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5. Effect of Calotropis procera (madar) and amprolium supplementation on parasitological parameters of broilers during mixed Eimeria species infection
Sakshi Chauhan, V. S. Singh and Vipul Thakur
Veterinary World, 10(8): 864-868
Aim: An experiment was conducted on day old 168 broiler chicks to study the effect of 0.4% as well as 0.2% Calotropis procera (madar) leaf powder and 0.0125% amprolium supplementation on parasitological parameters of broilers during mixed Eimeria species infection.
Materials and Methods: Chicks were randomly divided into seven groups (I-VII) each with two replicates of 12 chicks. On 15th day of experiment, broilers of Group II, IV, VI, and VII were infected with 50,000 sporulated oocysts of mixed Eimeria species. To evaluate the anticoccidial effect of different feed supplements percent fecal score, percent survival, percent weight gain, performance index (PI), average oocyst production, and percent reduction in oocyst production were calculated.
Results: It was observed that amprolium supplementation had maximum anticoccidial effect as it gave the best efficacy in terms of all parameters, whereas supplementation of 0.4% madar leaf powder showed nonsignificant difference with amprolium for some parameters such as percent survival, percent weight gain, and PI.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that madar (C. procera) leaf powder and amprolium had comparable activity against coccidiosis. Hence, madar leaf powder may be used for the prevention and control of mixed Eimeriaspp. infection prevalent in field conditions.
4. Prevalence of enteropathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in puppies with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis
A. Kokila Priya, M. Balagangatharathilagar, D. Chandrasekaran, M. Parthiban and S. Prathaban
Veterinary World, 10(8): 859-863
Aim: Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE) ranging from mild to severe forms is commonly encountered in puppies. The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of common enteropathogens and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern in puppies reported with HGE.
Materials and Methods: The canine HGE activity index, with little modification, was adopted to identify Grade III/ severely affected puppies below 6 months of age. Fecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was employed to screen and compare the enteropathogens in puppies with hemorrhagic diarrhea and healthy control.
Results: Canine parvovirus 2b was identified in 90.3% of the diarrheic and 10% of the non-diarrheic healthy puppies. Clostridium difficile was identified in all the diarrheic puppies and in 80% of the healthy puppies. Among the diarrheic puppies, 17.7% were positive for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, 9.7% were positive for C. perfringens alpha toxin, 6.4% were positive for Escherichia coli shiga toxin, 6.4% were positive for E. coli enterotoxin (LT), and 3.2% were positive for canine distemper virus. Whereas, none of the healthy puppies were positive for these bacteria and toxins. Fecal antibiotic sensitivity test pattern revealed gentamicin to be sensitive in 95% of the cases, azithromycin in 50%, enrofloxacin in 25%, cefotaxime in 20%, and tetracycline in 5% of the cases.
Conclusion: Parvoviral enteritis is predominant among puppies. Yet, bacteria and their toxins also play an important role in HGE. Gentamicin has higher sensitivity against the enteropathogens associated with the condition.
Aim: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) has potential economic effects to both animal products and human health. A vaccine to protect livestock against CE can be effective in reducing economic costs and increasing the livestock products. Protoscolex tegumental surface antigens (PSTSA) used to induce the production of specific antibodies against Echinococcus granulosus in sheep. The tegumental antigens were extracted from viable protoscolices by solubilization in sterile phosphate-buffered saline containing decanoyl-N-methylglucamine.
Materials and Methods: Ten lambs which were infected with CE (positive control), 10 negative control, and 10 test groups of sheep were included in the study. 300 μg emulsion of purified-PSTSA was injected intramuscularly in a two-step immunization on the first and 30 days. Sera were collected immediately before immunization and 6 times with 10-day intervals until 60 days post immunization. Thereafter, the sera were tested for antibodies by indirect hemagglutination test in microtiter plate.
Results: After two immunizations, all the infected animals in test group showed substantial increases in antibody titer. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the titer obtained in the test and negative control groups in both phases of immunization (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The results showed that the PSTSA is a promising immunogenic compound for immunization of sheep against CE.
2. Preparation and evaluation of Salmonella Enteritidis antigen conjugated with nanogold for screening of poultry flocks
Hazem Mohammed Ibrahim, Rafik Hamed Sayed, Wafaa Ragab Abdel-Aziz and Rafik Tawfik Soliman
Veterinary World, 10(8): 848-853
Aim: The present work aimed to develop lateral flow immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test for detection of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) specific antibodies in chicken sera.
Materials and Methods: A rapid lateral flow immunochromatographic test (LFIT) has been developed, in which SE Group D antigen labeled with the gold chloride molecules laid on the conjugate pad. Staphylococcus aureus protein A was used as capture antibody at the test line (T) of a nitrocellulose (NC) membrane and anti-SE antigen-specific rabbit antibodies were used as capture antibody at the control line (C) of the NC strip in the lateral flow layout device.
Results: Using the developed LFIT, the minimal amount of SE-specific antibodies that can be detected in chicken serum sample was 1427 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) unit/100 μl that was equal to 0.1 μg (Ab)/100 μl sample. 100 suspected serum samples collected from a poultry flock were tested with the prepared SE-LFIT kits and the locally prepared stained Salmonella antigen, and the results were compared with those obtained from examination of these samples with Salmonella Group D antibody ELISA kit as the gold standard test. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the prepared SE-LFIT antigen kits were 94.4%, 90%, and 94%, respectively, while those obtained with stained Salmonella antigen were 88.8%, 90%, and 89%, respectively.
