Sunday, 28 December 2014

Therapeutic efficacy of different Hemodialysis prescriptions in canine azotemia

Research (Published online: 29-12-2014)
23. Therapeutic efficacy of different Hemodialysis prescriptions in canine azotemia Ekta Atul Thakkar and Rajiv V. Gaikwad
Veterinary World, 7(12): 1150-1156

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.1150-1156

Aim: The aim was to determine therapeutic efficacy of different Hemodialysis prescriptions in canine azotemia.
Materials and Methods: Patients (n=9) with acute onset of renal dysfunction or chronic patients with superimposed acute factor (component) or patients with known chronic nature of the disease were dialyzed with Fresenius 4008S hemodialysis machine after jugular catheterization. Patients were randomly divided into two groups, one group (n=3) was dialyzed every day and second (n=4) was dialyzed on alternate days. The patients were evaluated for following parameters to compare the efficacy of the dialysis prescription: Urea reduction ratio (URR), creatinine reduction ratio (CRR), Kt/V, time averaged concentration of urea (TAC urea).
Result and Discussion: Increasing both dialysis frequency and duration is the superior dialysis schedule. Patient dialyzed every day with total processed blood volume 1.79 L/Kg for 4 h 26 min/session had the lowest TAC of 36.82 mg/dl, thereby was considered it as a better prescription.
Keywords: creatinine reduction ratio, hemodialysis, Kt/V, time averaged concentration of urea, urea reduction ratio.

Selenium status in cattle herds in Wallonia (Belgium): overview and health management

Research (Published online: 29-12-2014)
22. Selenium status in cattle herds in Wallonia (Belgium): overview and health management Youcef Mehdi, Jean-François Cabaraux, Jean-Luc Hornick, Louis Istasse and Isabelle Dufrasne
Veterinary World, 7(12): 1144-1149

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.1144-1149

Aim: Monitoring was performed in order to determine the Selenium (Se) status of cattle herds in different agricultural areas in Wallonia (Belgium).
Materials and Methods: The study included 114 heifers and 184 cows (82 dairy and 102 beef cows) from 66 cattle farms situated in Wallonia. The Se status was assessed by measuring the glutathion peroxydase in red cells and converting it to the equivalent Se blood content.
Results: The average blood concentrations of Se were very low. The Ardennes region was an area where the lowest Se status was recorded. The highest levels of Se in dairy cows and beef cows were recorded respectively in the limoneuse region and Famenne areas. The Se content in beef herds was lower compared with that of dairy herds (35 vs. 56 μg/L, p<0.01).
Conclusion: On average over all the regions, 87% of animals were classified as deficient and only 13% of the animals were classified as adequate. The heifers from both dairy and beef herds in Wallonia exhibited a deficiency in Se classified as moderate to severe. The beef herds showed larger deficiencies compared with the dairy herds. Selenium deficiency can be prevented by ensuring adequate supplementation of deficient animals in Se deficient regions. An increased consumption of vitamin-mineral supplements, the use of Se-enriched fertilizers and ingredients containing high levels of Se can help to reduce or correct deficiencies recorded in cattle herds in Wallonia.
Keywords: cows, glutathione peroxidase, heifers, selenium deficiency.

Mineral deficiency predisposes occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred

Research (Published online: 29-12-2014)
21. Mineral deficiency predisposes occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred S. K. Sheetal, S. K. Choudhary and D. Sengupta
Veterinary World, 7(12): 1140-1143

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.1140-1143

Aim: The present study was carried out to investigate the relationship between blood serum concentrations of macro and micro minerals and development of retention of placenta (ROP) in crossbred cattle.
Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out at Instructional Livestock Farm, Bihar Veterinary College and local Khatals in and around Patna. A total of 20 crossbred cattle (n=10 with normal expulsion of the placenta as control and n=10 with ROP) were selected in the present study. Blood samples were collected from these animals and serum was separated and stored in the deep freezer at 20°C till further analysis. The estimation of serum macro-minerals (Ca, P, Ca/P ratio) was done by Span diagnostic Kits (Surat, India) and trace minerals or micro-minerals (Zn, Cu, and Fe) were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer AAS 220). Mean values were compared between both the groups at 0 h (at parturition) and 12 h after parturition.
Results: The mean values of serum calcium and zinc were found significantly lower in cattle having ROP than control at both 0 h and 12 h after parturition. The mean values of serum Ca and P ratio obtained at 0 hour were significantly lower in ROP groups as compared to control groups and non-significant at 12 h. The mean values of serum inorganic phosphorus, copper and iron was found non-significantly lower in ROP cases as compared to control.
Conclusions: Macro and micro mineral deficiency such as calcium, iron, zinc and copper in blood serum may be predisposing factor for the occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred cattle.
Keywords: cattle, macro and micro-mineral profiles, parturition, retention of placenta.

Prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis infestation in pigs of Meghalaya and its treatment

Research (Published online: 29-12-2014)
20Prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis infestation in pigs of Meghalaya and its treatment R. Laha, M. Das, P. K. Bharti, Suresh Kumar, A. Sen and A. Goswami
Veterinary World, 7(12): 1137-1139

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.1137-1139

Aim: The aim was to study the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis infestation in pigs of Meghalaya and to treat the infested pigs with the chemotherapeutic agent.
Materials and Methods: A total of 196 numbers of pigs were suspected for Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis infestation maintained in both organized and unorganized pig farms as well as pigs brought for slaughter to pig slaughterhouses of Meghalaya. Deep skin scrapings were collected from all these 196 numbers of pigs. The collected scrapings were digested in 10% potassium hydroxide separately and centrifuged. The sediment portions were examined under both low and high power of the microscope to find any mite. Except the infested pigs that were brought for slaughter, all other infested pigs were treated with ivermectin @ 300 μg/kg body weight (b.wt) subcutaneously.
Results: Of 196 numbers of suspected pigs, 21 (10.71%) numbers of pigs were found infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis after microscopical examination of skin scrapings. Except the infested pigs that were brought for slaughter, all other infested pigs were treated successfully with ivermectin @ 300 μg/kg b.wt subcutaneously.
Conclusion: It can be concluded from the present study that sarcoptic mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis is very much prevalent in pigs whether maintained in organized farms, as well as pigs maintained in unorganized way in village conditions. Pig owners should not neglect this infestation as it has economic significance. Ivermectin @ 300 μg/kg b.wt subcutaneously has been found to be effective to treat this infestation.
Keywords: Meghalaya, Pig, Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis.

Friday, 26 December 2014

Prevalence of Clostridium perfringens toxin genotypes in enterotoxemia suspected sheep flocks of Andhra Pradesh

Research (Published online: 26-12-2014)
19. Prevalence of Clostridium perfringens toxin genotypes in enterotoxemia suspected sheep flocks of Andhra Pradesh - N. Vinod Kumar, D. Sreenivasulu and Y. N. Reddy
Veterinary World, 7(12): 1132-1136

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.1132-1136

Aim: To identify the Clostridium perfringens toxin genotypes prevailing in enterotoxemia suspected sheep flocks in Andhra Pradesh by using multiplex PCR.
Materials and Methods: Intestinal scrapings were collected from lambs below three months of age from flocks with similar management from different Districts of Andhra Pradesh, in India. A total of 208 samples were collected with 140 from enterotoxemia suspected flocks and 68 from healthy flocks. Following processing and culture of the samples, colonies were identified by morphological and biochemical tests. All the clostridial isolates were analyzed by multiplex PCR.
Results: C. pefringens were isolated from 97 out of 140 enterotoxemia suspected flocks (69.29%) and 27 out of 68 healthy flocks (39.71 %). Genotyping of the 97 iolates by multiplex PCR from enterotoxemia suspected flocks indicated C. perfringens type A, C and D 67.01% (65 out of 97); 11.34% (11 out of 97) and 21.65% (21 out of 97) respectively. Isolates from healthy flocks indicated the presence of type A and D 92.59% (25 out of 27) and 7.40% (2 out of 27) respectively. Number of isolates from enterotoxaemia suspected flocks were significantly high (P<0.001) than healthy flocks. Type A is found to be predominant in both enterotoxemia suspected and healthy flocks (67.01% and 92.59%).
Conclusions: Prevalence of C. perfringens type C was reported for the first time in India. Clostridium perfringens type D and type C were found to be the major causative types for enterotoxemia.
Keywords: Clostridium perfringes, enterotoxaemia, lamb mortality, multiplex PCR, Toxin typing.

