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17. Application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay in the detection of herpesvirus of turkey (FC 126 strain) from chicken samples in Nigeria
A. J. Adedeji, P. A. Abdu, P. D. Luka, A. A. Owoade and T. M. Joannis
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1383-1388
Aim: This study was designed to optimize and apply the use of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) as an alternative to conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) (FC 126 strain) in vaccinated and non-vaccinated poultry in Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: HVT positive control (vaccine) was used for optimization of LAMP using six primers that target the HVT070 gene sequence of the virus. These primers can differentiate HVT, a Marek's disease virus (MDV) serotype 3 from MDV serotypes 1 and 2. Samples were collected from clinical cases of Marek's disease (MD) in chickens, processed and subjected to LAMP and PCR.
Results: LAMP assay for HVT was optimized. HVT was detected in 60% (3/5) and 100% (5/5) of the samples analyzed by PCR and LAMP, respectively. HVT was detected in the feathers, liver, skin, and spleen with average DNA purity of 3.05-4.52 μg DNA/mg (A260/A280) using LAMP. Conventional PCR detected HVT in two vaccinated and one unvaccinated chicken samples, while LAMP detected HVT in two vaccinated and three unvaccinated corresponding chicken samples. However, LAMP was a faster and simpler technique to carry out than PCR.
Conclusion: LAMP assay for the detection of HVT was optimized. LAMP and PCR detected HVT in clinical samples collected. LAMP assay can be a very good alternative to PCR for detection of HVT and other viruses. This is the first report of the use of LAMP for the detection of viruses of veterinary importance in Nigeria. LAMP should be optimized as a diagnostic and research tool for investigation of poultry diseases such as MD in Nigeria.
Keywords: herpesvirus of turkeys, loop-mediated isothermal amplification procedure, Nigeria.
16. Clinical, pathological, and molecular investigation of Mycoplasma pulmonis-induced murine respiratory mycoplasmosis in a rat (Rattus norvegicus) colony
Saurabh Chawla, Sarita Jena, Balaji Venkatsan, Kuna Mahara and Nilanjan Sahu
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1378-1382
Aim:Mycoplasma pulmonis (MP) remains potentially important rodent pathogen causing murine respiratory mycoplasmosis (MRM) which may go undiagnosed due to its asymptomatic nature. In the present study, we carried out clinical, pathological, and molecular investigations of MP-induced MRM in a rat colony.
Materials and Methods: Two female Wistar rats were observed to be diseased in animal facility of NISER, Bhubaneswar, and were kept in isolation for further investigation. Both the animals were found to be positive for MP after serological and molecular tests. Thereafter, whole rat colony comprising of 36 animals was segregated based on clinical symptoms and further sampled for histopathological, serological, and molecular investigations. Tracheal washing and infected lung tissue were collected during necropsy examination for DNA extraction. Molecular diagnosis was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using species-specific primers.
Results: Classical symptoms of MP-associated respiratory tract infection were observed in only 2 of 36 infected animals, and most of the animals were found asymptomatic to the disease; however, all the animals were found to be carrier after necropsy and PCR assay. Gross and histopathological finding suggested severe congestion of the lungs along with suppurative and necrotizing pneumonia. The disease is confirmed by molecular diagnosis using species-specific primers in PCR assay.
Conclusion: MRM may go undiagnosed due to asymptomatic nature. Detailed study of clinical symptoms, pathology, serology, and PCR-based molecular approach may aid in health monitoring and detection of MRM in a rodent colony reared for experimental purpose.
15. Metabolic and immunological changes in transition dairy cows: A review
Pratik Ramesh Wankhade, A. Manimaran, A. Kumaresan, S. Jeyakumar, K. P. Ramesha, V. Sejian, D. Rajendran and Minu Rachel Varghese
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1367-1377
Smooth transition from pregnancy to lactation is important for high productive and reproductive performance during later postpartum period in dairy animals. On the other hand, the poor transition often leads to huge economic loss to dairy farmers due to compromised production and reproduction. Therefore, understanding the causes and consequence of metabolic changes during the transition period is very important for postpartum health management. In this review, metabolic changes with reference to negative energy balance in transition cow and its effect on health and reproduction during the later postpartum period in dairy animals are discussed besides the role of metabolic inflammation in postpartum performance in dairy animals.
14. Advances in genome editing for improved animal breeding: A review
Shakil Ahmad Bhat, Abrar Ahad Malik, Syed Mudasir Ahmad, Riaz Ahmad Shah, Nazir Ahmad Ganai, Syed Shanaz Shafi and Nadeem Shabir
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1361-1366
Since centuries, the traits for production and disease resistance are being targeted while improving the genetic merit of domestic animals, using conventional breeding programs such as inbreeding, outbreeding, or introduction of marker-assisted selection. The arrival of new scientific concepts, such as cloning and genome engineering, has added a new and promising research dimension to the existing animal breeding programs. Development of genome editing technologies such as transcription activator-like effector nuclease, zinc finger nuclease, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats systems begun a fresh era of genome editing, through which any change in the genome, including specific DNA sequence or indels, can be made with unprecedented precision and specificity. Furthermore, it offers an opportunity of intensification in the frequency of desirable alleles in an animal population through gene-edited individuals more rapidly than conventional breeding. The specific research is evolving swiftly with a focus on improvement of economically important animal species or their traits all of which form an important subject of this review. It also discusses the hurdles to commercialization of these techniques despite several patent applications owing to the ambiguous legal status of genome-editing methods on account of their disputed classification. Nonetheless, barring ethical concerns gene-editing entailing economically important genes offers a tremendous potential for breeding animals with desirable traits.
