Tuesday, 25 April 2017

Spatial pattern of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in North Central Nigeria

Research (Published online: 26-04-2017)
13. Spatial pattern of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in North Central Nigeria
Yiltawe Simwal Wungak, Olayinka O. Ishola, Babasola O. Olugasa, David D. Lazarus, David O. Ehizibolo and Hussaini G. Ularamu
Veterinary World, 10(4): 450-456
ABSTRACT
Aim: This study aimed to determine the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating, the prevalence of FMDV serotypes, and the spatial distribution of FMDV among sedentary and pastoral cattle herds in the North-Central Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken, during which a total of 155 sera that tested positive for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) 3ABC non-structural protein antibodies were selected and screened for FMD structural protein serotypes, A, O, SAT 1, and SAT 2 using a solid-phase competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Epithelial tissue specimens were collected during outbreak investigations which were tested for FMD using an antigen capture ELISA for serotype A, O, SAT 1, and SAT 2.
Results: An overall serotype-specific prevalence of 79.35 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 72.4-85.18) was recorded for serotype O, 65.2% (95% CI: 57.41-72.3) for serotype A, 52.9% (95% CI: 45.03-60.67) for SAT-2, and 33.55% (95% CI: 26.45-41.26) for SAT-1. Evidence of exposure to multiple FMDV serotypes showed that 12.26% of the sera samples had antibodies against four serotypes circulating, 30.97% had antibodies against three serotypes circulating, 22.58% had antibodies against two serotypes, and 17% showed exposure to only one serotype. Clinical specimens (epithelial tissue) collected during outbreak investigations showed that serotype O has the highest proportion of 50% with serotype A - 25%; SAT 2 - 20.8%; and SAT 1 - 4.1%.
Conclusion: The study detected diffuse and co-circulation of serotypes A, O, SAT1, and SAT2 within the study area, and hence the need for the appropriately matched multivalent vaccine is strongly advocated for FMD control in Nigeria.
Keywords: antibodies, endemic, foot-and-mouth disease, multiple, Nigeria, serotypes, spatial.

Monday, 24 April 2017

The importance of timely introduction of vancomycin therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia and severity of MRSA bacteremia at Teaching Hospital, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka

Research (Published online: 25-04-2017)
2The importance of timely introduction of vancomycin therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia and severity of MRSA bacteremia at Teaching Hospital, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka -Jayaweera Arachchige Asela Sampath Jayaweera, Malika Karunarathne and Wikum Widuranga Kumbukgolla
International Journal of One Health, 3: 7-11



  doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2017.7-11


Abstract

Aim: Worldwide, an estimated 2 billion healthy people carry Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and of these, up to 53 million are thought to carry methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA)MRSA bacteremia patients are more critical to manage and timely introduction of antibiotics is life-saving. The aim of the study was to elucidate the prevalence of MRSA bacteremia in different units of Teaching Hospital, Anuradhapura (THA), Sri Lanka and assess the clinical characteristics and associated mortality related to timely introduction of vancomycin therapy.
Materials and Methods: The data on MRSA bacteremia which were obtained from THA, for the period of March 2012 to December 2013 were statically analyzed emphasizing the unit-wise prevalence, severity, and comorbidity and timely introduction of vancomycin therapy.
Results: The laboratory records of total 13,260 blood cultures were analyzed. Of those, MRSA bacteremia was detected in 61 cultures (9.3%). The highest prevalence of MRSA bacteremia was observed in the nephrology unit. The survival rate of the patients when the vancomycin therapy started before 24 h of receiving the blood culture report was 94.9% and in the instances of the treatment started after 24 h of blood culture report, the survival rate decreased down to 50%. High Pitt Bacteraemia score (PBS) (p<0.05) and initiation of vancomycin therapy after 24 h following the receipt of blood culture report (p<0.05) independently affected the MRSA bacteremic patient’s 7th day mortality. Having comorbidities have not shown significant impact on 7th day mortality.
Conclusion: The start of vancomycin therapy as earlier as possible following arrival of antibacterial susceptibility test reduces the likelihood of mortality.
Keywords: MRSA bacteremia, timing of vancomycin, severity.

