Thursday, 19 October 2017

Factors influencing growth hormone levels of Bali cattle in Bali, Nusa Penida, and Sumbawa Islands, Indonesia

Research (Published online: 19-10-2017)
14. Factors influencing growth hormone levels of Bali cattle in Bali, Nusa Penida, and Sumbawa Islands, Indonesia
N. K. Suwiti, I N. K. Besung and G. N. Mahardika
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1250-1254
ABSTRACT
Aim: Bali cattle (Bos javanicus) are an Indonesian's native cattle breed that distributed in Asia to Australia. The scientific literature on these cattle is scarce. The growth hormone (GH) of Bali cattle is investigated from three separated islands, namely, Bali, Nusa Penida, and Sumbawa.
Materials and Methods: Forty plasma samples were collected from each island, and the GH was measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The data were analyzed based on the origin, sex, and cattle raising practices.
Results: We found that the GH level (bovine GH [BGH]) of animal kept in stall 1.72±0.70 μg/ml was higher than free-grazing animal 1.27±0.81 μg/ml. The GH level was lower in female (1.22±0.62 μg/ml) compared to male animals (1.77±0.83 μg/ml).
Conclusion: We conclude that the level of BGH in Bali cattle was low and statistically equal from all origins. The different level was related to sex and management practices. Further validation is needed through observing the growth rate following BGH administration and discovering the inbreeding coefficient of the animal in Indonesia.
Keywords: Bali cattle, growth hormone, Indonesia.

Tuesday, 17 October 2017

Epidemiology of bovine fascioliasis in the Nile Delta region of Egypt: Its prevalence, evaluation of risk factors, and its economic significance

Research (Published online: 18-10-2017)
13. Epidemiology of bovine fascioliasis in the Nile Delta region of Egypt: Its prevalence, evaluation of risk factors, and its economic significance
Abdelgawad S. El-Tahawy, Eman K. Bazh and Reda E. Khalafalla
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1241-1249
ABSTRACT

Aim: This study focuses on the risk factors associated with the prevalence of Fasciola affecting cattle population in three provinces belonging to the Nile Delta of Egypt and to estimate the economic losses as a result of fascioliasis.

Materials and Methods: From January 2015 to end of December 2015, records of 21 farms (4976 cattle) were analyzed to screen the prevalence of fascioliasis among cattle farms, to identify its associated risk factors and its economic impacts on Nile Delta region of Egypt.

Results: The overall prevalence of fascioliasis in the Nile Delta region of Egypt was 9.77%. The prevalence of fascioliasis was found to be statistically significantly associated with age, sex, breed, and type of farms. The highest prevalence was observed in <2 age group (10.91%), and the lowest was >3 age groups (8.35%). In terms of body condition scores, cattle with medium and poor conditions were associated with fascioliasis more than those with good body condition. Besides, cattle raised in organic farms were associated with lower risk of fascioliasis than those in conventional farms. The prevalence of fascioliasis was noted more prominent in districts with moderate temperatures and with relative humidity (>60%). The annual overall costs for fascioliasis were estimated to be 221.2 USD/cow due to the significant reduction in body weight, reduction in milk production, and the treatment costs for fascioliasis.

Conclusion: The results provided could be helpful for improving the control and preventive strategies.

Keywords: cattle, Egypt, fascioliasis, Nile Delta, prevalence, risk factors.

Monday, 16 October 2017

Organizational leadership perspectives in implementation of the One Health approach: A case of the Zoonotic Disease Unit and core One Health implementers in Kenya

Research (Published online: 17-10-2017)
10. Organizational leadership perspectives in implementation of the One Health approach: A case of the Zoonotic Disease Unit and core One Health implementers in Kenya - Thomas Manyibe Nyariki, Mathew Muturi, Athman Mwatondo, Michael Cheruiyot, Harry Oyas, Vincent Obanda, Francis Gakuya, Rees Murithi Mbabu and Mercy Muthoni Mugambi

International Journal of One Health, 3: 57-65


  doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2017.57-65

Abstract

Aim:
This study examined organizational leadership as a cross-sectoral collaboration factor in the implementation of the One Health (OH) approach using Kenya’s Zoonotic Disease Unit and its core OH implementers as an example.

Materials and Method:

The study used a mixed methods research design. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 71 respondents, and key informants were interviewed using an interview guide. All the seven key informants and 53 (74%) of the respondents participated in the study. Data were checked for consistency, coded, entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, and analyzed using descriptive and correlational statistics. Interview data were transcribed and analyzed thematically.


