Thursday, 6 July 2017

Noninvasive assessment of gastrointestinal parasites infection in freeranging wild herbivores and adjoining livestock of Panna Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, India

Research (Published online: 06-07-2017)
6. Noninvasive assessment of gastrointestinal parasites infection in freeranging wild herbivores and adjoining livestock of Panna Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abhay Sengar, A. B. Shrivastav, K. P. Singh and Amol Rokde
Veterinary World, 10(7): 748-751
Aim: This study was conducted to know the epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites of free-ranging wild herbivores and adjoining livestock of Panna Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Materials and Methods: A total of 374 fecal samples from wild herbivores (Chital Axis axis - 123, Sambar Rusa unicolor - 94, Nilgai Boselaphus tragocamelus - 86, and Chinkara Gazella bennettii - 71) and 284 fecal samples of domestic herbivores (cattle - 118, buffalo - 78, and goat - 88) were collected from common grazing land and adjoining area of tiger reserve. Detailed coprological examination for the presence of parasitic eggs/oocysts by direct smear examination, standard sedimentation, and floatation techniques was performed.
Results: Fecal samples (n=374) of four different species of wild herbivores were screened. Out of which, 55.61% (n=208) were positive for parasitic infection. Among them, 13.10% (n=49) were positive for mixed parasitic infection of two or more parasite and 42.5% (n=159) were found positive for single parasitic infection. A total of 284 fecal samples of domestic animals were screened from adjoining areas of the tiger reserve. Out of which, 66.54% (n=189) were positive for parasitic infections, out of which 19.71% (n=56) were positive for mixed infection of two or more parasites, and 46.83% (n=133) were found positive for single parasitic infection.
Conclusion: Wild herbivores at Panna Tiger Reserve were exposed to parasites including some that are known to be pathogenic; majority of wild animals had mixed infection of Eimeria spp., Trichuris spp., Monieziaspp., AmphistomeStrongyloides spp., Balantidium spp., and Fasciola spp.
Keywords: free ranging wild herbivores, gastrointestinal parasites, Panna Tiger Reserve.

Wednesday, 5 July 2017

Anti-diarrhea activity of the aqueous root bark extract of Byrsocarpus coccineus on castor oil-induced diarrhea in Wistar rats

Research (Published online: 05-07-2017)
5. Anti-diarrhea activity of the aqueous root bark extract of Byrsocarpus coccineus on castor oil-induced diarrhea in Wistar rats
Sunday A. Ejeh, Patrick Onyeyili and Samson E. Abalaka
Veterinary World, 10(7): 743-747

doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.743-747


Aim: The use of traditional medicine as an alternative source of cure for many ailments has played an important role in health care delivery in both developing and developed countries. Byrsocarpus coccineus Schum and Thonn (Connaraceae) is used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disease conditions, including diarrhea. The anti-diarrhea activity of the root bark aqueous extract of B. coccineus was investigated in this study.

Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity evaluation of the aqueous extract of B. coccineus root bark was performed in exposed rats. Diarrhea was induced in exposed rats with castor oil, and the effect of the extract on castor oil-induced gastrointestinal motility and enteropooling was consequently investigated.

Results: In the acute toxicity study, the extract caused no death in treated rats nor produced signs of delayed toxicity, even at 5000 mg/kg. The aqueous root bark extract of B. coccineus also decreased the distance travelled by activated charcoal in the gastrointestinal tract of treated rats when compared to control rats. Results of castor oil-induced enteropooling revealed slight reduction in the weight of intestinal contents of treated rats compared to control rats. There was significant (p<0.05) decrease in the frequency of defecation as well as in the number of unformed feces produced by castor oil-induced diarrhea at 100 mg/kg dose with 74.96% inhibition of defecation.

Conclusion: The study demonstrated the anti-diarrheic property of the aqueous extract of B. coccineus root bark as currently exploited in our traditional herbal therapy.

Keywords: Byrsocarpus coccineus, castor oil, diarrhea, enteropooling.

