Wednesday, 22 March 2017
Tuesday, 21 March 2017
Saturday, 18 March 2017
Friday, 17 March 2017
Sunday, 12 March 2017
Can methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence from dairy cows in India act as potential risk for community-associated infections?: A review
Review (Published online: 13-03-2017)
7. Can methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence from dairy cows in India act as potential risk for community-associated infections?: A review - Sathish Gopal and Kurunchi C. Divya
Veterinary World, 10(3): 311-318
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is classified as hospital associated (HA), community associated (CA), livestock associated (LA) and is a global concern. Developing countries, like India, are densely populated country challenging for public hygiene practices. HA-MRSA is comfortably recorded in India, and CA-MRSA is also reported as increasing one. CA-MRSA is serious disease which affects the community as endemic. MRSA is one among major mastitis-causing organisms in India as LA-MRSA. There were reports for transmission of MRSA as community between milk handlers and cow in global perspective. In India reports of MRSA in short among milk handlers and also transmission between animal and human. Hence, proper monitoring of MRSA transmission in India should be elucidated in account among milk handlers and dairy cows to avoid emerging CA-MRSA as outbreak.
Keywords: community associated, dairy cow, livestock associated, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission, milk handlers, monitoring.
Saturday, 11 March 2017
Effect of peripartum nutritional management on plasma profile of steroid hormones, metabolites, and postpartum fertility in buffaloes
Research (Published online: 12-03-2017)
6. Effect of peripartum nutritional management on plasma profile of steroid hormones, metabolites, and postpartum fertility in buffaloes -R. M. Kalasariya, A. J. Dhami, K. K. Hadiya, D. N. Borkhatariya and J. A. Patel
Veterinary World, 10(3): 302-310
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of peripartum protein and minerals supplementation on plasma profile of steroid hormones, metabolites, and fertility in rural buffaloes.
Material and Methods: A total of 85 advanced pregnant (~8 months) pluriparous buffaloes selected at farmers’ doorstep in three tribal villages of Middle Gujarat were randomly divided into two groups, viz., control (n=45) and nutrients treatment (40). The buffaloes of treatment group (n=40), in addition to farmers feeding schedule/control, received daily 1.5 kg compound concentrate mixture (22% CP) and 50 g of chelated ASMM for 2 months each pre- and post-partum. Further, 15 buffaloes, each of control and treatment group, were injected parentrally (deep i/m) with 5 ml of micro-minerals (each ml containing Se, Zn, Cu and Mn at 5, 40, 15 and 10 mg, respectively), twice 2 months before and on the day of calving, keeping rest of the animals (control, n=30 and treatment, n=25) as controls. Blood sampling was done on days −60, −30, −15, 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 peripartum for estimation of plasma progesterone and estradiol by standard RIA techniques and other metabolites using assay kits on biochemistry analyzer. The puerperal events and postpartum fertility were monitored through history and by fortnightly palpation per rectum till day 45 and then again at 120 days postpartum for both the groups and subgroups.
Results: The mean plasma progesterone concentrations in all groups declined significantly (p<0.05) from day 60 to day 15 prepartum, reached to the basal levels (<0.5 ng/ml) on the day of parturition, and subsequently, reduced nonsignificantly till day 15 postpartum and then showed a rising trend from day 30 to 60 postpartum with significantly higher values at day 45 and/or 60. The mean plasma estradiol values increased with approaching parturition and were at its peak on the day of calving (p<0.01). Thereafter, there was a rapid fall in the levels by day 15 and it remained low till day 45-60 postpartum. The blood glucose values showed an increasing trend with advancing gestation, reaching the highest on the day of calving, dropped significantly (p<0.01) within 15 days postpartum, and thereafter showed consistent values. The buffaloes supplemented with peripartum nutrients maintained significantly (p<0.05) higher blood glucose concentrations than the control during the peak lactation. The plasma protein levels varied significantly (p<0.05) between days within the group with the lowest values on the day of calving, as well as between groups with higher (p<0.05) values on day 30 and 60 postpartum in treated group. Micro-minerals injected did not reveal significant influence on steroid hormones, blood glucose, or plasma protein. The mean plasma total cholesterol was significantly lower (p<0.05) in treatment than the control group. The mean values in micro-minerals injected subgroup were higher than the non-injected control subgroup during postpartum phase. The mean plasma triglyceride values in the pregnant buffaloes under both the groups and subgroups gradually decreased as parturition approached with significantly lowest values on the day of calving. The values increased nonsignificantly by day 15 and then remained steady throughout postpartum period without influence of nutrient supplementation or micro-minerals injection. The incidence of retained fetal membranes (RFMs) was 5.00 and 13.33% in treatment and control groups, respectively, with placental expulsion time of 3.27±0.37 and 4.44±0.53 h (p>0.05). The micro-minerals injection appreciably reduced the incidence of RFMs and significantly (p<0.05) reduced the placental expulsion time over non-injected controls. In treatment group, the period for involution of uterus was significantly shorter (29.39±0.50 vs. 32.12±0.82 days, p<0.05), with early onset of first postpartum estrus (67.65±1.67 vs. 79.43±3.06 days, p<0.01), shorter service period (90.89±4.41 vs. 105.09±4.76 days, p<0.05) and higher conception rate (55.00 vs. 40.00%) than in control group. The micro-minerals injection apparently and/ or significantly improved all these traits in both the groups. Thus, the postpartum reproductive performance was significantly improved in treated than control groups and subgroups.