Antioxidative capacity of vitamin E, vitamin C and their combination in cryopreserved Bhadavari bull semen

Research (Published online: 26-12-2014)
18. Antioxidative capacity of vitamin E, vitamin C and their combination in cryopreserved Bhadavari bull semen - Pawan Kumar Mittal, Mukul Anand, A. K. Madan, S. Yadav and J. Kumar
Veterinary World, 7(12): 1127-1131

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.1127-1131

Aim: The aim was to determine the antioxidative capacity of vitamin E, vitamin C and their combination (vitamin E+C) on standard semen parameters i.e., mortality, percent live sperms, percent abnormal sperms and acrosomal integrity in cryopreserved Bhadawari bull semen.
Materials and Methods: Ejaculates collected from four Bhadawari bulls were evaluated and later pooled at 37°C. Pooled semen sample was divided into four equal parts viz. T-1,T-2,T-3 and C. The divided samples were diluted with a Trisbased extender containing the antioxidants vitamin E (5 mM) (T-1) vitamin C (5 mM) (T-2), vitamin  E+C combination (5 mM+5 mM) (T-3) and extender containing no antioxidants (control, C). The diluted samples with different antioxidant concentration were cooled to 5°C, frozen in 0.25-ml French straws and stored in liquid nitrogen (196°C). Frozen straws were thawed individually at 37°C for 20 s in a water bath for evaluation.
Results: Semen extender supplementation with vitamin E (5 mM), vitamin C (5 mM) and vitamin E+C combination caused significant (p<0.01) increases in the seminal attributes while significant (p<0.01) decreases was observed in percent abnormal sperms in comparison to control group indicating that supplementation of antioxidant in form of vitamin and their combination improves the quality of post thaw semen. Significantly higher values of semen parameters were observed in the T-3 followed by T-1 and T-2 indicating the anti-oxidative capacity of different supplements utilized during the study.
Conclusion: The results of present investigation concluded that combination of vitamin E+C has most profound effect in protecting sperms against reactive oxygen species production and cold shock when compared to vitamin E and vitamin C supplemented alone in the extender for semen dilution utilized for cryopreservation.
Keywords: antioxidants, Bhadawari bull, cryopreservation, semen, vitamin E, vitamin C.

Tuesday, 23 December 2014

Assessment of the physical and mechanical properties of plaster of Paris bandage cast used as a splinting and casting materials

Research (Published online: 23-12-2014)
17. Assessment of the physical and mechanical properties of plaster of Paris bandage cast used as a splinting and casting materials - A. J. Parmar, S.K.Tyagi, V. S. Dabas, J. N. Mistry, S. K. Jhala, D. N. Suthar, R. H. Bhatt, D. V. Pansuria and I. M. Bhatti
Veterinary World, 7(12): 1123-1126

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.1123-1126

Aim: To assess the physical and mechanical properties of plaster of Paris (POP) bandage cast used as a splinting and casting materials.
Materials and Methods: POP casts were divided into three Groups A, B and C with 2, 3 and 8 layer for POP bandage, respectively (n=6 in each group). Handling characters, technical easiness or difficulties, setting time, weight, diameter and thickness of the casts were recorded for different groups. The casts were mounted on universal testing machine and axial load was applied @ 10 mm/min until failure. The load deflection graphs were plotted. The maximum force at which failure of the casts occurred was recorded. Stress, strain, modulus of elasticity (MOE) and stiffness of casts were calculated.
Result: Construction of POP bandage cast was messy and required 45-60 min for hardening. 8 layer POP cast was comparatively heavier in weight and thicker in cross section than 3 layer cast followed by 2 layer cast. Under axial compression, the load bearing capacity of 8 layer POP casts was more than 2 and 3 layer cast.
Conclusion: The values of load bearing capacity, stress, stiffness and MOE of cast were the highest for 8 layer POP cast followed by 2 and 3 layer cast. Use if splints with POP cast is recommended due to its poor mechanical properties.
Keywords: axial load, cast, compression, physical properties, plaster of Paris bandage.