13. The clinical impact of antimicrobial resistance genomics in competition with she-camels recurrent mastitis metabolomics due to heterogeneous Bacillus licheniformis field isolates
Nesreen Allam Tantawy Allam, Doaa Sedky and Enshrah Khalil Mira
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1353-1360
Background and Aim: Recently, cases of mastitis refractory to treatment have been reported frequently. There are limited routine laboratory investigations on Camelidae infections. Mastitis has been estimated to affect more than 25% of lactating she-camel with up to 70% milk loss. The details of Bacillus spp. pathogenesis in mastitis are not yet fully described. The present study is the first detailed phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Bacillus licheniformis isolates from recurrent mastitic she-camels with sepsis in Egypt.
Materials and Methods: The udders of 100 she-camels were investigated, samples collected from smallholders' farmers in 10 localities within three governorates in Egypt: Marsa Matrouh, Giza, and Sharkia governorates. The pathogens ascend from udder inducing abortion at different trimesters of pregnancy. Polymerase chain reactions-mediated proofs of identity were applied for diagnostic and taxonomic purposes, where the 16S rRNA gene sequence and the β subunit of RNA polymerase encoding gene rpoB are the molecular targets.
Results: The genetic elements classified the subspecies to B. licheniformis 61.4%, in addition to, Corynebacterium bovis 29.8%. The somatic cell count (≤1x107 cells/ml) and California mastitis test reactivity (+3 or +4) of milk clinically classified the she-camels population (n=100) under investigation into 50, 20, and 30 as healthy, subclinical, and clinical mastitic she-camels, respectively. During bacterial isolation, 80 species were noticed, of which 71.25% (57/80) and 28.75% (23/80) were Gram-positive and negative, respectively, in two clinical forms: Single (40%, n=16/40) and mixed (60%, n=34/40) bacterial infections. In vitro, 100% sensitivity for gentamycin (10 μg) and ofloxacin (5 μg) was noted; however, it was reduced to 50%. Moreover, during in vivo treatments cloxacillin (5 μg) upraised as the most effective alternative with 90% sensitivity.
Conclusion: Neither recurrent mastitis nor Bacillus species are thoroughly investigated with regard to reproduction performance in Egypt and the usefulness of these strains as antimastitis probiotics. Both persistent bacteremia and dormant endospores were formed but unaffected by standard schemes of antimicrobials injections which proposed the risk of pathogenic bacilli contaminating row milk from apparently healthy she-camel. The discrepancies between treatment results were induced by the resistance that started to develop by the organisms due to frequent and/or faulty use of applied antibiotics.
12. Reducing zoonotic and internal parasite burdens in pigs using a pig confinement system
Kadek Karang Agustina, Ida Bagus Ngurah Swacita, Ida Bagus Made Oka, I Made Dwinata, Rebecca Justin Traub, Colin Cargill and I Made Damriyasa
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1347-1352
Aim: This study was designed to validate the effectiveness of the pig confinement system (PCS) in reducing the prevalence of zoonotic and internal parasite burdens in pigs.
Materials and Methods: Ten PCS households were selected together with 10 households practising traditional scavenging systems. Five pigs were monitored per household every 3 months for 15 months and blood and feces collected. Pigs received a single dose of oxfendazole at 30 mg/kg at baseline. Qualitative fecal examinations for intestinal parasite stages were performed, and serum was tested for antibodies to cysticercus of Taenia solium, Trichinella spp., and Toxoplasma gondii.
Results: Based on fecal examination, the prevalence of pigs positive for parasite eggs was reduced in PCS pigs over consecutive samplings (Ascaris suum [14.3% to 0%], Trichuris suis [46.9% to 8.3%], Strongyle-type eggs [81.6% to 8.3%], Physocephalus spp. [6.1% to 0%], and Metastrongylus apri [20.8% to 0%]) compared with increases in the number of pigs positive for parasite eggs in non-PCS pigs (T. suis [20-61.5%], Strongyle-type [60.4-80.8%], Physocephalus spp. [8.3-15.4%], and M. apri [20.8-34.6%]) and little change in pigs positive for A. suum (18.8-19.2%). While the prevalence of pigs with antibodies against to cysticerci of T. solium reduced in PCS pigs from 18% to 14%, the prevalence in non-PCS pigs increased from 42% to 52%. Antibodies to Trichinella were not detected, but the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies increased from 6% to 10% in PCS pigs and from 7% to 24% in non-PCS pigs.
Conclusion: These data demonstrate the potential of a PCS to reduce the prevalence of pigs infected with zoonotic and internal parasites and thus the risk to human and pig health.
11. Determination of serum adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase activity in Kangal dogs with maternal cannibalism
N. Ercan, M. Kockaya, S. Kapancik and D. Bakir
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1343-1346
Aim: Kangal dogs, known as guard dogs in many countries of the world, have been found to eat their own puppies during their first 24 h following birth, which is called as maternal cannibalism. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and xanthine oxidase (XO) are important enzymes for purine metabolism. In this study, the aim is to evaluate ADA and XO activities in Kangal dogs with maternal cannibalism.
Materials and Methods: The material of the study consists of the blood sera of Kangal dog breed with and without maternal cannibalism in the breeders around Sivas city and its districts. ADA and XO activities in blood serum of these animals were investigated by spectrophotometric method.
Results: ADA activities in Kangal dogs with maternal cannibalism were increased to the control group without maternal cannibalism (p<0.01).
Conclusion: Postnatal measurement of ADA activity in dogs may be useful in assessing maternal cannibalism.