Results:
From the analysis, 41/53 (77.2%) of the respondents were senior personnel, 51/53 (85%) of them had worked for 5 years and above in their organizations, and 38/53 (71.7%) had at least a Master’s degree. The study established that although most leaders in the organizations had embraced the OH approach, they were not actively involved in its implementation due to constraints such as inadequate funding. There were moderate and statistically significant positive correlations between participation in leadership roles in implementing the OH approach and the level of awareness (Rs (51)=0.54, p<0.001) as well as level of sensitization (Rs (51)=0.52, p<0.001). Majority (86%) of respondents acknowledged that top government leaders were not well sensitized about the OH approach.

Conclusion:

Organizational leadership plays an important role in the implementation of the OH approach. However, sensitization of leaders about the OH approach needs to be enhanced and expanded.

Keywords:

cross-sectoral collaboration, One Health approach, organizational leadership, sensitization.

Sunday, 15 October 2017

Occurrence of virulent and antibiotic-resistant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in some food products and human stool in Egypt

Research (Published online: 15-10-2017)
12. Occurrence of virulent and antibiotic-resistant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in some food products and human stool in Egypt
Osman Mohamed Hamed, Maha Ahmed Sabry, Nawal A. Hassanain, Eman Hamza, Ahmed G. Hegazi and Marwa Badawy Salman
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1233-1240
ABSTRACT
Aim: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) represent a severe public health issue worldwide, causing life-threatening diseases in the human gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of virulent and antibiotic-resistant STEC in retail meat and milk products and human stool samples and to characterize the genes encoding for virulence and antibiotic resistance among the identified STEC isolates.
Materials and Methods: A total of 260 food samples were randomly collected from retail markets in different localities of El Giza Governorate, Egypt. 50 stool specimens were obtained from children that had diarrhea at Embaba Fever Hospital. All collected samples were initially subjected to bacteriological examination and serotyping, and then subsequently, the isolates were exposed to polymerase chain reaction application and sequencing for the identification of the virulence-related genes. Finally, the virulent STEC isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility.
Results: Serotyping of the 76 biochemically identified isolates showed that 18 were STEC with a predominance of non- O157 (16) while 2 O157:K-serotype was detected only in one food and one human isolate. Molecular identification of the virulence genes illustrated that the minced meat showed the highest prevalence of STEC (8%) as compared to the other food products. In the humans, the O157 was the only serotype that expresses the Shiga toxin-associated gene (eaeA). Antibiotic susceptibility test displayed that 13 of the 17 food and human isolates (76.47%) were resistant to cephalothin (KF30). 9 of the 13 cephalothin-resistant isolates harbor the β lactamase (blaTEM)-resistant gene. All isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and gentamicin. DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the stx2-positive minced meat isolate revealed a high genetic relatedness with beef minced meat from the USA and Australia.
Conclusion: This study showed the predominance of non-O157 among the identified isolates. Minced meat showed the highest prevalence of STEC as compared to the other food products, and this work illustrates the necessity to consider the food products as a potential source of the non-O157 STEC serotypes. DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed a high genetic relatedness with beef minced meat from the USA and Australia. This highlights the high probability of worldwide spread of such serotypes, signifying the importance of the one world concept.
Keywords: antibiotic resistance bacteria, cheese, DNA sequencing, human stool, meat, polymerase chain reaction, serotyping, shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

Saturday, 14 October 2017

Clinicopathological alterations in naturally occurring Babesia gibsoni infection in dogs of Middle-South Gujarat, India

Research (Published online: 14-10-2017)
11. Clinicopathological alterations in naturally occurring Babesia gibsoni infection in dogs of Middle-South Gujarat, India
Avinash K. Bilwal, Ghanshyam C. Mandali and Falguni B. Tandel
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1227-1232

ABSTRACT
Aim: The present research work was undertaken to describe various clinical signs and hematobiochemical alterations in dogs affected with Babesia gibsoni.

Materials and Methods: Blood smears from a total of 79 suspected dogs of Anand region as well as Surat region of Gujarat state (India) were screened for detection of intraerythrocytic piroplasm of small form of Babesia. Diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical signs and demonstration of B. gibsoni organism in Giemsa-stained thin blood smears. The clinical signs were recorded at the time of presentation, and blood samples were subjected to estimation of hematobiochemical parameters by auto hematology analyzers at College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand. Statistical analysis, interpretation, and comparison of hematobiochemical changes with scientific literature were carried out to understand the pathophysiology of the disease.

