Saturday, 4 February 2017

Seroprevalence of bovine herpesvirus-1 antibodies in bovines in five districts of Uttarakhand

Research (Published online: 04-02-2017)
1. Seroprevalence of bovine herpesvirus-1 antibodies in bovines in five districts of Uttarakhand - Vipul Thakur, Mahesh Kumar, and R. L. Rathish
Veterinary World, 10(2): 140-143

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.140-143

Aim: This study was conducted to know the status of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) antibodies in the bovines of the selected area of Uttarakhand.
Materials and Methods: A total of 489 serum samples, 392 of cattle and 97 of buffaloes were randomly collected from the unvaccinated bovine population of five districts viz., Dehradun, Haridwar, Nainital, Pithoragarh, and Udham Singh Nagar and were tested by avidin biotin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for BHV-1 antibodies.
Results: The overall prevalence was observed to be 29.03%. At district level, the highest prevalence was recorded in Pithoragarh district (40.00%) while it was lowest in district Udham Singh Nagar (16.00%). The prevalence of BHV-1 antibodies was found to be higher in unorganized dairy units (31.02%) compared to organized farms (26.51%) in Uttarakhand. Buffaloes were found to have greater prevalence (38.14%) than cattle (26.78%) while on sex-wise basis; it was found that more females (30.08%) were harboring antibodies to the virus than males (16.21%).
Conclusion: The study revealed that the population in the area under study has been exposed to BHV-1 and hence prevention and control strategies must be implemented.
Keywords: avidin biotin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, bovine herpesvirus-1, seroprevalence.

Monday, 30 January 2017

Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in multiple candidate genes and body weight in rabbits

Research (Published online: 30-01-2017)
20. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in multiple candidate genes and body weight in rabbits - Karim El-Sabrout and Sarah A. Aggag
Veterinary World, 10(1): 136-139

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.136-139

Aim: In this study, we examined parts of six growth genes (growth hormone [GH], melanocortin 4 receptor [MC4R], growth hormone receptor [GHR], phosphorglycerate mutase [PGAM], myostatin [MSTN], and fibroblast growth factor [FGF]) as specific primers for two rabbit lines (V-line, Alexandria) using nucleotide sequence analysis, to investigate association between detecting single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of these genes and body weight (BW) at market.
Materials and Methods: Each line kits were grouped into high and low weight rabbits to identify DNA markers useful for association studies with high BW. DNA from blood samples of each group was extracted to amplify the six growth genes. SNP technique was used to study the associate polymorphism in the six growth genes and marketing BW (at 63 days) in the two rabbit lines. The purified polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced in those had the highest and lowest BW in each line.
Results: Alignment of sequence data from each group revealed the following SNPs: At nucleotide 23 (A-C) and nucleotide 35 (T-G) in MC4R gene (sense mutation) of Alexandria and V-line high BW. Furthermore, we detected the following SNPs variation between the two lines: A SNP (T-C) at nucleotide 27 was identified by MC4R gene (sense mutation) and another one (A-C) at nucleotide 14 was identified by GHR gene (nonsense mutation) of Alexandria line. The results of individual BW at market (63 days) indicated that Alexandria rabbits had significantly higher BW compared with V-line rabbits. MC4R polymorphism showed significant association with high BW in rabbits.
Conclusion: The results of polymorphism demonstrate the possibility to detect an association between BW in rabbits and the efficiency of the used primers to predict through the genetic specificity using the SNP of MC4R.
Keywords: associated genes, body weight, prediction, rabbit, single nucleotide polymorphism.

