloramphenicol residue in commercial birds at Nsukka, Enugu State, Southeast Nigeria
Ekene Vivienne Ezenduka, Benedict Chinonoso Okonkwo, Chidiebere Ohazuruike Anyaoha, John Anaelom Nwanta and Aruh Anaga
International Journal of One Health, 4: 22-27
Aim: This study aimed to determine the presence and prevalence of chloramphenicol (CAP, a drug which was banned for use in food-producing animals due to many side effects) residue in commercial birds slaughtered at Ikpa abattoir and its awareness and usage in farms at Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was done with the use of a questionnaire on usage and awareness of CAP and screening for its presence in commercial poultry in the study area. The questionnaire was supplied to 35 commercial farms, and liver samples from 300 commercial broilers were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique; the prevalence was then determined.
Results: Of the 35 farms evaluated, 33 (94%) responded. In the management practice, 57.6% of the farms use intensive deep litter, 18.2% intensive battery cage, and 24.2% extensive farming system. 19 (69.7%) farms rear only broilers, 12.1% layers, and 15.1% both. The feeding management showed that 21.1% of farmers produce their own feed with inclusion of antibiotics while 78.8% use commercial feed, of which 11.5% incorporate antibiotics. The findings also showed that 54.4% of the respondents use CAP and only 30.3% are aware of the consequences of antimicrobial residue in food and have knowledge of the legislation on the prudent use of antimicrobials in food animals. Of the 300 samples screened for CAP residue, 18.7% were positive with concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 6.2 parts per billion.
Conclusion: CAP is still very much in use in the study area, despite the ban, and it is present in the tissues of commercial birds meant for human consumption.
Keywords: chloramphenicol, drug residue, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, liver, poultry.