Results: Out of 79 dogs, 16 were positive for naturally occurring babesiosis based on the presence of intraerythrocytic piroplasm of small form of Babesia in blood smears. The clinical cases were manifested by wide variety of non-specific clinical signs. The hematological evaluation revealed that the mean values of hemoglobin and total erythrocyte counts in dogs with babesiosis decreased significantly (p<0.01) in comparison to healthy dogs. Among differential leukocyte count, mean values of neutrophils and eosinophils increased while lymphocytes decreased (p<0.01) in dogs with babesiosis in comparison to healthy dogs. Serum biochemistry revealed increase (p<0.01) value of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and globulin as well as decrease in albumin levels (p<0.05) in dogs with babesiosis as compared to healthy dogs.

Conclusion: B. gibsoni is having multisystemic effects with atypical hematobiochemical changes in dog are discussed here, which would aid new insights in diagnosis of disease.

Keywords: babesiosis, clinicopathological changes, dogs, intraerythrocytic piroplasm.

Thursday, 12 October 2017

West African donkey's liveweight estimation using body measurements

Research (Published online: 12-10-2017)
10. West African donkey's liveweight estimation using body measurements
Pierre Claver Nininahazwe, Adama Sow, Rakiswende Constant Roamba, Miguiri Kalandi, Hachi Dirir Ahmed, Georges Anicet Ouedraogo and Germain Jerome Sawadogo
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1221-1226
ABSTRACT
Aim: The objective of this study was to determine a formula for estimating the liveweight in West African donkeys.
Materials and Methods: Liveweight and a total of 6 body measurements were carried out on 1352 donkeys from Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Senegal. The correlations between liveweight and body measurements were determined, and the most correlated body measurements with liveweight were used to establish regression lines.
Results: The average weight of a West African donkey was 126.0±17.1 kg, with an average height at the withers of 99.5±3.67 cm; its body length was 104.4±6.53 cm, and a heart girth (HG) of 104.4±6.53 cm. After analyzing the various regression lines and correlations, it was found that the HG could better estimate the liveweight of West African donkeys by simple linear regression method. Indeed, the liveweight (LW) showed a better correlation with the HG (R2=0.81). The following formulas (Equations 1 and 2) could be used to estimate the LW of West Africa donkeys. Equation 1: Estimated LW (kg) = 2.55 x HG (cm) - 153.49; Equation 2: Estimated LW (kg) = Heart girth (cm)2.68 / 2312.44.
Conclusion: The above formulas could be used to manufacture weighing tape to be utilized by veterinary clinicians and farmers to estimate donkey's weight in the view of medication and adjustment of load.
Keywords: body measurements, donkey, estimated liveweight, West Africa.

Wednesday, 11 October 2017

Protective efficacy of combined trivalent inactivated ISA 71 oil adjuvant vaccine against avian influenza virus subtypes (H9N2 and H5N1) and Newcastle disease virus

Research (Published online: 11-10-2017)
9. Protective efficacy of combined trivalent inactivated ISA 71 oil adjuvant vaccine against avian influenza virus subtypes (H9N2 and H5N1) and Newcastle disease virus
Zeinab Mohamed Ali, Mervat Abd El Monaem Hassan, Hussein Ali Hussein, Basem Mohamed Ahmed and Ahmed Abd El-Ghany El Sanousi
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1212-1220
ABSTRACT
Aim: The objective of the present study was to prepare a trivalent inactivated vaccine of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), H5N1, and H9N2 viruses.
Materials and Methods: Three monovalent and a trivalent vaccines were prepared by emulsifying inactivated NDV (LaSota strain), reassortant H5N1, and H9N2 viruses with Montanide ISA 71 oil adjuvant. Parameters used for evaluation of the efficacy of the prepared vaccines in specific pathogen-free chickens were cellular immunity assays (blastogenesis, interferon gamma, interleukin 1 [IL1], and IL6), humoral immunity by hemagglutination inhibition, protection percentage, and shedding.
Results: A single immunization with trivalent vaccine-enhanced cell-mediated immunity as well as humoral immune response with 90% protection against challenges with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza H9N2 viruses with 100% protection after challenge with NDV.
Conclusion: Development and evaluation of the trivalent vaccine in the study reported the success in preparation of a potent and efficacious trivalent vaccine which is a promising approach for controlling HPAI H5N1, LP H9N2, and ND viral infections.
Keywords: avian influenza, immunization, Newcastle disease virus, shedding, trivalent vaccine.