Saturday, 22 April 2017

Molecular detection of Taenia spp. in dogs' feces in Zanjan Province, Northwest of Iran

Research (Published online: 23-04-2017)
12. Molecular detection of Taenia spp. in dogs' feces in Zanjan Province, Northwest of Iran
Mohammad Hasan Kohansal, Abbasali Nourian, Ali Haniloo and Asghar Fazaeli
Veterinary World, 10(4): 445-449
ABSTRACT
Aim: Echinococcus and Taenia spp. are important but neglected zoonotic helminths of dogs. Dogs as the most relevant definitive hosts harbor several species of Taenia and Echinococcus simultaneously in their gastrointestinal lumen which are morphologically indistinguishable. In this study, we used a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to identify Taeniid infections which seem to be highly distributed in the study region.
Materials and Methods: A total of 450 dog fecal samples were collected from eight different areas of Zanjan province, northwest of Iran, and examined using a flotation method followed by multiplex PCR for detection and identification of parasites' eggs.
Results: Gastrointestinal parasites were found in 86 out of 450 fecal samples (19.1%) by microscopic examination. Taeniid eggs were observed in 5.6% of samples, containing 0.45%, 3.8%, and 1.3% Echinococcus granulosusTaenia spp., and mix infection of both E. granulosus and Taenia spp., respectively. Echinococcus multilocularis was absent in the samples.
Conclusion: A relatively low rate of E. granulosus (1.8%) was observed in this study. However, risks of this parasite should not be overlooked, and control programs need to be extended for this species and other Taeniid spp. In particular, dogs are recommended to be dewormed more frequently.
Keywords: dog, Echinococcus spp., eggs, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, Taenia spp.

Friday, 21 April 2017

Pathotypic characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolated from vaccinated chicken in West Java, Indonesia

Research (Published online: 22-04-2017)
11. Pathotypic characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolated from vaccinated chicken in West Java, Indonesia
Dwi Desmiyeni Putri, Ekowati Handharyani, Retno Damajanti Soejoedono, Agus Setiyono, Ni Luh Putu Ika Mayasari and Okti Nadia Poetri
Veterinary World, 10(4): 438-444
ABSTRACT
Aim: This research was conducted to differentiate and characterize eight Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates collected from vaccinated chicken at commercial flocks in West Java, Indonesia, in 2011, 2014 and 2015 by pathotype specific primers.
Materials and Methods: A total of eight NDV isolates collected from clinical outbreaks among commercial vaccinated flocks in West Java, Indonesia, in 2011, 2014, and 2015 were used in this study. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect and differentiate virulence of NDV strains, using three sets of primers targeting their M and F gene. First primers were universal primers to detect NDV targeting matrix (M) gene. Other two sets of primers were specific for the fusion (F) gene cleavage site sequence of virulent and avirulent NDV strains.
Results: Our results showed that three isolates belong to NDV virulent strains, and other five isolates belong to NDV avirulent strains. The nucleotide sequence of the F protein cleavage site showed 112K/R-R-Q/R-K-R/G-F117 on NDV virulent strains and 112G-K/R-Q-G-R-L117 on NDV avirulent strain.
Conclusion: Result from the current study suggested that NDV virulent strain were circulating among vaccinated chickens in West Java, Indonesia; this might possess a risk of causing ND outbreaks and causing economic losses within the poultry industry.
Keywords: F gene, M gene, molecular pathotyping, Newcastle disease virus, vaccinated chickens, virulence.

Thursday, 20 April 2017

Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

Review (Published online: 21-04-2017)
10. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review
Yasir Afzal Beigh, Abdul Majeed Ganai and Haidar Ali Ahmad
Veterinary World, 10(4): 424-437
ABSTRACT
Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.
Keywords: benefits, complete feed, concept, feeding, ruminants.

Wednesday, 19 April 2017

A reducing trend of fasciolosis in slaughtered animals based on abattoir data in South of Iran

Research (Published online: 20-04-2017)
9. A reducing trend of fasciolosis in slaughtered animals based on abattoir data in South of Iran
Manoochehr Shabani Kordshooli, Kavous Solhjoo, Belal Armand, Hamidreza Dowlatkhah and Masoud Esmi Jahromi
Veterinary World, 10(4): 418-423
ABSTRACT
Aim: Fascioliasis is a zoonosis infection caused by the liver trematodes (Fasciola spp.) which have been considered to be an important disease in livestock. After several large outbreaks, fascioliasis remains one of the serious health concerns of Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and possible trends of fascioliasis in slaughtered animals in South of Iran based on abattoir data during a period of 5 years.
Materials and Methods: The daily records for cattle, sheep, and goats slaughtered in the abattoir were extracted from the archived documents of the recent 5 years (2011-2015) and used as the source of data. The collected data were statistically analyzed for finding any probable correlation between the various factors associated with fasciolosis.
Results: Our results showed that 3.44% of all slaughtered animals during 2011-2015 were infected with Fasciola spp. The mean prevalence of fasciolosis for cattle, sheep, and goat was 11.15%, 5.22%, and 2.15%, respectively. In addition, the highest infection rate was in winter (4.02%), and the lowest were entered in summer (2.86%).
Conclusion: Our findings showed a reducing trend during the 5 years. Improving the animal husbandry and increasing the awareness through fasciolosis may be a logical explanation for this trend. Since there have been suggested numerous factors associated with the epidemiology of fasciolosis, further studies seem essential for better clarifying the various aspects of fasciolosis in areas.
Keywords: fasciolosis, livestock, prevalence, south of Iran, trend.