Conclusion: The results showed that nutrient supplementation in terms of high protein concentrate, ASMM and injection of sustained release micro-minerals (Se, Zn, Cu, and Mn) during transition period minutely altered the plasma steroid hormones and blood metabolites though it significantly improved the postpartum reproductive performance in buffaloes under field conditions.
Keywords: buffalo, hormone and metabolic profile, postpartum fertility, protein and mineral supplementation, transition period.
Friday, 10 March 2017
Occurrence of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli in groundwater of Brij region (Uttar Pradesh) and its public health implications
Research (Published online: 10-03-2017)
5. Occurrence of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli in groundwater of Brij region (Uttar Pradesh) and its public health implications -Barkha Sharma, Parul, A. K. Verma, Udit Jain, Janaradan K. Yadav, Ravneet Singh and Raghvendra Mishra
Veterinary World, 10(3): 293-301
Aim: The study evaluates the microbial as well as physicochemical pollution of groundwater of Brij region of Uttar Pradesh, a major tourist destination in the country along with estimating the drug resistance evident in the isolated Escherichia coli.
Materials and Methods: A total of 60 samples of groundwater were collected from six different sites and assessed for physicochemical (pH, color, taste, turbidity, total dissolved solids [TDS], total hardness [TH], chlorides, fluorides, nitrates, and iron) and microbiological parameters (standard plate count [SPC], most probable number test [MPN], E. coli).
Results: A majority of the samples were found to be out of the range for most of the parameters except iron. Particularly, high values of TDS (up to 9000 ppm), TH (1500 mg/L), chlorides (3250 mg/L), fluorides (2.5 mg/L), and nitrates (100.2 mg/L) were observed at most of the sites in the region highlighting the fact that groundwater of the area is not potable. Samples were turbid and salty to taste. High SPC values, up to 3500 colony-forming unit/ml and coliforms beyond BIS range were found in 40% samples suggesting gross microbial contamination. Only 2 sites (G3 and G5) had low MPN values. Overall 16 (26.67%) E. coli were isolated with 3 (18.75%) producing red colonies on conge red agar, hence supposed to be pathogenic. No E. coli O157:H7 was isolated. High antimicrobial resistance was observed against amoxicillin and erythromycin, whereas E. coli isolates were sensitive toward cefotaxime-clavulanic acid and imipenem. 12 isolates (75%) were multidrug resistant (MDR) with MDR index >20%, and 2 isolates (12.5%) were found to be extended spectrum beta-lactamases positive.
Conclusion: Groundwater is considered to be a safe option for potable water but it is obvious from the findings of this study that considerable physicochemical and microbial contamination is there in groundwater samples of Brij region. The occurrence of MDR E. coli in these waters is a matter of great public health concern.
Keywords: groundwater, microbial analysis, multidrug resistant Escherichia coli, physicochemical analysis.
Monday, 6 March 2017
Prevalence of Salmonella in poultry processing environments in wet markets in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia
Research (Published online: 06-03-2017)
4. Prevalence of Salmonella in poultry processing environments in wet markets in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia - Hafiz Nidaullah, Nadarajan Abirami, Ahamed Kamal Shamila-Syuhada, Li-Oon Chuah, Huda Nurul, Teik Pei Tan, Farah Wahida Zainal Abidin and Gulam Rusul
Veterinary World, 10(3): 286-292
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various Salmonella serotypes in chickens, carcass contact surfaces as well as environmental samples collected from wet markets and small scale processing plant.
Materials and Methods: A total of 182 poultry and environmental samples were collected at random on separate occasions from wet markets and small scale processing plant, during the period of October 2014 to July 2015 in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia. The samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using ISO 6579:2002 conventional culture-based method. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were subjected to various biochemical tests (such as triple sugar iron and lysine iron test), serologically confirmed using polyvalent O and H antisera and further serotyped at Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Perak, Malaysia.
