Audience: Veterinary World readers represent education, industry and government, including research, teaching, administration, veterinary medicine and technical services in more than 150 countries. Veterinary World is of interest to those in veterinary medicine, infectious diseases, public health, parasitology, food science, epidemiology, immunology, virology, bacteriology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, gynaecology, wildlife.
1. Modeling the potential risk factors of bovine viral diarrhea prevalence in Egypt using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses
Abdelfattah M. Selim, Mahmoud M. Elhaig, Sherif A. Moawed and Ehab El-Nahas
Veterinary World, 11(3): 259-267
Aim: The present cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and potential risk factors associated with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) disease in cattle and buffaloes in Egypt, to model the potential risk factors associated with the disease using logistic regression (LR) models, and to fit the best predictive model for the current data.
Materials and Methods: A total of 740 blood samples were collected within November 2012-March 2013 from animals aged between 6 months and 3 years. The potential risk factors studied were species, age, sex, and herd location. All serum samples were examined with indirect ELIZA test for antibody detection. Data were analyzed with different statistical approaches such as Chi-square test, odds ratios (OR), univariable, and multivariable LR models.
Results: Results revealed a non-significant association between being seropositive with BVDV and all risk factors, except for species of animal. Seroprevalence percentages were 40% and 23% for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. OR for all categories were close to one with the highest OR for cattle relative to buffaloes, which was 2.237. Likelihood ratio tests showed a significant drop of the -2LL from univariable LR to multivariable LR models.
Conclusion: There was an evidence of high seroprevalence of BVDV among cattle as compared with buffaloes with the possibility of infection in different age groups of animals. In addition, multivariable LR model was proved to provide more information for association and prediction purposes relative to univariable LR models and Chi-square tests if we have more than one predictor.
Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability, genetic and phenotypic correlations, and the genetic trends for pre-weaning growth traits including the birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), pre-weaning daily gain (PWDG), and weaning age (WA) in Awassi lambs.
Materials and Methods: A total of 5131 Awassi lambs from two Jordanian sheep breeding stations were used. A multitrait animal model and restricted maximum likelihood methods were used to estimate the covariances between the studied traits.
Results: The mean±standard deviation of BWT, WWT, PWDG, and WA was 4.48±0.8 kg, 17.13±0.7 kg, 0.2±0.07 g, and 65.5±0.7 days, respectively. Heritability estimates were 0.30±0.04 for BWT, 0.19±0.04 for WWT and PWDG, and 0.2±0.04 for WA. Positive genetic correlations were obtained between BWT and other traits, while negative correlations were obtained between WWT, PWDG, and WA (-0.50±0.12) and between WWT and WA (-0.67±0.14). The positive phenotypic correlation was obtained between WA and PWDG (0.63±0.01). The highest additive genetic variance was obtained for WA (34.58), while the lowest was estimated for PWDG (6.22E-04). The highest phenotypic variance was obtained for WA (175.5), while the lowest value obtained was for BWT (0.54). Maternal additive variance ranged between 0.13 and 0.03. The genetic trends were around zero for all studied traits.
Conclusion: Selection should be conducted using animals with high estimated breeding values through controlled breeding.
26. Effect of levamisole, Vitamin E, and selenium against aflatoxicosis in broilers chicken
Amjed H. Ulaiwi
Veterinary World, 11(2): 248-253
Aim: The experiment was conducted to determine of levamisole (0.2 ml/kg-BW), Vitamin E (80 mg)+selenium (1.6 mg), and aflatoxin (B1) (positive control) compared with group without aflatoxin (negative control) on some liver enzymes (aspartate transaminase [AST] and alanine transaminase [ALT]), as well as to study the histopathological changes.
Materials and Methods: The experiment included (200) 1-day-old broilers Ross 308 (Turkey source) mixed sexes. They were divided into four equal groups (50 chicks each group). The experimental period was extended to 35 days.
Results: The results revealed that the levels of liver enzymes (ALT and AST) of all groups at 35 days were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the negative control. Furthermore, the result of histopathological changes in thymus and Harderian gland in different ages of group Vitamin E+selenium showed a reduction in the depletion of the cortex as well as lessening of congestion and hemorrhage and necrosis also decreasing in inflammatory cells in the thymus and Harderian gland.
Conclusion: The study confirmed the protective effect of Vitamin E and levamisole by reducing harmful impacts of aflatoxin through their antioxidant effect as they improved the liver enzymes and histopathological changes due to the toxin.
Keywords: aflatoxin, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, broiler, levamisole, Vitamin E and selenium.
25. The effect of supplementation of multistrain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals to the basal diet on the growth performance, carcass traits, and physiological response of broilers
Sugiharto Sugiharto, Isroli Isroli, Turrini Yudiarti and Endang Widiastuti
Veterinary World, 11(2): 240-247
Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of supplementation of multistrain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals to the broiler chicken diets on their growth performance, hematological parameters, and carcass traits.
Materials and Methods: Two hundred and eighty-eight Lohmann 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four groups, i.e., control (without additional supplementation) and three experimental treatments where basal diet was enriched by 0.1%, 0.5%, or 1% of multistrain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals, respectively. Blood sampling was conducted on day 28, while the selected organs and eviscerated carcasses were collected on day 42.
Results: Dietary supplementation did not affect (p>0.05) the final body weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio of broilers. Supplementation by 0.1% and 0.5% of multistrain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals reduced (p≤0.05) heart relative weight of broilers. Dietary supplementation tended (p=0.07) to increase the relative weight of ileum and pancreas of broilers. Supplemented birds had lower (p≤0.05) numbers of leukocytes and eosinophils compared to unsupplemented birds. There were tendencies that supplementation of multistrain probiotics in combination with vitamins and minerals resulted in lower (p=0.07) counts of lymphocytes and heterophils when compared with no supplementation. Supplementation by 0.5% of multistrain probiotics in combination with vitamins and minerals resulted in lower (p≤0.05) serum concentration of uric acid when compared with control. There was no significant effect of dietary supplementation on carcass traits, pH, and drip loss of broiler breast muscles.