Prevalence of echinococcosis and Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered small ruminants at the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Ngorongoro, Tanzania

Research (Published online: 19-04-2017)
8. Prevalence of echinococcosis and Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered small ruminants at the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Ngorongoro, Tanzania
M. B. Miran, A. A. Kasuku and E. S. Swai
Veterinary World, 10(4): 411-417
ABSTRACT
Aim: Echinococcosis or hydatidosis (due to the larval stage of Echinococcus spp.) and cysticercosis (due to the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena) pose a significant economic losses due to slaughter condemnation and risk to public health in developing countries such as Tanzania where sanitation is poor and people live in close proximity with each other and with animals. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of and to identify the predisposing factors for echinococcosis and cysticercosis in sheep and goats at three slaughter slabs located in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Ngorongoro, Tanzania.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional based survey was conducted, from January 2013 to April 2013, whereby a total of 180 animals comprising 90 goats and 90 sheep of both sexes were examined at postmortem for the evidence of larval stages of Echinococcus spp. (hydatid cyst) and T. hydatigena (Cysticercus tenuicollis) through visual inspection, incision and palpation of organs and viscera.
Results: The prevalence of echinococcosis was 22.2% and 16.6%, in goats and sheep, respectively, while the overall infection rates for cysticercosis were 61.1% in goats and 42.2% in sheep. The result of this study revealed that goats and sheep in Malambo slaughter slab had significantly higher prevalence of T. hydatigena (C. tenuicollis) and hydatid cysts (p<0.05) compared to other slab points. T. hydatigena (C. tenuicollis) cysts were more frequently detected in the omentum than other visceral organs among the animals examined.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the observed high prevalence of the two metacestodes larval stages leads to high condemnation rates of edible offals and raises significant public health concerns. This underscores for the need to undertake more extensive epidemiological investigations to better determine the causal factors, economic impact, and public health importance of the disease in this livestock-wildlife interface setting.
Keywords: cysticercosis, echinococcosis, small ruminants, Tanzania, wildlife interface.

Tuesday, 18 April 2017

The effects of quercetin on microRNA and inflammatory gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated bovine neutrophils

Research (Published online: 18-04-2017)
7. The effects of quercetin on microRNA and inflammatory gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated bovine neutrophils
Phongsakorn Chuammitri, Suphakit Srikok, Duanghathai Saipinta and Sukolrat Boonyayatra
Veterinary World, 10(4): 403-410

ABSTRACT
Aim: To investigate gene expression of microRNA (miRNA) milieus (MIRLET7E, MIR17, MIR24-2, MIR146A, and MIR181C), inflammatory cytokine genes (interleukin 1β [IL1B], IL6, CXCL8, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]), and the pathogen receptor toll-like receptor (TLR4) in bovine neutrophils under quercetin supplementation.
Materials and Methods: Isolated bovine neutrophils were incubated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide under quercetin treatment or left untreated. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the expression of the miRNAs and messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts in neutrophils.
Results: Quercetin-treated neutrophils exhibited a remarkable suppression in MIR24-2, MIR146A, and MIR181C expression. Similarly, mRNA expression of IL1B, IL6, CXCL8, TLR4, and TNF genes noticeably declined in the quercetin group. Many proinflammatory genes (IL1B, IL6, and CXCL8) and the pathogen receptor TLR4 had a negative correlation with MIR146A and MIR181C as revealed by Pearson correlation.
Conclusion: Interaction between cognate mRNAs and miRNAs under quercetin supplementation can be summarized as a positive or negative correlation. This finding may help understand the effects of quercetin either on miRNA or gene expression during inflammation, especially as a potentially applicable indicator in bovine mastitis.
Keywords: bovine neutrophil, gene expression, microRNA, quercetin.

Monday, 17 April 2017

Cross-sectional study on bovine mastitis and its associated risk factors in Ambo district of West Shewa zone, Oromia, Ethiopia

