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3. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antimicrobial susceptibility of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from broiler chickens
Gamal Younis, Amal Awad and Nada Mohamed
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1167-1172
Aim: Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is pathogenic strains of E. coli that are responsible for one of the most common bacterial diseases affecting poultry worldwide. This study was designed to determine the occurrence, antibiotic resistance profile, and antibiotic resistance genes of E. coli isolated from diseased and freshly dead broilers.
Materials and Methods: In that context, a total of 200 broilers samples were examined by standard microbiological techniques for isolation of E. coli, and tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 15 antimicrobial agents using disc diffusion method. In addition, E. coli isolates were screened by multiplex polymerase chain reaction for detection of a number of resistance genes including aadA1 gene encodes streptomycin/neomycin, tetA encodes resistance to tetracycline, sul1 encodes sulfonamides, and β-lactamase encoding genes (blaTEM and blaSHV).
Results: A total of 73 (36.5%) isolates were biochemically identified as E. coli strains. O78, O2, and O1 are the most prevalent serotypes detected. E. coli displayed a high resistance against penicillin (100%), followed by cefepime (95.8%) and a low resistance to norfloxacin (36.9%), and chloramphenicol (30%). Depending on the results of PCR, sul1 gene was the most predominant antibiotic resistant gene (87%) followed by blaTEM (78%), tetA genes (60%), and aadA (54%). However, blaSHV had the lowest prevalence (23%).
Conclusion: The obtained results demonstrated the importance of studies on APEC and antibiotic resistance genes in our region which associated with intensive poultry industry, aiming to acquire preventive measures to minimize losses due to APEC and associated multidrug-resistance and resistance genes that of high significance to the rational use of antibiotics in clinical and public health.
2. Serological investigation of some important RNA viruses affecting sheep and goats in Giza and Beni-Suef governorates in Egypt
Mohamed Abd El-Fatah Mahmoud, Mohamed Karam Elbayoumy, Doaa Sedky and Sahar Ahmed
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1161-1166
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of antibodies against foot and mouth disease (FMD), Peste des Petits ruminants (PPR), and bluetongue (BT) in sheep and goats within Giza and Beni-Suef governorates at the second half of 2016.
Materials and Methods: A total of 300 animals (sheep and goats) randomly selected from small stocks with no history of previous vaccination against FMD virus (FMDV), PPR, or BT viruses (BTV) and examined with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of FMD-non-structural protein, PPR, and BT antibodies.
Results: Seroprevalence analysis revealed that antibodies against FMDV were 40.8% and 37.1% at Giza governorate, while at Beni-Suef governorate, the percent was 36.7% and 50% in sheep and goat, respectively. Antibodies against PPR were 63.8% in sheep and 45.7% in goats at Giza governorate, whereas the results for Beni-Suef governorate were 71.7% in sheep and 45% in goats. Antibodies against BT were 45% and 37% in sheep and goats, respectively, in Giza governorate, whereas the results for Beni-Suef governorate were 80% and 55% in sheep and goats, respectively. The average of BTV antibody prevalence was significantly higher in sheep (45% and 80%) than in goats (37% and 55%) in Giza and Beni-Suef, respectively. Statistical analysis for the three viruses showed the high relation between the two governorates in case of sheep (r=0.85) and in case of goats (r=0.87). In general, a strong positive correlation was observed between the governorates (r=0.93).
Conclusion: Giza and Beni-Suef governorates are endemic with FMDV, PPR, and BTV. Regional plan for characterization and combating FMD, PPR, and BT is recommended to help in the achievement of the most suitable combination of the vaccine regimen.
Keywords: bluetongue, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, foot and mouth disease, goats, Peste des Petits ruminants, sheep.
1. Identification of non-cerebral cyst: Zoonotic Taenia multiceps in domestic goat in Bangladesh
Mohammad Omer Faruk, A. M. A. M. Zonaed Siddiki, Md. Shafiqul Islam, Azizunnesa Rekha, Sharmin Chowdhury, Md. Masuduzzaman and Mohammad Alamgir Hossain
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1156-1160
Aim: This study was performed to identify the non-cerebral Taenia multiceps cyst through molecular phylogeny of the 12S rRNA gene.
Materials and Methods: Eight cyst samples were collected from 385 examined slaughtered goats during October 2015-September 2016 from three slaughterhouses in Chittagong City Corporation. Cysts were removed from the thigh muscle, and scolices were collected for light microscopic examination and molecular identification. The DNA was extracted and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction using 12S rRNA gene primers. Cyst samples were also preserved in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological study.
Results:T. multiceps non-cerebral cyst is 2.1% prevalent in goat in this area. Under light microscopic examination, scolex was found with four suckers and a rostellum with the double crown of 32 hooks and hooklets. Molecularly, all the samples were amplified with 12S rRNA gene fragments yielded 270 base pair amplicon. Zenker's necrosis with focal to diffuse infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophil was also found around the cyst wall in histopathological examination.
Conclusion: Although the non-cerebral form of the cysts produced by T. multiceps is genetically identical with the cerebral cyst, previously published data indicated that cerebral T. multiceps cyst is predominant in other parts of the world as well as in Bangladesh. This study showed that non-cerebral cyst is also prevalent in this country which is very important for public health concern. This study depicts an idea of non-cerebral form of zoonotic T. multiceps cyst which will be helpful in taenia cyst control and prevention.