Conclusion: Dietary supplementation of commercial broiler feeds with 0.5% of multistrain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals was potential to improve digestive functions and physiological status of broiler chickens.
24. The effect of purified Quercus cortex extract on biochemical parameters of organism and productivity of healthy broiler chickens
Galimzhan Kalihanovich Duskaev, Nadezhda Mihajlovna Kazachkova, Alexander Sergeevich Ushakov, Baer Serekpaevich Nurzhanov and Albert Farhitdinovich Rysaev
Veterinary World, 11(2): 235-239
Aim: Modern methods of producing poultry meat without the use of antibiotics are known, and it is possible to achieve the desired conditions, including the use of herbal preparations. In addition, it is known that metabolites of medicinal plants are inhibitors of the quorum sensing system in bacteria. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of Quercus cortex extract in a reduced dose on the productivity and body state of healthy chicken broilers.
Materials and Methods: For the experiment, 120 heads of 7-day-old healthy broiler chickens were selected, and they were divided into four groups (n=30, 3 replicates of 10 birds in each group) by the analog method. The composition of diets of the experimental Groups I and II additionally included Q. cortex extract and Groups II and III included an enzyme preparation containing glucoamylase and concomitant cellulolytic enzymes. The following methods of study were used; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry, and hematological analysis.
Results: It was established that the increase in live weight of broiler chickens in experimental groups exceeded the analogous indicator in the control group by 3.1-16.6%, and feed intake within the entire experimental period increased by 2.6-15.4%, against a background of decreasing feed consumption for a weight gain of 1 kg of live weight (by 3.7-9.2%). There was an increase in iron concentration in blood of broiler chickens in Groups I and II (7.8-11.8%), in liver (23.7-92.4%, p≤0.05), and in spleen (53.9-77.7%, p≤0.05) against the background of a decrease in muscle tissue. A decreased content of monocytes and granulocytes was found, especially in experimental Group I.
Conclusion: In the experiment, it was shown for the first time that the inclusion of Q. cortex extract in an enzyme-containing diet (anti-quarantine substances) was found to increase the productivity of poultry.
23. DNA extraction from hydatid cyst protoscolices: Comparison of five different methods
Afshin Barazesh, Bahador Sarkari, Sepideh Ebrahimi and Mehdi Hami
Veterinary World, 11(2): 231-234
Aim: The current study aimed to find out a simple, practical and high throughput DNA isolation method for extraction of DNA from hydatid cyst samples.
Materials and Methods: Cattle and sheep isolate of hydatid cysts were obtained from the slaughterhouse, and hydatid fluid and protoscolices were collected in a sterile condition. Protoscolices were washed, 3 times with phosphate buffered saline, and DNA was extracted by different methods including manual extraction with freeze/thawing and phenol-chloroform, Triton X-100 extraction, and by a commercial kit (YTA, Yekta Tajhiz Azma, Iran) with three different modifications in the kit's manufacturer instructions. The obtained DNA from the different methods was evaluated by Nanodrop in terms of the yield of DNA and carbohydrates or protein contaminations. To compare the quality of the extracted DNA, two pieces of the mitochondrial genome of Echinococcus granulosus, cox1, and nad1, were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified, using each of the DNA prepared by different methods. Electrophoresis of PCR products was carried out on the agarose gel.
Results: The DNA extracted by manual method, using phenol/chloroform, had the highest yield, yet with the highest level of protein and carbohydrate contamination. The DNA extracted using two-step incubations, initially at 60°C for 2 h and then overnight at 37°C, was the most purified DNA with the lowest rate of contamination.
Conclusion: Findings of the study demonstrated that modification in the currently available commercially DNA extraction kit resulted in the development of a high throughput DNA isolation method. This method can be recommended for the extraction of DNA from hydatid cysts, especially the cattle isolate where the extraction of DNA in these samples are usually problematic.
Keywords: DNA extraction, hydatid cyst, protoscolices.
22. Interspecies comparison of probiotics isolated from different animals
Amr M. Abdou, Riham H. Hedia, Shimaa T. Omara, Mohamed Abd El-Fatah Mahmoud, Mai M. Kandil, and M. A. Bakry
Veterinary World, 11(2): 227-230
Aim: The aim of the current study was to isolate and identify naturally occurring probiotic Lactobacillus species in different animals with the different environmental background including fish, and farm animals to investigate interspecies differences in probiotics on the species level.
Materials and Methods: A total of 44 fecal and milk samples were collected under aseptic conditions from cattle, buffalo, camel, sheep, goats, and fish. The samples were cultured, and the isolated strains were confirmed biochemically and molecularly using 16S rRNA multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis following DNA extraction from the bacterial isolates.
Results: A total of 31 isolates identified as lactobacilli were isolated from cattle milk, goat feces, sheep feces, fish feces, buffalo milk, camel milk, and goats' milk. Lactobacillus species were identified based on the size of the PCR product. The results showed that different species were different in their lactobacilli content. At the same time, there were some differences between individuals of the same species.
Conclusion: The diversity of probiotic strains isolated from different animal species implies different types of benefits to the host. Although it would be both money - and time-consuming research, discovering the benefit of each of these strains may provide very important information for the health of both human and animal. Furthermore, transferring these beneficial effects either to individuals within the same species or between different species would be of great importance.