Research (Published online: 17-04-2017)
6. Cross-sectional study on bovine mastitis and its associated risk factors in Ambo district of West Shewa zone, Oromia, Ethiopia
Edilu J. Sarba and Getachew K. Tola
Veterinary World, 10(4): 398-402
ABSTRACT
Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of mastitis in dairy cows.
Materials and Methods: A total of 302 dairy cows were selected from all volunteer dairy farms in Ambo district of West Shewa Zone, Oromia region. Thorough clinical examination was made on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis followed by collection of milk sample for examination of gross changes of milk secretion and California mastitis test.
Results: About 126 (41.7%) cows had mastitis, of which 9.9% (30/302) were clinical and 31.8% (96/302) were subclinical mastitis cases. The quarter level prevalence was 44.4% (536/1208), comprising 9.3% (112/1208), clinical and 32.8% (396/1208) subclinical forms of mastitis. In addition, 5.5% (66/1208) of teats were found to be blind on the clinical examination of udder and teat. The Chi-square analysis of intrinsic risk factors revealed significantly (p<0.05) higher prevalence of mastitis in crossbred cattle (47.2%) than indigenous (15.4%), in cattle above 7 years (75%) than less than 2-6 years of age (28%) and cows given more than 4 calves (81.3%) than those with less than 4 calves (31.1%) irrespective to their lactation stage. There was also significantly (p<0.05) higher mastitis prevalence in larger (46.6%) than smaller herds (24.2%) and among the farming systems in semi-intensive (47.1%) and intensive (42.3%) than extensive (8.1%) management system.
Conclusion: This study indicated a higher prevalence of mastitis linked with several risk factors. Thus, early diagnosis and regular screening of cows for subclinical mastitis together with proper therapeutic management of clinical cases are of paramount importance. Moreover, control and prevention strategies should be designed and implemented with great emphasis given to risk factors to reduce bovine mastitis and its impact on milk production and food security.
Keywords: Ambo district, California mastitis test, dairy cows, mastitis, prevalence, risk factors.

Monday, 10 April 2017

Isolation and identification of fungi associated with spoilt fruits vended in Gwagwalada market, Abuja, Nigeria

Research (Published online: 10-04-2017)
5. Isolation and identification of fungi associated with spoilt fruits vended in Gwagwalada market, Abuja, Nigeria
Samuel Mailafia, God'spower Richard Okoh, Hamza Olatunde K. Olabode and Ramatu Osanupin
Veterinary World, 10(4): 393-397
ABSTRACT
Aim: Annual reports have shown that 20% of fruits and vegetables produced are lost to spoilage. This study was undertaken to isolate and identify fungi that are associated with spoilt fruits commonly sold in Gwagwalada market, Abuja, and recommend appropriate control measure.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Gwagwalada metropolis, Gwagwalada Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. A total of 100 spoilt fruits which include pawpaw (Carica papaya), orange (Citrus sinensis), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), pineapple (Ananas comosus), and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) were purchased and examined for the presence of fungal organisms using standard methods. The data collected were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics (frequency and mean) and analysis of variance (p<0.05).
Results: Aspergillus niger had the highest occurrence in pineapple, watermelon, oranges, pawpaw, and tomatoes with a frequency of 38%. Fusarium avenaceum followed with the frequency of occurrence of 31% in fruits such as pineapple, watermelon, oranges, pawpaw, and tomatoes while Penicillium digitatum and Rhizopus stolonifer had the least frequency of 4% each in tomato; and orange and tomato, respectively. Other fungal species were identified as yeast (Saccharomyces species) (10%), Fusarium solani (8%), and Aspergillus flavus (5%). The highest prevalence rate was 70% of A. niger from orange followed by F. avenaceum of which 65% isolates were recovered from pawpaw. Other fungal organisms such as yeast (Saccharomyces species), P. digitatum and R. stolonifer were isolated with varying prevalence (40%, 20%, and 5%) from watermelon, tomato, and orange, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in the fungal load of the various fruits studied (analysis of variance=478.2857, p<0.05, F=4.680067 and df=34).
Conclusion: The pathogenic fungi species associated with fruits spoilage in this study are of economical and public health significance. A. niger causes black mold in certain fruits and vegetables. Some strains of A. niger have been reported to produce potent mycotoxins called ochratoxins that can be harmful to human beings and animals. Care should be taken during handling of these fruits and improved technology based preservation methods are suggested to enhance the keeping quality of fruits.
Keywords: frequency of occurrence, fruits, fungi, pathogenic, prevalence.

Friday, 7 April 2017

Toxoplasma gondii Type I, predominant genotype isolated from sheep in South of Iran