Sunday, 29 January 2017

Medico-legal aspects of congenital heart diseases in buying and selling of pets

Research (Published online: 29-01-2017)
19. Medico-legal aspects of congenital heart diseases in buying and selling of pets - Annamaria Passantino, Michela Pugliese, Valeria Quartarone, Natalia Russo, Roberto Bussadori and Bartolomeo Guercio
Veterinary World, 10(1): 130-135

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.130-135

Aim: The veterinarian should be able to assess congenital and inherited malformations such as heart defects because they may be object of legal disputes. In this study, the authors report some cases of congenital heart defects in pets (dogs and cats) to clarify whether or not they may be considered a redhibitory defect.
Materials and Methods: A total of 28 medical records of pets referred with suspected congenital heart disease were examined. All patients aged between 3 and 24 months underwent clinical examination, chest X-ray examination, electrocardiogram, and echocardiography and angiocardiography when necessary.
Results: Congenital heart diseases or associated cardiac malformations were confirmed. Considering the above congenital diseases as redhibitory defect and the rights of the owners from a strictly legal viewpoint, 9 owners demanded an estimatory action and 11 a redhibitory action; 1 owner decided to demand the reimbursement of veterinary expenses because the animal died; 7 owners took no legal action but requested surgical intervention.
Conclusions: Until more appropriate and detailed legislation on the buying and selling of pet animals is put in place; the authors propose to include in the contract a temporal extension of the guarantee relating to congenital heart disease, which can often become evident later.
Keywords: companion animals, congenital defects, heart diseases, purchase, redhibitory defect.

Friday, 27 January 2017

Nutrigenomic evaluation of garlic (Allium sativum) and holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaf powder supplementation on growth performance and immune characteristics in broilers

Research (Published online: 27-01-2017)
18. Nutrigenomic evaluation of garlic (Allium sativum) and holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaf powder supplementation on growth performance and immune characteristics in broilers - N. Sheoran, R. Kumar, A. Kumar, K. Batra, S. Sihag, S. Maan and N. S. Maan
Veterinary World, 10(1): 121-129

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.121-129

Aim: In this study, a planned research work was conducted to investigate the nutrigenomic aspects of supplementation of Allium sativum (garlic) and Ocimum sanctum (holy basil) leaf powder on the growth performance and immune characteristics of broilers.
Materials and Methods: A 6 weeks feeding trial was conducted with 280-day-old Ven Cobb broilers, distributed randomly into seven experimental groups. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each. The birds of the control group (T1) were fed a basal diet formulated as per BIS standards. The broilers of treatment groups T2 and T3 were fed basal diet supplemented with the commercially available garlic powder (GP) at levels of 0.5% and 1.0% of the feed, respectively, while broilers in T4 and T5 were fed basal diet supplemented with commercial grade holy basil leaf powder (HBLP) at levels 0.5% and 1.0% of the feed, respectively. Birds in the T6 were fed with 0.5% GP and 0.5% HBLP, whereas T7 was fed with 1.0% GP and 1.0% HBLP. At the end of the feeding trial (6th week), blood samples were collected and analyzed for relative mRNA expression of toll-like receptors (TLR) 2, TLR 4 and TLR 7 using real-time polymerase chain reaction.
Results: The mean body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency were improved (p<0.05) in broilers fed the GP and HBLP incorporated diets compared with the control group. The relative mRNA expression levels of TLR 2, TLR 4 and TLR 7 in the peripheral blood of the broilers were found to be increased (p<0.05) in the birds supplemented with graded levels of the GP and HBLP as compared to the untreated group.
Conclusion: The present work concludes that the inclusion of GP and HBLP could enhance the production performance and immune status of birds by augmenting the T-cell mediated immune response and thereby protects them from disease without decreasing growth traits as a possible substitution to conventional antimicrobials.
Keywords: broilers, garlic, gene expression, holy basil, toll-like receptors.

Wednesday, 25 January 2017

Molecular markers for resistance against infectious diseases of economic importance

Review (Published online: 25-01-2017)
17. Molecular markers for resistance against infectious diseases of economic importance - B. M. Prajapati, J. P. Gupta, D. P. Pandey, G. A. Parmar and J. D. Chaudhari
Veterinary World, 10(1): 112-120