Tuesday, 4 July 2017

Detection and characterization of pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa from bovine subclinical mastitis in West Bengal, India

Research (Published online: 04-07-2017)
4. Detection and characterization of pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa from bovine subclinical mastitis in West Bengal, India
S. Banerjee, K. Batabyal, S. N. Joardar, D. P. Isore, S. Dey, I. Samanta, T. K. Samanta and S. Murmu
Veterinary World, 10(7): 738-742
Aim: Subclinical mastitis in bovines is mainly responsible for the huge economic loss of the dairy farmers, of which Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the causative agents. The study was aimed at a screening of suspected milk samples from different cattle farms of West Bengal for detection and confirmation of P. aeruginosa strains followed by their characterization.
Materials and Methods: Around 422 milk samples were screened from different dairy farms primarily by on-spot bromothymol blue (BTB) test and then in the lab by somatic cell counts (SCC) to finally consider 352 samples for detection of P. aeruginosa. Selective isolation and confirmation of the isolates were done using selective media, viz., cetrimide and Pseudomonas agar followed by confirmation by fluorescent technique. Molecular characterization of the strains was done by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of toxA (enterotoxin A, 352 bp) and exoS (exoenzyme S, 504 bp) genes.
Results: Approximately, 371 (87.9%) samples were positive in on-spot BTB test among which 352 (94.8%) samples revealed high SCC values (more than 3 lakh cells/ml) showing infection when screened. Among these, 23 (6.5%) samples yielded typical Pseudomonas sp. isolates out of which only 19 (5.4%) isolates were confirmed to be P. aeruginosa which showed characteristic blue-green fluorescence due to the presence of pigment pyoverdin under ultraviolet light. Out of these 19 isolates, 11 isolates were positive for toxA, 6 isolates for exoS, and 2 for both these pathogenic genes.
Conclusion: Approximately, 5.4% cases of bovine subclinical mastitis infections in South Bengal were associated with P. aeruginosa which possess pathogenic genes such as toxA (63.2%) and exoS (36.8%).
Keywords: bovines, characterization, exoS, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, subclinical mastitis, toxA.

Monday, 3 July 2017

Cuticular surface damage of Ascaridia galli adult worms treated with Veitchia merrillii betel nuts extract in vitro

Research (Published online: 03-07-2017)
3. Cuticular surface damage of Ascaridia galli adult worms treated with Veitchia merrillii betel nuts extract in vitro
Ummu Balqis, Muhammad Hambal, Rinidar, Farida Athaillah, Ismail, Azhar, Henni Vanda and Darmawi
Veterinary World, 10(7): 732-737
Aim: The objective of this research was to in vitro evaluate the cuticular surface damage of Ascaridia galli adult worms treated with ethanolic extract of betel nuts Veitchia merrillii.
Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening was done using FeCl3, Wagner and Dragendorff reagents, NaOH, MgHCl, and Liebermann-Burchard reaction test. Amount of 16 worms were segregated into four groups with three replicates. Four worms of each group submerged into phosphate buffered saline, 25 mg/ml, and 75 mg/ml crude ethanolic extract of V. merrillii, and 15 mg/ml albendazole. The effect of these extract was observed 40 h after incubation as soon as worms death. The worms were sectioned transversally and were explored for any cuticular histopathological changes in their body surface under microscope.
Results: We found that the ethanolic extract of V. merrillii betel nuts contains tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and saponins. The ethanolic extract of betel nuts V. merrillii induces surface alterations caused cuticular damage of A. galli adult worms.
Conclusion: We concluded that ethanolic extract of betel nuts V. merrillii possess anthelmintic activity caused cuticular damage of A. galli adult worms.
Keywords: anthelmintics, Ascaridia galli, cuticle, Veitchia merrillii.

Saturday, 1 July 2017

Performance of broiler chicken fed multicarbohydrases supplemented low energy diet

2. Performance of broiler chicken fed multicarbohydrases supplemented low energy diet
Kumar Govil, Sunil Nayak, R. P. S. Baghel, A. K. Patil, C. D. Malapure and Dinesh Thakur
Veterinary World, 10(7): 727-731

doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.727-731


Aim: Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of multicarbohydrases supplementation on performance of broilers fed low energy diet.

Materials and Methods: A total of 75 days old chicks were selected and randomly divided into three treatments groups (T1, T2, and T3); each group contained 25 chicks distributed in five replicates of five chicks each. T1 group (positive control) was offered control ration formulated as per Bureau of Indian Standards recommendations. In T2 group (negative control) ration, metabolizable energy (ME) was reduced by 100 kcal/kg diet. T3 group ration was same as that of T2 except that it was supplemented with multicarbohydrases (xylanase at 50 g/ton+mannanase at 50 g/ton+amylase at 40 g/ton). Feed intake and body weight of all experimental birds were recorded weekly. Metabolic trial was conducted for 3 days at the end of experiment to know the retention of nutrients.

Results: Significant improvement (p<0.01) was observed in total weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, and performance index in broilers under supplementary group T3 as compared to T1 and T2 groups. Retention of crude protein and ether extract was significantly increased (p<0.05) in T3 group supplemented with multicarbohydrases as compared to other groups. Retention of dry matter, crude fiber, and nitrogen-free extract was comparable in all the three groups. Significantly highest dressed weight, eviscerated weight, and drawn weight (% of live body weight) were observed in multicarbohydrases supplemented T3 group, however it was comparable in T1 and T2 groups.