Semen quality parameters, their inter-relationship and post-washing sperm attributes of Rhode Island Red roosters

Research (Published online: 23-12-2014)
16. Semen quality parameters, their inter-relationship and post-washing sperm attributes of Rhode Island Red roosters - R. Richard Churchil, P. Ezhil Praveena and Deepak Sharma
Veterinary World, 7(12): 1117-1122

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.1117-1122

Aim: The present experiments were conducted (a) to evaluate the semen attributes of older Rhode Island Red (RIR) roosters and the inter-trait relationships, (b) to test sperm washing and storage duration suitable for gene transfer experiments.
Materials and Methods: The semen characteristics of older RIR roosters were studied, and Pearson correlation analysis was done to demonstrate the inter-trait relationships. Progressive motility and percent live sperms were tested at different post-washing intervals to identify suitable sperm processing conditions for gene transfer experiments.
Results: The volume, appearance score, initial motility, sperm count and percent live and abnormal spermatozoa were 0.38 ml, 3.58, 80.34%, 4.03 × 109 sperms/ml, 83.18% and 4.52% respectively. Positive correlation was observed among appearance score, motility, live sperm and sperm count. Semen volume is negatively correlated with all the other characters except live sperms, whereas, percent abnormal sperms negatively associated with all the other traits. Significant (p<0.05) decrease in terms of motility and live sperm was recorded at 60 min post-washing.
Conclusion: The semen attributes of RIR roosters compares well with the other breeds of chicken. The appearance score can be used to assess fertility where microscopic evaluation facilities are limited. The sperm washing protocol tested in the experiment is suitable for gene transfer experiments.
Keywords: correlation, live sperm, post-washing motility, Rhode Island Red roosters, semen attributes.

Prevalence of drug-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in an organized sheep farm

Research (Published online: 23-12-2014)
15. Prevalence of drug-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in an organized sheep farm - Ambalathaduvar Meenakshisundaram, Thavasi Anna and Jayagopal Harikrishnan
Veterinary World, 7(12): 1113-1116

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.1113-1116

Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the resistance against albendazole, fenbendazole, levamisole and closantel in gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes of sheep.
Introduction: Anthelmintics are used traditionally as an integral part of helminthic control strategies for grazing livestock to prevent production losses from parasitic infections. The continuous and indiscriminate use of the same anthelmintics over years together as the sole means of control are now failing due to the emergence of resistance strains of helminths. Resistance to the commonly used anthelmintics in GI nematodes of sheep has become an increasingly widespread problem throughout the world.
Materials and Methods: Fifty-five naturally infected Madras Red lambs of 6-12 months of age were selected and distributed randomly into five treatment groups of 11 animals each. Four groups were treated orally with albendazole (5 mg/kg), fenbendazole (7 mg/kg), levamisole (7.5 mg/kg) and closantel (10 mg/kg) respectively, whereas the fifth group served as untreated control. Fecal samples were collected per rectum of each lamb just prior to treatment (pre-treatment) and on 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-treatment. The anthelmintic resistance was evaluated by in vivo fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), post-treatment larval culture and in vitro egg hatch assay.
Results: In the FECRT, albendazole reduced the faecal egg count by 86.50%, 84.81%, 85.28% and 84.47% respectively for 4 weeks after treatment. Fecal egg count reduction using fenbendazole was 92.64, 93.04, 90.80 and 90.06% respectively for 4 weeks after treatment. The percent efficacy for levamisole and closantel was more than 95%. The post-treatment larval culture contained only Haemonchus contortus. In the in vitro egg hatch assay, the ED50 value for benzimidazole was 0.299 μg albendazole/ml and levamisole showed an ED50 value of 0.283 μg/ml.
Conclusion: Our study confirmed the resistance of H. contortus to benzimidazole in sheep.
Keywords: benzimidazole resistance, egg hatch assay, fecal egg count reduction test, gastrointestinal nematodes, sheep.

Comparative efficacy of crystalloid and colloid-crystalloid combination for the management of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in dogs

Research (Published online: 23-12-2014)
14. Comparative efficacy of crystalloid and colloid-crystalloid combination for the management of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in dogs -Chandreyee Sen, Ashwani K. Sharma and P. S. Dhaliwal
Veterinary World, 7(12): 1108-1112