Results: Salmonella serotypes were isolated from 161 out of 182 samples (88.46%) with 100% prevalence in the whole chicken carcass and chicken cuts - as well as transport crate, cage, drum, knife, chopping board, display table, floor, bench wash water, wash water, and drain water. Salmonella was isolated from 91.67%, 83.33%, and 66.67% of defeathering machines, drain swabs, and apron, respectively. 17 serotypes were isolated in this study with Salmonella Albany (57/161), Salmonella Corvallis (42/161), and Salmonella Brancaster (37/161) being the predominant serovars.
Conclusion: The most carcass contact and environmental samples collected along the wet market chicken processing line were consistently contaminated with Salmonella. This indicates that Salmonella has established itself in poultry processing environments by colonizing the surfaces of the equipment and survives in these environments by establishing biofilms. Our results highlight the need of implementing strict hygiene and sanitation standards to reduce the incidence of Salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella in poultry can be reduced effectively by identifying and eliminating the sources and contamination sites during slaughter and processing of poultry.
Keywords: prevalence, poultry, Salmonella, wet markets.
Sunday, 5 March 2017
In vitro evaluation of total mixed ration supplemented with exogenous fibrolytic enzymes for crossbred cows
Research (Published online: 05-03-2017)
3. In vitro evaluation of total mixed ration supplemented with exogenous fibrolytic enzymes for crossbred cows - Pravin Mohan Lunagariya, Ram Sharan Gupta and Subhash Parnerkar
Veterinary World, 10(3): 281-285
Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the levels of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) on in vitro digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM), total gas production (TGP), metabolizable energy (ME) content, and microbial biomass production (MBP).
Materials and Methods: The total mixed ration (TMR) was prepared using 30% each of sorghum hay and groundnut straw and 40% compound concentrate mixture to meet nutritional requirement of cow (500 kg) producing 12 kg fat corrected milk. The EFE was incorporated at 0, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, and 400 mg/kg TMR. The TMR substrates with different levels of EFE were in vitro incubated to ascertain their effect on digestibility, gas production, and nutritive values.
Results: The significantly (p<0.05) higher and optimum in vitro digestibilities of DM (63.03%) and OM (63.62%) as well as TGP (72.35 ml/500 mg TMR) were observed at supplementation of 240 mg EFE/kg TMR, while ME (7.16 MJ/kg DM) and MBP (97.63 mg/500 mg TMR) were also better.
Conclusion: The incorporation of EFE at 240 mg/kg TMR resulted significantly (p<0.05) higher and optimum in vitro digestibilities of DM and OM. The TGP, ME, and MBP were also better. The levels of EFE 240 mg/kg TMR were found suitable for further in vivo study in crossbred cows.
Keywords: exogenous fibrolytic enzymes, in vitro digestibility, metabolizable energy, microbial biomass production, total gas production.
Friday, 3 March 2017
Research (Published online: 04-03-2017)
2. Effect of kisspeptin on in vitro maturation of sheep oocytes - Priyanka Byri, Arunakumari Gangineni, K. Ramachandra Reddy and K. B. P. Raghavender
Veterinary World, 10(3): 276-280
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of kisspeptin (KP) on in vitro maturation (IVM) of sheep oocytes aspirated from the ovaries collected from slaughterhouse.
Materials and Methods: Two different experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of KP (5, 10 and 15 μg/ml) alone (experiment 1) or in combination with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and Estradiol (E2) (experiment 2) on IVM of sheep oocytes. Tissue culture medium 199 supplemented with Gentamicin was used as control medium. Good quality oocytes were randomly allocated into different IVM media and cultured at 38.5°C in 5% CO2 under humidified atmosphere for 24 h. The oocytes were evaluated for their cumulus cell expansion (CCE) and extrusion of the 1st polar body (PB) at the end of maturation.
Results: The proportion of oocytes showing CCE and extrusion of PB was highest when the oocytes were matured in the medium supplemented with 10 μg/ml of KP. In experiment 2, oocytes were matured in 12 different maturation media (G1-G12: G1: Control, G2: KP alone, G3: FSH, G4: FSH+KP, G5: LH, G6: LH+KP, G7: E2, G8: E2+KP, G9: FSH+LH+E2, G10: FSH+LH+E2+KP, G11: FSH+LH+E2+fetal bovine serum (FBS), G12: FSH+LH+E2+FBS+KP). The proportion of oocytes showing cumulus expansion and PB extrusion was highest (98.33±1.05 and 89.17±2.38) when they were matured in FSH+LH+E2+FBS+KP (G12) and was significantly higher than other groups. The proportion of CCE and extrusion of PB was significantly increased when KP was supplemented to FSH and E2, but no effect was observed with LH. The maturation rates were significantly increased when FSH, LH, and E2 (G9) containing media were additionally supplemented with KP (G10).