Research (Published online: 07-04-2017)
4. Toxoplasma gondii Type I, predominant genotype isolated from sheep in South of Iran
Belal Armand, Kavous Solhjoo, Manoochehr Shabani Kordshooli, Mohammad Hasan Davami, Morteza Pourahmad and Vahideh Orfaee
Veterinary World, 10(4): 386-392
ABSTRACT
Aim: This study was performed to determine the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep using nested-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in Southern Iran.
Materials and Methods: The tissue samples of diaphragm and heart from 125 sheep were collected from the main slaughterhouses of Jahrom district in South of Fars province, Iran, between Aprils and June 2013. The DNA were extracted and analyzed by nested-PCR using specific primers for SAG2 and GRA6 loci. RFLP was used to classify strains into one of the three major lineages of T. gondii.
Results: T. gondii Type I was predominant in this area. The data obtained from both loci demonstrated that the frequency of each genotype was 72% Type I, 2.4% Type III, 7.2% mixed Type I and II, 16.8% mixed Type I and III, 0.8% mixed Type II and III, and 0.8% mixed Type I, II and III.
Conclusion: Although the previously published data indicated that Type II is the predominant T. gondii genotype in sheep in the other parts of the world, this study showed that genotype I is the dominant genotype of T. gondii in the southern Iran; however, other genotypes were detected. High diversity of T. gondii genotypes including mix genotypes in lambs is of importance for the public health. These studies depict a new mapping of T. gondii genotypes pattern which could be very helpful in toxoplasmosis control and prevention.
Keywords: genotyping, GRA6 gene, Iran, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, SAG2 gene, sheep, Toxoplasma gondii.

Wednesday, 5 April 2017

Effect of dietary supplementation of fermented fish silage on serum biochemical parameters of broiler Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

Research (Published online: 06-04-2017)
3. Effect of dietary supplementation of fermented fish silage on serum biochemical parameters of broiler Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)
Sasmita Panda, Laxman Kumar Babu, Arun Kumar Panda, Tanuja S., Anurag Mohanty, Kuldeep Kumar Panigrahy and Pinaki Samal
Veterinary World, 10(4): 380-385
ABSTRACT
Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding fermented fish silage (FFS) on serum biochemical parameters of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica).
Materials and Methods: A total of 192, 7-day-old broiler Japanese quail chicks of either sex, were randomly distributed into four dietary treatments with four replicates in each group having 12 chicks in each replicate pen. The dietary treatments were T1 - Control diet, T2 - Diet containing 5% FFS, T3 - Diet containing 10% FFS, and T4 - Diet containing 15% FFS. Group body weight and feed consumption were recorded at weekly intervals. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was derived by dividing the feed consumed with the weekly body weight gain. At the end of the experiment, 8 birds from each treatment were selected randomly and sacrificed by cervical dislocation to study the carcass traits expressed as % pre-slaughter live weight. At 5 weeks of age, about 2 ml of blood was taken from the jugular vein of each selected bird, and serum samples were separated after centrifugation. Total protein, albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio, calcium, phosphorus, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were estimated in the serum.
Results: The cumulative body weight gains from 1 to 5 weeks of age did not vary significantly between control and 5% FFS group. However, a linear decrease in body weight gain was observed by increasing the levels of FFS beyond 5% in the diet. The cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in case of birds under control group during 1-5 weeks of age as compared to birds fed FFS based diet (5%, 10%, and 15%). No statistical difference in cumulative feed conversion ratio could be noticed during 1-5 weeks of age. The eviscerated yield decreased and giblet weight increased due to the dietary supplementation of FFS at 15% level. The breast meat yield decreased due to dietary supplementation of FFS at 10% and 15% level in the diet of broiler Japanese quails. The effect of FFS was found to be nonsignificant (p>0.05) with respect to serum total protein, globulin and A/G ratio under different treatments whereas significant difference observed in serum albumin concentration. Dietary supplementation of FFS at 10% and 15% level significantly increased the AST concentration in serum. There was no significant difference among the treatments regarding the parameters such as ALT, calcium, phosphorous, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, VLDL-C, and LDL-C.
Conclusion: The serum-biochemical parameters are influenced by the dietary supplementation of FFS in broiler Japanese quails.
Keywords: fermented fish silage, Japanese quail, proximate composition, serum biochemical parameters.

Tuesday, 4 April 2017

Study on postpartum estrus of guinea pigs (Cavia cobaya) using Anredera cordifolia leaf extract

Research (Published online: 04-04-2017)
2. Study on postpartum estrus of guinea pigs (Cavia cobaya) using Anredera cordifolia leaf extract
D. Wijayanti, E. T. Setiatin and E. Kurnianto
Veterinary World, 10(4): 375-379
ABSTRACT
Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the postpartum estrus cycle of guinea pigs (Cavia cobaya) using Anredera cordifolia leaf extract.
Materials and Methods: Materials used were 8 males and 8 females of C. cobaya with body weight ranged 400-450 g. Mating ratio applied was 1:1. Treatments given were 0, 10, 50 and 90 mg of A. cordifolia leaf extract/head, designated as T0, T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Two females were subjected for each treatment. A. cordifolia leaf extract was administered orally from 10 days prepartum to 10 days postpartum. Observation of mating behavior, vulva morphology, and vaginal smear preparation was done in the afternoon for 10 days subsequence postpartum. Data were analyzed by univariate method and descriptively.
Results: The results showed that the addition of A. cordifolia leaf extract 50 mg orally could accelerate the time of postpartum estrus based on the average frequency of mating behavior consisting of behavioral approach, allow the buck to sniffing her, mating positions, standing heat, lordosis position, and copulation. During estrus, vulva morphology was red color, had much mucus and no thin membrane covering vagina. There were a lot of superficial cells on vagina.
Conclusion: The best treatment to accelerate occurring postpartum estrus was the addition of A. cordifolia leaf extract as many as 50 mg/head weight (T2) orally.
Keywords: Anredera cordifolia, Cavia cobaya, estrus cycle, postpartum.