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.112-120

Huge livestock population of India is under threat by a large number of endemic infectious (bacterial, viral, and parasitic) diseases. These diseases are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly in exotic and crossbred cattle. Beside morbidity and mortality, economic losses by these diseases occur through reduced fertility, production losses, etc. Some of the major infectious diseases which have great economic impact on Indian dairy industries are tuberculosis (TB), Johne’s disease (JD), mastitis, tick and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs), foot and mouth disease, etc. The development of effective strategies for the assessment and control of infectious diseases requires a better understanding of pathogen biology, host immune response, and diseases pathogenesis as well as the identification of the associated biomarkers. Indigenous cattle (Bos indicus) are reported to be comparatively less affected than exotic and crossbred cattle. However, genetic basis of resistance in indigenous cattle is not well documented. The association studies of few of the genes associated with various diseases, namely, solute carrier family 11 member 1, Toll-like receptors 1, with TB; Caspase associated recruitment domain 15, SP110 with JD; CACNA2D1, CD14 with mastitis and interferon gamma, BoLA -DRB3.2 alleles with TTBDs, etc., are presented. Breeding for genetic resistance is one of the promising ways to control the infectious diseases. High host resistance is the most important method for controlling such diseases, but till today no breed is total immune. Therefore, work may be undertaken under the hypothesis that the different susceptibility to these diseases are exhibited by indigenous and crossbred cattle is due to breed-specific differences in the dealing of infected cells with other immune cel ls, which ultimately influence the immune response responded against infections. Achieving maximum resistance to these diseases is the ultimate goal, is technically possible to achieve, and is permanent. Progress could be enhanced through introgression of resistance genes to breeds with low resistance. The quest for knowledge of the genetic basis for infectious diseases in indigenous livestock is strongly warranted.
Keywords: biomarkers, foot and mouth disease, genetic resistance, Johne’s disease, mastitis, tick and tick-borne diseases, tuberculosis.

Tuesday, 24 January 2017

Molecular identification and histopathological study of natural Streptococcus agalactiae infection in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Research (Published online: 24-01-2017)
16. Molecular identification and histopathological study of natural Streptococcus agalactiae infection in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) - Laith Abdul Razzak, Mohd Azmi Ambak, Marina Hassan, Shahreza Md. Sheriff, Musa Nadirah, Ahmad Shuhaimi Draman, Wahidah Wahab, Wan Wan Ibrahim Nurhafizah, Syafiqah Aznan Alia, Amina Jabar and Musa Najiah
Veterinary World, 10(1): 101-111

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.101-111

Aim: The main objective of this study was to emphasize on histopathological examinations and molecular identification of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from natural infections in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Temerloh Pahang, Malaysia, as well as to determine the susceptibility of the pathogen strains to various currently available antimicrobial agents.
Materials and Methods: The diseased fishes were observed for variable clinical signs including fin hemorrhages, alterations in behavior associated with erratic swimming, exophthalmia, and mortality. Tissue samples from the eyes, brain, kidney, liver, and spleen were taken for bacterial isolation. Identification of S. agalactiae was screened by biochemical methods and confirmed by VITEK 2 and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The antibiogram profiling of the isolate was tested against 18 standard antibiotics included nitrofurantoin, flumequine, florfenicol, amoxylin, doxycycline, oleandomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, lincomycin, colistin sulfate, oxolinic acid, novobiocin, spiramycin, erythromycin, fosfomycin, neomycin, gentamycin, and polymyxin B. The histopathological analysis of eyes, brain, liver, kidney, and spleen was observed for abnormalities related to S. agalactiae infection.
Results: The suspected colonies of S. agalactiae identified by biochemical methods was observed as Gram-positive chained cocci, β-hemolytic, and non-motile. The isolate was confirmed as S. agalactiae by VITEK 2 (99% similarity), reconfirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (99% similarity) and deposited in GenBank with accession no. KT869025. The isolate was observed to be resistance to neomycin and gentamicin. The most consistent gross findings were marked hemorrhages, erosions of caudal fin, and exophthalmos. Microscopic examination confirmed the presence of marked congestion and infiltration of inflammatory cell in the eye, brain, kidney, liver, and spleen. Eye samples showed damage of the lens capsule, hyperemic an d hemorrhagic choroid tissue, and retina hyperplasia accompanied with edema. Brain samples showed perivascular and pericellular edema and hemorrhages of the meninges. Kidney samples showed hemorrhage and thrombosis in the glomeruli and tubules along with atrophy in hematopoietic tissue. Liver samples showed congestion of the sinusoids and blood vessel, thrombosis of portal blood vessel, and vacuolar (fatty) degeneration of hepatocytes. Spleen samples showed large thrombus in the splenic blood vessel, multifocal hemosiderin deposition, congestion of blood vessels, and multifocal infiltration of macrophages.
Conclusion: Therefore, it can be concluded that pathological changes in tissues and organs of fish occur proportionally to the pathogen invasion, and because of their high resistance, neomycin and gentamicin utilization in the prophylaxis or treatment of S. agalactiae infection should be avoided.
Keywords: 16S rDNA, antibiotic resistance, aquaculture, histopathological examination, polymerase chain reaction, Streptococcus agalactiae.