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.1108-1112

Aim: In the present study, a therapeutic trial was conducted to assess comparative efficacy of crystalloid plus colloid and crystalloid intravenous infusions alone as fluid therapy in dogs suffering from hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE).
Materials and Methods: 20 dogs manifesting HGE, presented at Teaching Veterinary Clinical Services Complex, Ludhiana, Punjab, were selected randomly for the trial. All of them were observed to suffer from moderate dehydration on clinical examination. Crystalloids 5% DNS and RL were used in combination with polygelin 3.5% colloidal solution in the first group (Combination I) and in the second group, the afore-said crystalloids (Combination II) were used, both groups consisting of 10 cases each. Antibiotics and symptomatic treatment were same for all the 20 cases. The outcome of both treatment groups was evaluated on hemato-biochemical parameters, before and after administration of the therapies and compared statistically within and between the two groups. Hemato-biochemical parameters of eight clinically healthy animals were considered as control for comparison.
Result: On hemato-biochemical examination, significant alterations were observed in leucogram, platelet and serum globulin concentration after the treatment in the first group as compared to before treatment values. In the second group, mean hemoglobin varied significantly after the treatment. After therapies were administered, significant difference in serum globulin level and albumin: Globulin was found in between the treatment groups (Combination I and Combination II). Clinical recovery was faster in the first group than the second group of animals.
Conclusion: On hemodynamic and laboratory data, efficacies of both the fluid therapies were equivocal. Colloidal solutions may hasten recovery in small animals suffering from gastrointestinal crisis.
Keywords: colloid, crystalloid, dog, hemato-biochemical studies, hemorrhagic-gastroenteritis.

Wednesday, 17 December 2014

Body linear traits for identifying prolific goats

Research (Published online: 18-12-2014)
13. Body linear traits for identifying prolific goats - Avijit Haldar, Prasenjit Pal, Debasis Majumdar, Chanchal K. Biswas, Saurabh Ghosh and Subhransu Pan
Veterinary World, 7(12): 1103-1107

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.1103-1107

Aim: The present study was conducted on prolific goat breed to identify body linear type traits that might be associated with prolificacy trait in goats.
Materials and Methods: Two-stage stratified random sample survey based data were collected from 1427 non-pregnant goats with the history of single, twin and triplet litter sizes (LZ) between January 2008 to February 2011 for 3 years in 68 villages located in East and North East India. Data on sixteen body linear traits were analyzed using logistic regression model to do the step-wise selection for identifying the body linear traits that could determine LZ. An average value for each identified body linear trait was determined for classifying the goats into three categories: Goats having the history of single LZ, goats having the history of twin LZ and goats having the history of triplet LZ.
Results: The LZ proportions for single, twin and triplet, were 29.50, 59.14 and 11.36%, respectively, with the prolificacy rate of 181.85% in Indian Black Bengal goats. A total of eight body linear traits that could determine LZ in prolific goats were identified. Heart girth (HG) measurement (>60.90 cm), paunch girth (PG) (>70.22 cm), wither height (WH) (>49.75 cm), neck length (>21.45 cm), ear length (>12.80 cm) and distance between trochanter major (DTM) bones (>12.28 cm), pelvic triangle area (PTA) (>572.25 cm2) and clearance at udder (CU) (>23.16 cm) showed an increase likelihood of multiple LZ when compared to single LZ. Further, HG measurement (>62.29 cm), WH (>50.54 cm), PG (>71.85 cm) and ear length (>13.00 cm), neck length (>22.01 cm), PTA (>589.64 cm2), CU (>23.20 cm) and DTM bones (>12.47 cm) were associated with increased likelihood of triplet LZ, when compared with that of twin LZ.
Conclusion: HG measurement was the best discriminating factor, while PG, neck length, DTM bones, CU, PTA, WH and ear length measurements were other important factors that could be used for identifying prolific goats to achieve economic benefit out of prolificacy trait.
Keywords: Black Bengal, body linear traits, goat, prolificacy, litter size.

Identification and sequence analysis of Tapasin gene in guinea fowl

Research (Published online: 18-12-2014)
12. Identification and sequence analysis of Tapasin gene in guinea fowl - Varuna P. Panicker and R. Uma
Veterinary World, 7(12): 1099-1102

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.1099-1102

Aim: An attempt has been made to identify and study the nucleotide sequence variability in exon 5 - exon 6 regions of guinea fowlTapasin gene.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from randomly selected birds (12 guinea fowl birds) and Tapasin gene amplified using chicken specific primers designed from GenBank submitted sequences. Polymerase chain reaction conditions were standardized so as get only single amplicons. Obtained products were then cloned and sequenced; sequences were then analyzed using suitable software.
Results: Amplicon size of the Tapasin gene in guinea fowl was same as reported in chicken with areas of transitions and transversions. The sequence variations reported in these coding sequences might have influence in the protein structure, which may be correlated with the increased immune status of the bird when compared with chicken breeds.
Conclusion: Since Tapasin gene is an immunologically important gene, which plays an important role in the immune status of the bird. Sequence variations in the gene can be correlated with the altered immune status of the bird.
Keywords: guinea fowl, Immunity, Tapasin gene.