Monday, 3 April 2017

Evaluation of different agroindustrial waste on the effect of different carcass characteristics and physiological and biochemical parameters in broilers chicken

Research (Published online: 03-04-2017)
1. Evaluation of different agroindustrial waste on the effect of different carcass characteristics and physiological and biochemical parameters in broilers chicken
Y. Sanchez-Roque, Y. D. C. Perez-Luna, E. Perez-Luna, R. Berrones Hernandez and S. Saldana-Trinidad
Veterinary World, 10(4): 368-374
ABSTRACT
Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the physiological and biochemical effect in chickens of the Ross breed of a food enriched with agroindustrial waste.
Materials and Methods: The food is one of the main components of the total cost for the production of chickens. Rations should be formulated to provide the correct balance of energy, protein, amino acids, minerals, vitamins and essential fatty acids, to allow optimal growth and performance. This study was intended to evaluate a natural feed for chicken, made from corn, yucca meal, eggshells, orange peel, soybean meal, salt and garlic, enriched with agroindustrial waste (molasses, milk whey and ferment of coffee). The weight gain was evaluated in broilers using a diet enriched with different agroindustrial wastes, with respect to a control food of the same composition but not containing residue. To develop the experiment 120 male Ross 308 chicks were used, these were evaluated for 6 weeks. Physicochemical test for the food and the agroindustrial waste were performed; moisture was determined; organic carbon, organic material and the ash, to characterize the agroindustrial wastes, the reducing sugars content using a spectrophotometer at 540 nm and proteins through the Kjeldahl method was evaluated. During the experiment, the weight gain of chickens and feed conversion was evaluated; the end of the experiment the weight of eviscerated channel relative weight breast, thighs, pancreas, and abdominal fat was determined, besides including blood chemistries as determination of cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose. Finally, the microbiological analyzes to detect the presence of Escherichia coli in the cecum was determinate. Data were analyzed by InfoStat statistical program using the generalized linear model procedure. The statistical comparison was made by Tukey test at the 95% probability level.
Results: After the evaluation, fed chickens with the treatments food + milk whey (FMW) and food + ferment of coffee (FFC) demonstrated increased from 1949 to 1892 g, respectively, to the 42 days of evaluation, showing the best treatment for weight gain. However, the FFC treatment showed the best feed conversion reaching values of 1.79 related to levels of blood glucose (249 mg/dl). Even so the eviscerated channel yields were higher for the treatment FFC reaching 1810.1 g unlike the treatment FMW which it reached a weight of 1718.2 g with increased formation of abdominal fat (7.4 g) unlike other treatments. From the results, it is concluded that food enriched with coffee ferment allows an increase in weight, better feed conversion in addition to high production of lean meat.
Conclusion: It was shown that the best treatment was the food enriched with the ferment of coffee, due to increased intake and weight gain at the end of 42 days of the experiment.
Keywords: agroindustrial waste, broiler chickens, feed conversion ratio, parameters.

Wednesday, 29 March 2017

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis

Research (Published online: 30-03-2017)
16. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis
S. Hamid, Mohd Altaf Bhat, Irfan Ahmad Mir, Anil Taku, Gulzar Ahmad Badroo, Salik Nazki and Andleeb Malik
Veterinary World, 10(3): 363-367
ABSTRACT
Aim: This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of methicillin-sensitive and Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) methicillin-resistant S. aureus(MRSA) from bovine mastitis and to characterize them with respect to antibiotic resistance gene mecA.
Materials and Methods: A total of 160 mastitic milk samples were screened for the presence of S. aureus. The presumptive positive isolates were confirmed using nuc and 23S rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction. All the confirmed isolates were subjected to in vitro antibiogram using a number of antibiotics. Isolates which showed resistance against methicillin were characterized for the presence of mecA gene.
Results: Out of the total 160 milk samples, 36 (22.5%) samples yielded S. aureus. The in vitro antibiogram revealed that 16.6% S. aureus isolates were resistant to all antibiotics screened for and 5.5% isolates were sensitive to all of them. Furthermore, the study found 94.4%, 83.3%, 77.7%, 66.6%, 50%, and 27.7% of S. aureus isolates resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-sulbactam, enrofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and methicillin, respectively. Out of the 36 S. aureus isolates, only 6 (16.6%) isolates were confirmed as MRSA while rest were MSSA.
Conclusion: The higher occurrence of S. aureus-mediated mastitis was concluded due to improper hygienic and poor farm management. The multiple drug resistance reveals the indiscriminate use of drugs and presence of methicillin resistance gene determinant is an alarming situation as such infections are difficult to treat.
Keywords: bovine, mastitis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, mecA, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus.