22. Impact of heat stress and hypercapnia on physiological, hematological, and behavioral profile of Tharparkar and Karan Fries heifers
Priyanka Pandey, O. K. Hooda and Sunil Kumar
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1149-1155
Aim: The present investigation was undertaken to study the impact of heat stress and hypercapnia on physiological, hematological, and behavioral profile of Tharparkar and Karan Fries (KF) heifers.
Materials and Methods: The animals of both the breeds of Tharparkar and KF were exposed at different temperatures and CO2 levels. Exposure conditions of 25°C, 400 ppm CO2 level, and 60% relative humidity (RH) were taken as a control condition. The exposure conditions 40°C with two levels of CO2 500 ppm and 600 ppm with RH 55±5% and exposure conditions 42°C with two levels of CO2 500 ppm and 600 ppm with RH 55±5% were taken as treatments. The exposure period in each condition was 4 h daily for 5 consecutive days.
Results: Physiological responses (respiration rate [RR], pulse rate [PR], and rectal temperature [RT]) were significantly (p<0.01) higher and different during all exposure conditions compared to control condition in both the breeds of cattle. KF heifers had higher RR, PR, and RT than Tharparkar heifers. Hematological parameters, namely, red blood cell, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume were significantly higher and different during all exposure condition than control in both the breeds, whereas no significant changes were observed in total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count. Blood pH increased with increase in temperature and CO2 levels and was significantly higher than control conditions. PCO2 and base excess were significantly (p<0.05) lower, and PO2 was higher during different exposure conditions than control in both breeds. Restlessness and excitement signs were observed in all the exposure conditions as compared to control condition in both the breeds.
Conclusion: Changes in physiological responses, behavioral pattern, and hematological parameters reflect the current functional status of the body system, and it can be used as an index for assessing the adaptation capacity of cattle to predict changes occurring in climate variables due to increasing CO2 levels and environmental temperature.
21. Congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome caused by Akabane virus in newborn calves of Basrah Governorate, Iraq
K. M. Alsaad, H. H. N. Alautaish and M. A. Y. Alamery
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1143-1148
Aim: The study was conducted in Basrah, Iraq, to diagnose congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome caused by Akabane virus (AKAV) in calves.
Materials and Methods: Affected animals (42 calves) are about 2-27 days old from both sexes show signs of arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly. Eight clinically healthy newborn calves were considered as controls. Diagnosis of AKAV was confirmed using a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test.
Results: Results show that all affected calves were found seropositive. Furthermore, a significant increase in total leukocyte count in diseased calves due to a significant increase in the absolute lymphocyte number indicated in affected calves than in controls. Moreover, a significant increase in sedimentation rate of erythrocytes was also encountered in diseased calves than in controls. In addition, a significant increase in haptoglobin level and fibrinogen was also detected.
Conclusion: Diagnosis of AKAV infection of Basrah Governorate, Iraq, will provide useful epidemiological information for cattle and other domesticated animals. Therefore, abortion could be prevented and controlled.
Aim: There is little information about the prevalence of Corynosoma caspicum in fish particularly Gasterosteus aculeatus in Iran and the world. The aim of the present study was to find out the prevalence of acanthocephalan infection in Babolsar district, southern coastal of Caspian Sea, Northern Iran.
Materials and Methods: Between September 2012 and August 2014, a total of 360 G. aculeatus fishes were randomly collected by drift nets from coastal regions in Babolsar and then examined the intestine and body cavity for worm infections.
Results: A total of 360 G. aculeatus fishes, 109 (30.3%) were found infected with at least one Corynosoma capsicum, and there was no significant association between genders and the prevalence infection of acanthocephalan. Moreover, there was a significant difference in infected rate between summer (79%, 86/109) and spring (21%, 23/109) (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The high occurrence of Corynosoma infection in G. aculeatus indicates the enzootic constancy status of the infection in the southern coastal of Caspian Sea, Northern Iran.
19. Epidemiological features and pathological study of avian leukosis in turkeys' flocks
Mourad Zeghdoudi, Leila Aoun, Latifa Merdaci and Nardjes Bouzidi
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1135-1138
Aim: The purpose of this study was focused on the identification of tumor diseases in turkeys on the basis of a detailed description of epidemiological features, clinical signs, lesions, and histopathological changes.
Materials and Methods: Outbreak of a tumor disease in turkeys was investigated in various regions of Eastern Algeria. Four turkeys' flocks aged from 17 weeks were affected, resulting to mortality often over 10%, on a period of 15 days. The main epidemiological characters, clinical signs, and lesions were observed throughout all the course of the disease. Serum samples were collected from affected turkeys in each flock to detect p27 antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test to diagnose avian leukosis virus (ALV). Portions of sciatic nerves and livers are taken from dead turkeys for microscopic examination.
Results: The disease was characterized by clinical signs such as anorexia, weakness, and diarrhea. Necropsy of the dead birds showed hepatomegaly and gross splenomegaly with neoplastic nodules or gray foci and diffuse infiltration in the myocardium and lungs. ALV antigen test using ELISA confirmed the presence of virus leukosis. Histopathological sections of the liver had proliferations of lymphoblastoid cells and absence of any modifications or lymphocytic infiltration in peripheral nerves.
Conclusion: The present study confirms that this disease condition is caused by lymphoid leukosis.