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the addition of KP (10 μg/ml) to the FSH, LH, and E2 supplemented media would enhance the sheep oocyte maturation in vitro.
Keywords: kisspeptin, in vitro maturation, sheep oocytes.
Thursday, 2 March 2017
Research (Published online: 03-03-2017)
1. Effect of food processing on degradation of hexachlorocyclohexane and its isomers in milk - Sujatha Singh and Krishnaiah Nelapati
Veterinary World, 10(3): 270-275
Aim: To study the effect of different food processing techniques on the degradation of organochlorine compounds (α, β, ɣ and δ hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCH)) residues in both natural and fortified samples of milk.
Materials and Methods: Raw milk samples are collected from the local areas of Hyderabad, India. Naturally and fortified milk samples (HCH) were subjected to various food processing techniques, pasteurization (63ºC for ½ h), sterilization (121ºC for 15 min) and boiling for 5 min and analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for multiresidue analysis of pesticides in milk with slight modification.
Results: The final mean residual concentration of pesticide in milk after heat processing and percentage of degradation were calculated with respective treatments.
Conclusion: Heat treatments are highly effective on reduction of mean residual concentration of HCH in milk. In which Sterilization and boiling proved to be more effective in degradation of HCH isomers.
Keywords: gas chromatography-electron capture detector, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, pesticide residues, quick; easy; cheap; effective; rugged and safe method.
Tuesday, 28 February 2017
Evaluation of some heavy metals residues in batteries and deep litter rearing systems in Japanese quail meat and offal in Egypt
Research (Published online: 28-02-2017)
20. Evaluation of some heavy metals residues in batteries and deep litter rearing systems in Japanese quail meat and offal in Egypt - Ali M. Ahmed, Dalia M. Hamed and Nagwa T. Elsharawy
Veterinary World, 10(2): 262-269
Aim: The main objectives of this study were for comparing the effect of batteries and deep litter rearing systems of domesticated Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica, on the concentration levels of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc from the quail meat and offal in Ismailia, Egypt.
Materials and Methods: A total of 40 quail meat and their offal samples were randomly collected from two main quail rearing systems: Battery (Group I) and deep litter system (Group II) for determination of concentration levels of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. In addition, 80 water and feed samples were randomly collected from water and feeders of both systems in the Food Hygiene Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University for heavy metals determination.
Results: The mean concentration levels of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in Group I were 0.010, 0.027, 1.137, and 0.516 ppm and for Group II were 0.093, 0.832, 0.601, and 1.651 ppm, respectively. The mean concentration levels of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in quail feed in Group I were 1.114, 1.606, 5.822, and 35.11 ppm and for Group II were 3.010, 2.576, 5.852, and 23.616 ppm, respectively. The mean concentration levels of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in quail meat for Group I were 0.058, 5.902, 10.244, and 290 ppm and for Group II were 0.086, 6.092, 0.136, and 1.280 ppm, respectively. The mean concentration levels of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc for liver samples in Group I were 0.15, 8.32, 1.05, and 3.41 ppm and for Group II were 0.13, 8.88, 0.95, and 4.21 ppm, respectively. The mean concentration levels of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in kidney samples for the Group I were 0.24, 4.21, 1.96, and 4.03 ppm and for Group II were 0.20, 5.00, 1.56, and 3.78 ppm, respectively. Kidney had the highest concentration levels of heavy metals followed by liver then muscles. The highest concentration levels of copper were observed in liver samples. The order of the levels of these trace elements obtained from the four different quail organs is Ca > Pb > Zn > Cu. Lead and cadmium concentration levels in quail meat samples were exceeded the Egyptian standardization limits and suggesting a health threat from lead and cadmium to the quail consumers.
Conclusion: Battery rearing system is more hygienic than deep litter system from the point of heavy metals pollution of water and feeds of quail. Feed samples from battery system had means concentration levels of lead not significantly higher (p>0.05) than those samples from deep litter system. Meanwhile, water samples from battery system had means concentration levels of cadmium, copper, and zinc significantly higher (p>0.05) than those samples from deep litter system. Quail may carry health risks to consumers.
Keywords: batteries, deep litter, heavy metals, offal, poultry meat.