Conclusion: The developed test is a simple field rapid test of high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy that can improve and facilitates rapid field surveillance of salmonellosis among chickens.
1. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxigenic strains in bovine raw milk by reversed passive latex agglutination and multiplex polymerase chain reaction
Asmaa Samy Mansour, Gad El-Said Wagih, Sabry D. Morgan, Mahmoud Elhariri, Mona A. El-Shabrawy, Azza S. M. Abuelnaga and E. A. Elgabry
Veterinary World, 10(8): 843-847
Aim: This review gives an outline of the assessment of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus tainting levels in raw milk from different sources in Egypt and characterization of enterotoxigenic strains utilizing a technique in light of PCR to identify genes coding for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE). The obtained data were compared with results from the application of the reversed passive latex.
Materials and Methods: Multiplex PCR and reversed passive latex agglutination (RPLA) were used. A total of 141 samples of raw milk (cow's milk=33, buffalo's milk=58, and bulk tank milk=50) were investigated for S. aureus contamination and tested for enterotoxin genes presence and toxin production.
Results:S. aureus was detected in 23 (16.3%) samples phenotypically and genotypically by amplification of nuc gene. The S. aureus isolates were investigated for SEs genes (sea to see) by multiplex PCR and the toxin production by these isolates was screened by RPLA. SEs genes were detected in six isolates (26.1%) molecularly; see was the most observed gene where detected in all isolates, two isolates harbored seb, and two isolates harbored sec. According to RPLA, three isolates produced SEB and SEC.
Conclusion: The study revealed the widespread of S. aureus strains caring genes coding for toxins. The real significance of the presence of these strains or its toxins in raw milk and their possible impact a potential hazard for staphylococcal food poisoning by raw milk consumption. Therefore, detection of enterotoxigenic S. aureus strains in raw milk is necessary for consumer safety.
Keywords: enterotoxin genes, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, reversed passive latex agglutination, raw milk, S. aureus.
21. Serogrouping and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from broiler chicken with colibacillosis in center of Algeria
Zehor Halfaoui, Nabil Mohamed Menoueri and Lyes Mohamed Bendali
Veterinary World, 10(7): 830-835
Aim: Colibacillosis is considered as one of the major bacterial infections in avian pathology. The excessive use of antibiotics reduced their effectiveness, which eventually led to the risk of emergence of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and serotype the pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility.
Materials and Methods: A total of 180 samples from different organs of broilers with colibacillosis lesions were collected (liver, spleen, lung, and heart) in center of Algeria. The isolation and identification of E. coliwere carried out using conventional techniques. Then, these strains were serotyped and tested over 13 antibiotics.
Results: A total of 156 strains of E. coli were isolated. Serotyping results showed that 50 strains belong to 3 serotypes (23 for O1, 11 for O2, 16 for O78) which represent 32% of isolates. The antimicrobial susceptibility test, presented high level of resistance to tetracyclines (94.12%), flumequine (91.5%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (88.89%), enrofloxacin (86.27%), nalidixic acid (85.62%), ampicillin (83.01%) and doxycycline (75.81%), medium level resistance to chloramphenicol (39.22%), and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (43.13%). All the strains were susceptible to cefotaxime, excepting three, which presented an extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). In addition, the results of multi-resistance showed that all the strains were resistant at the minimum to two antibiotics and 66.66% of strains were resistant to at least seven antibiotics.
Conclusion: The antibiotic resistance continues to rise at an alarming rate, and the emergence of ESBL is considered as a threat for public health.
20. Probiotic characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from swine intestine
K. Balasingham, C. Valli, L. Radhakrishnan and D. Balasuramanyam
Veterinary World, 10(7): 825-829
Aim: A study was conducted with the objective to isolate probiotic microorganisms from swine intestine.
Materials and Methods: In this study 63 isolates (24 caeca, 24 colon mucosal scrapings, and 15 rectal swab samples) were collected from Large White Yorkshire pigs. The isolates were inoculated and grown in de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth at 37°C with 5% CO2 for 48 h and subjected to morphological identification. Colonies having Gram-positive rods were selected for further physiological and biochemical identification tests, which were conducted in triplicate in two runs for each of the selected isolates using a standard protocol. Probiotic properties among the identified species were determined through the implementation of several tests related with pH tolerance, bile tolerance, and antimicrobial activity.
Results: Morphological identification revealed that only 23 isolates were Gram-positive rods. Physiological tests performed on these 23 isolates further revealed that four of them did not exhibit any growth, at all conditions studied. The rest 19 isolates were, therefore, selected and subjected to biochemical tests. Six isolates were rejected because they were oxidase and nitrate reduction positive. From the 13 isolates subjected to sugar fermentation tests, speciation of only two isolates could be ascertained, one of the isolates showed characteristics for Lactobacillus acidophilus and the other for Lactobacillus plantarum. These two isolates were assessed for the strain possessing maximum probiotic property, and it was inferred that both - L. plantarum and L. acidophilus could tolerate a wide pH range (2-9), a wide bile concentration (0.05-0.3%) and revealed antimicrobial activity toward Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter spp.
Conclusion:L. plantarum and L. acidophilus were isolated from swine intestine and were found to have good probiotic properties.