Monday, 23 January 2017

Preparation of goat and rabbit anti-camel immunoglobulin G whole molecule labeled with horseradish peroxidase

Research (Published online: 23-01-2017)
15. Preparation of goat and rabbit anti-camel immunoglobulin G whole molecule labeled with horseradish peroxidase - Eman Hussein Abdel-Rahman, Jakeen Kamal El-Jakee, Mahmoud Essam Hatem, Nagwa Sayed Ata and Ehab Ali Fouad
Veterinary World, 10(1): 92-100

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.92-100

Aim: As the labeled anti-camel immunoglobulins (Igs) with enzymes for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are unavailable in the Egyptian market, the present investigation was directed for developing local labeled anti-camel IgG with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to save hard curacy.
Materials and Methods: For purification of camel IgG whole molecule, camel sera was preliminary precipitated with 50% saturated ammonium sulfate and dialyzed against 15 mM phosphate-buffered saline pH 7.2 then concentrated. This preparation was further purified by protein A sepharose affinity column chromatography. The purity of the eluted camel IgG was tested by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresi. Anti-camel IgG was prepared by immunization of goats and rabbits separately, with purified camel IgG. The anti-camel IgG was purified by protein A sepharose affinity column chromatography. Whole molecule anti-camel IgG was conjugated with HRP using glutraldehyde based assay. Sensitivity and specificity of prepared conjugated secondary antibodies were detected using positive and negative camel serum samples reacted with different antigens in ELISA, respectively. The potency of prepared conjugated antibodies was evaluated compared with protein A HRP. The stability of the conjugate at −20°C during 1 year was assessed by ELISA.
Results: The electrophoretic profile of camel IgG showed four bands of molecular weight 63, 52, 40 and 33 kDa. The recorded sensitivity and specificity of the product are 100%. Its potency is also 100% compared to 58-75% of commercial protein A HRP. The conjugates are stable for 1 year at −20°C as proved by ELISA.
Conclusion: Collectively, this study introduces goat and rabbit anti-camel IgG whole molecules with simple, inexpensive method, with 100% sensitivity, 100% specificity and stability up to 1 year at −20°C. The important facet of the current study is saving hard curacy. Future investigations are necessary for preparation of IgG subclasses.
Keywords: anti-camel immunoglobulin G, Camelus dromedarius, conjugation, horseradish peroxidase, purification.

Social engineering of societal knowledge in livestock science: Can we be more empathetic?

Review (Published online: 23-01-2017)
14. Social engineering of societal knowledge in livestock science: Can we be more empathetic? - R. K. Ravikumar, Devesh Thakur, Hardev Choudhary, Vivek Kumar, Amol S. Kinhekar, Tushar Garg, K. Ponnusamy, G. R. Bhojne, Vasanth M. Shetty and Vipin Kumar
Veterinary World, 10(1): 86-91

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.86-91

Questions are raised in effective utilization of farmer’s wisdom by communities in their farming. Planners support to livelihood emphasize mostly of inputs from outside and not setting up sustainable goals. Formal institutions and planners of program are finding constraints and sceptical in wider dissemination of indigenous knowledge research system (IKRS). This is in spite of evidence that considerable number of farmer’s in livestock sector depends on IKRS. In this context, it is pertinent to showcase dissemination potential of these knowledge system(s) in larger geographical areas. The review illustrates different challenges encountered while control of livestock ailments like ectoparasite infestation through IKRS. Several times, it was opinioned to provide or share IKRS to thwart ailments in a specific region. This is interesting as it was narrated how formal system is unable to recognize farmer’s problem and challenges in integrating these sustainable practices. It has to be noted that disseminating activities seldom takes into account the experimental potential of farmers. This review paper articulates various evidences generated in enhancing diffusion thereby dissemination of IKRS. The nature of support extended by IKRS in entrepreneurial activity of smallholder farming units did not get adequate recognition. There needs to be minimum standard protocol in deriving benefit from such low-cost alternative technologies. This will enrich incremental innovation activities as per location specific need and provide scope for wider dissemination.
Keywords: health, indigenous knowledge, innovation, institution, livestock, technology.