Monday, 27 March 2017

Association of claw disorders with subclinical intramammary infections in Egyptian dairy cows

Research (Published online: 28-03-2017)
15. Association of claw disorders with subclinical intramammary infections in Egyptian dairy cows
Walid Refaai, Medhat Gad and Yasser Mahmmod
Veterinary World, 10(3): 358-362
ABSTRACT
Aim: Bovine mastitis and lameness are the most common production diseases affecting dairy farms worldwide resulting in huge economic impact and impaired animal welfare. The objective of this field study was to investigate the association of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders with the occurrence of subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs) diagnosed by California mastitis test (CMT) in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions.
Materials and Methods: A total of 43 dairy cows were included in this field study. Subclinical IMI was diagnosed by CMT on all lactating quarters of cows. A cow was considered to have subclinical IMI if it had at least one subclinically infected quarter (=3). Cows were inspected carefully for claw disorders that recorded based on type and site. Locomotion and body condition scores were also recorded for each cow in addition to the limb affected. The association between the CMT and other explanatory variables was tested by Fisher's exact test.
Results: The prevalence of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders was 81.4% (35/43) and 32.6% (14/43), respectively. Digital dermatitis (DD) and heel horn erosion were the most prevalent infectious type with 79% (34/43) and 58% (25/43), respectively, while wall fissure was the most identified non-infectious one 11.6% (5/43). The prevalence of claw disorders in hind limbs was 88.4% (38/43) and 11.6% (5/43) in the forelimbs. Infectious claw disorders were significantly associated with the subclinical IMI diagnosed by CMT (p<0.05). Non-infectious claw affections, locomotion score, body condition score, and the affected limb had no association with the occurrence of subclinical IMI.
Conclusion: DD is the highest prevalent claw disorder observed in dairy cows in Egypt. The hind limbs are more susceptible to claw disorders than the forelimbs. Infectious type of claw disorders is significantly associated with subclinical IMI diagnosed by CMT in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions indicating that the infectious types of claw affections may influence the udder health.
Keywords: claw affections, dairy cows, digital dermatitis, subclinical mastitis.

Sunday, 26 March 2017

Mycotoxin binders potential on histological of ovary mice exposed by zearalenone

Research (Published online: 27-03-2017)
14. Mycotoxin binders potential on histological of ovary mice exposed by zearalenone
Abdul Samik and Erma Safitri
Veterinary World, 10(3): 353-357
ABSTRACT
Aim: This study was conducted to examine the potential of mycotoxin binder in ceasing zearalenone (ZEN) effect on mice reproduction. ZEN mycotoxin can induce reactive oxygen species that may cause damage and cell death. ZEN is estrogenic so that it may affect the reproductive organs failure.
Materials and Methods: Mycotoxin binder administration to female mice exposed to ZEN was aimed to count the number of primary follicles, secondary follicles, tertiary follicles, de Graaf's follicles, and the corpus luteum (CL). Negative control group (C) was not exposed to ZEN and without the administration of mycotoxin binders, while positive control group (C+) was exposed to 0.1 mg/mouse/day ZEN and without the provision of mycotoxin binders. Treatment groups (T1, T2, T3) were exposed to 0.1 mg/mouse/day ZEN and mycotoxin binders 0.5; 1; 2 mg/BW/day.
Results: ZEN and mycotoxin binders administration was conducted for 10 days. The number of primary follicles, secondary, tertiary, de Graaf's follicles and CL in negative control (C-) was 14.2±1.36, 11.2±0.28, 6.5±0.53, 7.5±0.74, and 2.3±0.35. The number in positive control (C+) group was as follows 7.1±0.12, 3.7±1.17, 3.8±1.21, 1.5±0.62, and 2.3±0.34. Results in treatment 1 (T1) were as follows 6.2±0.16, 5.2±0.16, 3.6±0.16, 2.6±0.19, and 2.6±0.10; in treatment 2 (T2) 7.8±0.28, 5.8±0.53, 3.7±0.26, 2.7±0.26, and 2.5±0.10; and in treatment 3 (T3) 8.4±0.34, 8.4±0.34, 4.6±0.34, 4.5±1.01, and 3.4±0.23.
Conclusion: The number of follicles and CL more in line with increasing doses of mycotoxin binders. Required more than 2 mg/mouse/day mycotoxin binders to inhibit the effects of ZEN so that its can maintain the number of primary follicle, secondary follicle, tertiary follicle, the de Graaf's follicle, and the number of CL in the ovary of ZEN-exposed female mice (Mus musculus).
Keywords: corpus luteum, follicles, mycotoxin binders, zearalenone.