Tuesday, 16 December 2014

Estimation of genetic parameters of weekly test-day milk yields and first lactation 305-day milk yield in Murrah buffaloes

Research (Published online: 16-12-2014)
11. Estimation of genetic parameters of weekly test-day milk yields and first lactation 305-day milk yield in Murrah buffaloes - Saroj Kumar Sahoo, Avtar Singh, A. K. Gupta, A. K. Chakravarty, Manvendra Singh and G. S. Ambhore
Veterinary World, 7(12): 1094-1098

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.1094-1098

Aim: The aim was to estimate genetic parameters of weekly test-day (TD) milk yields and first lactation 305-day milk yield (FL305DY) in Murrah buffaloes.
Materials and Methods: The data on 39059 weekly test-day milk yield (WTDY) records during first lactation of 961 Murrah buffaloes calved from 1977 to 2012 and sired by 101 bulls maintained in an organized farm at National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal was analyzed to study the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors. Least squares maximum likelihood program was used to estimate genetic and non-genetic parameters affecting WTDY and FL305DY. Heritability was estimated using paternal half-sib correlation method. The genetic and phenotypic correlations among WTDY and 305- day milk yield was calculated from the analysis of variance and covariance among sire groups.
Results: The least squares means for FL305DY was found to be 1853.49±15.88 Kg. The least squares means of overall WTDY ranged from 2.44±0.07 kg (TD-43) to 7.95±0.06 kg (TD-8). Effect of period, season and age at first calving groups was found to be highly significant (p<0.01), significant (p<0.05) and non-significant on FL305DY, respectively. The h2 estimate of FL305DY was 0.25±0.09. The estimates of phenotypic and genetic correlations between 305-day milk yield and different WTDY ranged from 0.52 to 0.84 and from 0.19 to 0.98, respectively.
Conclusions: Our study showed that the effect of period of calving was highly significant (p<0.01) on FL305DY as well as all the WTDY. The estimates of phenotypic and genetic correlations were generally higher in the middle segment of lactation suggesting that these TD yields could be used as the selection criteria for early evaluation and selection of animals.
Keywords: genetic factors, Murrah buffalo, non-genetic factors, test-day milk yields.

Monday, 15 December 2014

Cloning and sequence analysis of hsf, an outer membrane protein gene of Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2

Research (Published online: 15-12-2014)
10. Cloning and sequence analysis of hsf, an outer membrane protein gene of Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2 A. Priyadarshini, S. Kumar, S. K. Gupta, K. N. Viswas, R. K. Agarwal and V. P. Singh

Veterinary World, 7(12): 1090-1093

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.1090-1093

Aim: The present study was undertaken to clone, sequence and analyze the hsf, an outer membrane protein gene of Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2
Materials and Methods: hsf gene was amplified from genomic DNA of P. multocida. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product was cloned in pET-32a vector and was characterized. hsf gene was sequenced, analyzed and phylogenetic tree was constructed taking sequences of other strains.
Results: Amplicon size was found to be 785 bp. Recombinant got characterized through colony PCR and restriction enzyme analysis.
Conclusion: hsf gene of P. multocida serotype B is similar to serotype A, but different from serotype D. Further work is needed to evaluate role of Hsf protein in protection studies and to study the antigenic properties of this recombinant protein as a candidate for vaccine.
Keywords: cloning, hsf gene, outer membrane protein, Pasteurella multocida, phylogenetic tree, sequencing

Nutritional evaluation of fodder, its preference and crop raiding by wild Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in Sonitpur District of Assam, India

Research (Published online: 15-12-2014)

9Nutritional evaluation of fodder, its preference and crop raiding by wild Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in Sonitpur District of Assam, India - Bidyut Jyoti Das, Bibeka Nanda Saikia, Kishore Kumar Baruah, Arundhati Bora and Mukul Bora
Veterinary World, 7(12): 1082-1089