Conclusion: It was concluded that the supplementation of multicarbohydrases (xylanase at 50 g/ton+mannanase at 50 g/ton+amylase at 40 g/ton) in low energy diet improved overall performance of broilers.

Keywords: broiler, carcass traits, multicarbohydrases, performance.

Screening method for Staphylococcus aureus identification in subclinical bovine mastitis from dairy farms

Research (Published online: 01-07-2017)
1. Screening method for Staphylococcus aureus identification in subclinical bovine mastitis 
from dairy farms
Natapol Pumipuntu, Suphang Kulpeanprasit, Sirijan Santajit, Witawat Tunyong, Thida Kong-ngoen, 
Woranich Hinthong and Nitaya Indrawattana
Veterinary World, 10(7): 721-726
Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious bacteria causing subclinical bovine mastitis. This bacterial infection is commonly identified by determine the pathogen in bovine milk samples through conventional technique including coagulase test. However, this test has several disadvantages as low sensitivity, risk of biohazard, cost expensive, and limited preparation especially in local area.
Aim: Aim of this study was to compare and assess the screening method, Mannitol fermentation test (Mannitol salt agar [MSA]), and deoxyribonuclease (DNase) test, for S. aureus identification in milk samples.
Materials and Methods: A total of 224 subclinical bovine mastitis milk samples were collected from four provinces of Thailand and determined S. aureus using conventional method and also subjected to the screening test, MSA and DNase test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) among both tests were analyzed and compared to the tube coagulase test (TCT), as reference method. Immunological test by latex agglutination and molecular assay by determined spa gene were also used to identify and differentiate S. aureus.
Results: A total of 130 staphylococci were isolated by selective media, Gram-stain, and catalase test. The number of S. aureus which identified using TCT, MSA and DNase test were 32, 102, and 74 isolates, respectively. All TCT results were correlated to results of latex agglutination and spa gene which were 32 S. aureus. MSA showed 100% sensitivity, 28.57% specificity, 31.37% PPV, and 100% NPV, whereas DNase showed 53.13% sensitivity, 41.84% specificity, 22.97% PPV, and 73.21% NPV. DNase test showed higher specificity value than MSA but the test presented 26.79% false negative results whereas no false-negative result from MSA when comparing to TCT.
Conclusion: MSA had a tendency to be a good preference for screening S. aureus because of its high sensitivity and NPV. The result from this study will improve a choice to use a screening test to diagnose S. aureus of veterinary field for prompt disease controlling and effective treatment.
Keywords: bovine mastitis, deoxyribonuclease test, mannitol fermentation test, screening methods, Staphylococcus aureus.

Thursday, 29 June 2017

Virulence gene profiles of Arcobacter species isolated from animals, foods of animal origin, and humans in Andhra Pradesh, India

Research (Published online: 30-06-2017)
23. Virulence gene profiles of Arcobacter species isolated from animals, foods of animal origin, and humans in Andhra Pradesh, India
M. Soma Sekhar, S. R. Tumati, B. K. Chinnam, V. S. Kothapalli and N. Mohammad Sharif
Veterinary World, 10(6): 716-720
Aim: This study aimed to detect putative virulence genes in Arcobacter species of animal and human origin.
Materials and Methods: A total of 41 Arcobacter isolates (16 Arcobacter butzleri, 13 Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and 12 Arcobacter skirrowii) isolated from diverse sources such as fecal swabs of livestock (21), raw foods of animal origin (13), and human stool samples (7) were subjected to a set of six uniplex polymerase chain reaction assays targeting Arcobacter putative virulence genes (ciaB, pldA, tlyA, mviN, cadF, and cj1349).
Results: All the six virulence genes were detected among all the 16 A. butzleri isolates. Among the 13 A. cryaerophilus isolates, cadF, ciaB, cj1349, mviN, pldA, and tlyA genes were detected in 61.5, 84.6, 76.9, 76.9, 61.5, and 61.5% of isolates, respectively. Among the 12 A. skirrowii isolates, cadF, ciaB, cj1349, mviN, pldA, and tlyA genes were detected in 50.0, 91.6, 83.3, 66.6, 50, and 50% of isolates, respectively.
Conclusion: Putative virulence genes were detected in majority of the Arcobacter isolates examined. The results signify the potential of Arcobacter species as an emerging foodborne pathogen.
Keywords: Arcobacter, Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, Arcobacter skirrowii, polymerase chain reaction, virulence genes.