Wednesday, 22 March 2017

Genetic characterization of the non-structural protein-3 gene of bluetongue virus serotype-2 isolate from India

Research (Published online: 23-03-2017)
13. Genetic characterization of the non-structural protein-3 gene of bluetongue virus serotype-2 isolate from India
Raghavendra Sumanth Pudupakam, Shobana Raghunath, Meghanath Pudupakam and Sreenivasulu Daggupati
Veterinary World, 10(3): 348-352
ABSTRACT
Aim: Sequence analysis and phylogenetic studies based on non-structural protein-3 (NS3) gene are important in understanding the evolution and epidemiology of bluetongue virus (BTV). This study was aimed at characterizing the NS3 gene sequence of Indian BTV serotype-2 (BTV2) to elucidate its genetic relationship to global BTV isolates.
Materials and Methods: The NS3 gene of BTV2 was amplified from infected BHK-21 cell cultures, cloned and subjected to sequence analysis. The generated NS3 gene sequence was compared with the corresponding sequences of different BTV serotypes across the world, and a phylogenetic relationship was established.
Results: The NS3 gene of BTV2 showed moderate levels of variability in comparison to different BTV serotypes, with nucleotide sequence identities ranging from 81% to 98%. The region showed high sequence homology of 93-99% at amino acid level with various BTV serotypes. The PPXY/PTAP late domain motifs, glycosylation sites, hydrophobic domains, and the amino acid residues critical for virus-host interactions were conserved in NS3 protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BTV isolates segregate into four topotypes and that the Indian BTV2 in subclade IA is closely related to Asian and Australian origin strains.
Conclusion: Analysis of the NS3 gene indicated that Indian BTV2 isolate is closely related to strains from Asia and Australia, suggesting a common origin of infection. Although the pattern of evolution of BTV2 isolate is different from other global isolates, the deduced amino acid sequence of NS3 protein demonstrated high molecular stability.
Keywords: bluetongue virus, non-structural protein-3 gene, phylogenetic analysis.

Association between udder morphology and in vitro activity of milk leukocytes in high yielding crossbred cows

Research (Published online: 22-03-2017)
12. Association between udder morphology and in vitro activity of milk leukocytes in high yielding crossbred cows
Tripti Sharma (Buragohain), Pradip Kumar Das, Prabal Ranjan Ghosh, Dipak Banerjee and Joydip Mukherjee
Veterinary World, 10(3): 342-347
ABSTRACT

Aim: The present investigation was conducted to study the association between udder morphology and in vitro activity of milk leukocytes in high yielding crossbred cows.
Materials and Methods: A total of 48 healthy high yielding crossbred cows were selected for the study. The udder configuration and teat/udder morphology were recorded before milking. Milk samples (100 ml/cow) were collected aseptically. Milk somatic cell counts (SCC) and milk differential leukocyte counts were performed microscopically. Milk leukocytes (viz., neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages) were isolated from milk samples by density gradient centrifugation. Phagocytic index (PI) of milk neutrophils and macrophages were evaluated by colorimetric nitro blue tetrazolium assay. Lymphocytes proliferation response was estimated by MTT assay and expressed as stimulation index.
Results: There was a significant (p<0.01) positive correlation between milk SCC with mid teat diameter, teat base diameter and significant (p<0.05) negative correlation between milk SCC and the height of the teat from the ground. Milk SCC was found to be significantly (p<0.01) lower in bowl-shaped udder and higher (p<0.01) in pendulous type. Milk macrophage percentage was positively (p<0.01) correlated with udder circumference. PI of milk neutrophil was negatively (p<0.01) correlation between teat base diameter, and PI of milk macrophages was found to be positively (p<0.01) correlated with teat apex diameter. Both PI of milk neutrophils and macrophages was found to be significantly (p<0.01) lower in the animals having flat and round teat and pendulous type of udder. In vitro PI of milk neutrophils was found to be significantly (p<0.01) lower in flat teat. In vitro PI of milk macrophages was found to be significantly (p<0.01) lower in the round and flat teats compared to pointed and cylindrical teats.
Conclusion: Udder risk factors such as teat shape and size, teat to floor distance, udder shape, and size may decrease the in vitro activity of milk leukocytes hence facilitates the incidence intramammary infections.
Keywords: cows, leukocytes, milk, morphology, teat, udder.