Thursday, 19 January 2017

Gastrointestinal parasitism of goats in hilly region of Meghalaya, India

Research (Published online: 19-01-2017)
13. Gastrointestinal parasitism of goats in hilly region of Meghalaya, India - Meena Das, R. Laha, A. Goswami and A. Sen
Veterinary World, 10(1): 81-85

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.81-85

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infections in goats of hilly region of Meghalaya.
Materials and Methods: A total of 834 fecal samples of goats were screened for 1 year (2014-2015) using flotation techniques.
Results: The overall prevalence of GI parasitic infections in goats was 28.65%. Season-wise highest infections were recorded during rainy season (34.92%) followed by cool (26.87%), hot (26.62%), and cold (20.39%) seasons. Helminths and protozoa infections were recorded in 63.60% and 23.02% animals, respectively. Among the helminths, Strongyle spp. (32.63%) was recorded highest followed by Trichuris spp. (12.55%), Moniezia spp. (10.04%), and Trichuris spp. (8.36%). Among protozoa, only Eimeria spp. was detected. Seven different species of Eimeria spp. were identified, viz., Eimeria christenseni, Eimeria hirci, Eimeria caprina, Eimeria jolchijevi, Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae, Eimeria arloingi, and Eimeria kocharii for the first time from Meghalaya. Maximum egg per gram and oocyst per gram of feces were recorded in the month of August (932.4) and September (674.05), respectively. Mixed infections were recorded in 13.38% samples. Coproculture of goat fecal samples revealed the presence of Haemonchus contortus (72.16%), Oesophagostomum spp. (14.41%), Strongyloides spp. (8.91%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (4.50%) larvae.
Conclusion: This study indicates that GI helminths and protozoa infections are prevalent in goats of this hilly region of Meghalaya, throughout the year and highly prevalent during rainy season.
Keywords: gastrointestinal parasites, goat, helminths, Meghalaya, protozoa.

Protective effect of rutin in comparison to silymarin against induced hepatotoxicity in rats

Research (Published online: 19-01-2017)
12. Protective effect of rutin in comparison to silymarin against induced hepatotoxicity in rats - M. Kasi Reddy, A. Gopala Reddy, B. Kala Kumar, D. Madhuri, G. Boobalan and M. Anudeep Reddy
Veterinary World, 10(1): 74-80

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.74-80

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of rutin (RTN) in comparison to silymarin (SLM) against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
Materials and Methods: Male Wistar albino rats (n=24) of 3 months age were equally divided into four groups. Group 1 served as normal control. Hepatotoxicity was induced in the remaining three groups with administration of 500 mg/kg po APAP from day 1-3. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were subsequently administered orally with distilled water, 25 mg/kg of SLM, and 20 mg/kg of RTN, respectively, for 11 days. The mean body weights and biomarkers of hepatotoxicity were estimated on day 0, 4 (confirmation of toxicity), and 15 (at the end of treatment). Hematological parameters were evaluated on day 4 and 15. Antioxidant profile and adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) were assessed at the end of the experiment. Liver tissues were subjected to histopathology and transmission electron microscopy after the sacrifice on day 15.
Results: Antioxidant profile, ATPases, and hematological and sero-biochemical parameters were significantly altered, and histopathological changes were noticed in the liver of toxic control group. These changes were reversed in groups 3 and 4 that were administered with SLM and RTN, respectively.
Conclusion: The results of the present investigation enunciated that SLM has potent hepatoprotective activity though the RTN was found superior in restoring the pathological alterations in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats.
Keywords: acetaminophen, hepatotoxicity, rutin, silymarin.