Aim: The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of fodder in natural habitat, cultivated crops and their preference by wild Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in forest and non-forest areas in four seasons using field observation in Sonitpur District of Assam; since, there were frequent incidences of crop raiding by wild elephant leading to loss of property and human-elephant conflict.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in four seasons. The study included forest areas of Sonai-Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary, part of Nameri National Park and high human-elephant conflicted areas of non-forest near to the sanctuary and parks. The consumed fodders were identified, collected and evaluated. The proximate composition was determined using AOAC (1990).
Results: Total 39 different fodder species of 18 families including herbs, climber, grasses, paddy seeds, paddy saplings, plants and its leaves, bark, fruits, and roots were recorded to be utilized by elephants. The first three family of fodder that elephant relished more were Poaceae (46.15%), Musaceae (7.69%) and Zingiberaceae (5.13%) respectively. The crude protein content of fodder in all seasons, total ash content only in winter and post monsoon seasons and neutral detergent fiber content of fodder between forest and non-forest were significant (p<0.05). Elephants preferred to forage more on nutritionally rich fodder than poor natural fodder. Incidence of crop raiding was more in post monsoon season could be due to availability of nutritionally rich fodder than the poor natural fodder and generally happened in the night.
Conclusions: The study revealed that during post monsoon season, there were abundant nutritionally rich sources of cultivated crops than the fodder of natural habitat that might provoke the wild elephants to raid crops. Poaceae shared a major portion of their diet. The findings will definitely help nutritionist, ecologist and policy makers to understand wild elephant’s needs and also to take appropriate measures for conservation of endangered wild Asian elephant as well as mitigation of human-elephant conflict.

Keywords: crop, fodder, raiding, wild Asian elephant.

Wednesday, 10 December 2014

Effect of supplementation of different levels of selenium as nanoparticles/sodium selenite on blood biochemical profile and humoral immunity in male Wistar rats

Research (Published online: 11-12-2014)
8. Effect of supplementation of different levels of selenium as nanoparticles/sodium selenite on blood biochemical profile and humoral immunity in male Wistar rats - S. J. Bunglavan, A. K. Garg, R. S. Dass and Sameer Shrivastava
Veterinary World, 7(12): 1075-1081

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.1075-1081

Aim: To study the effect of supplementation of different levels of selenium as nanoparticles/sodium selenite on blood biochemical profile and humoral immunity in male Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods: The experimental research was conducted at Division of Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. 63 male Wistar rats were divided into 9 equal groups on the basis of their mean body weight (BW) (124.3±3.1 g BW) following completely randomized design. Experimental feeding was similar in all the groups except for the source and level of selenium (Se) in the diet. While Group 1 (control) was fed a basal diet with no Se supplementation, in Groups 2 and 3, 150 ppb Se was supplemented either as sodium selenite or Se nanoparticles, respectively. In Groups 4, 5, 6 and 7, Se was supplemented as its nanoparticles at 50%, 25%, 12.5% and 6.25% levels respectively i.e. at 75 ppb, 37.5 ppb, 18.75 ppb and 9.375 ppb levels respectively. In Groups 8 and 9, 300 ppb Se was supplemented either as Se nanoparticles or sodium selenite, respectively. Experimental feeding was conducted for a period of 91 days. At the end of the experimental trial, blood samples were collected to analyze the blood serum biochemical profile (serum glucose, serum total protein (TP), serum albumin, serum globulin, serum albumin: globulin ratio [A:G ratio], serum total cholesterol) and humoral immunity.
Results: The levels of serum glucose, serum TP and serum albumin were comparable (p>0.05) among the nine groups of male Wistar rats. The mean serum total cholesterol was significantly (p<0.001) lowered in all the Se supplemented Wistar rats compared to the control group. The mean serum globulin level was significantly (p<0.05) higher and A:G ratio was significantly (p<0.05) lowered in Group 3 (supplemented with 150 ppb selenium nanoparticles) followed by Groups 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 as compared to the control group. The mean serum antibody titer was significantly (p<0.001) higher in all the Se supplemented groups with the highest value in Group 3 (supplemented with 150 ppb selenium nanoparticles) followed by Groups 4, 5, 8 and 9 compared to the control group.
Conclusion: Supplementation of selenium nanoparticles at the level of 150 ppb gave the best performance in terms of increased serum globulin level, reduced A:G ratio, and improved humoral immune status in male Wistar rats.
Keywords: humoral immunity, nanoparticles, selenium, serum cholesterol, serum globulin, serum glucose, serum total protein, Wistar rats.