Monday, 9 October 2017

Polymerase chain reaction detection of genes responsible for multiple antibiotic resistance Staphylococcus aureus isolated from food of animal origin in Egypt

Research (Published online: 09-10-2017)
8. Polymerase chain reaction detection of genes responsible for multiple antibiotic resistance Staphylococcus aureus isolated from food of animal origin in Egypt
Fawzy R. El Seedy, A. A. Samy, Hala S. H. Salam, Eman A. Khairy and Aya A. Koraney
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1205-1211
ABSTRACT
Aim: The aim of our study was polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of the genes responsible for the multiple antibiotic resistance S. aureus isolated from food of animal origin in Egypt.
Materials and Methods: A total of 125 samples were randomly collected from milk, meat, and their products from Giza and Beni-Suef Governorates markets. The S. aureus isolates were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity tests using four antibacterial disks (Oxoid), and then the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for detection of antibiotic resistance genes.
Results: Out of 125 samples, 19 S. aureus isolates were detected. All detected isolates were multiple drug resistance (MDR). The penicillin-, erythromycin-, kanamycin-, and tetracycline-resistant isolates were examined by PCR for resistance genes blaZ, (msrAermB, and ermC), aac(6')aph (2''), and tetK. The isolates harbored these resistance genes with percentage of 100% (100%, 0%, and 100%), 62.5%, and 100%, respectively.
Conclusion: Contaminated foods of animal origin may represent a source of MDR S. aureus that can be a major threat to public health.
Keywords: food of animal origin, multiple antibiotic resistance, polymerase chain reaction, resistance genes, Staphylococcus aureus.

Sunday, 8 October 2017

Public health concerns of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 endemicity in Africa

Review (Published online: 08-10-2017)
7. Public health concerns of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 endemicity in Africa
Olubunmi Gabriel Fasanmi, Ismail Ayoade Odetokun, Fatima Adeola Balogun and Folorunso Oludayo Fasina
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1194-1204
ABSTRACT
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 was first officially reported in Africa in 2006; thereafter this virus has spread rapidly from Nigeria to 11 other African countries. This study was aimed at utilizing data from confirmed laboratory reports to carry out a qualitative evaluation of the factors responsible for HPAI H5N1 persistence in Africa and the public health implications; and to suggest appropriate control measures. Relevant publications were sought from data banks and repositories of FAO, OIE, WHO, and Google scholars. Substantiated data on HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in poultry in Africa and in humans across the world were mined. HPAI H5N1 affects poultry and human populations, with Egypt having highest human cases (346) globally. Nigeria had a reinfection from 2014 to 2015, with outbreaks in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, and Burkina Faso throughout 2016 unabated. The persistence of this virus in Africa is attributed to the survivability of HPAIV, ability to evolve other subtypes through genetic reassortment, poor biosecurity compliance at the live bird markets and poultry farms, husbandry methods and multispecies livestock farming, poultry vaccinations, and continuous shedding of HPAIV, transboundary transmission of HPAIV through poultry trades; and transcontinental migratory birds. There is, therefore, the need for African nations to realistically reassess their status, through regular surveillance and be transparent with HPAI H5N1 outbreak data. Also, it is important to have an understanding of HPAIV migration dynamics which will be helpful in epidemiological modeling, disease prevention, control and eradication measures.
Keywords: Africa, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, public health implications.

Friday, 6 October 2017

Seroprevalence of Fasciola gigantica infection in bovines using cysteine proteinase dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

Research (Published online: 06-10-2017)
6. Seroprevalence of Fasciola gigantica infection in bovines using cysteine proteinase dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Niranjan Kumar, Anju Varghese and J. B. Solanki
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1189-1193
ABSTRACT
Aim: The objective of the present study was to know the seroprevalence status of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle and buffaloes using cysteine proteinase (CP) antigen in dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format under field conditions.

Materials and Methods: As per the standard protocol, the sera were collected from the blood of 112 cattle and 38 buffaloes of coastal areas of Navsari district, South Gujarat, India. The indirect ELISA was performed on the strip of nitrocellulose paper blotted with 1 μl of CP antigen, to detect F. gigantica seropositive animals.

Results: The native CP of F. gigantica revealed a single visible band on 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. There was no any noted cross-reaction between the selected antigen and sera of Gastrothylax crumenifer-infected animals in ELISA. Out of 150 screened bovines, the sera of 47 (31.33%) were found to be reactive in dot-ELISA, with a prevalence rate of 31.25% and 31.58% in cattle and buffaloes, respectively. The seropositive bovines with heavy, moderate, and light level of infection were 44.68%, 34.04%, and 21.28%, respectively (p<0.05 between heavy and light; p>0.05 between moderate and heavy or light). The share of F. gigantica seropositive and negative animals was 31% and 69%, respectively. The optical density at 450 nm of pooled sera of seropositive bovines with heavy, moderate, and light reactivity in plate-ELISA was significantly higher with field or reference negative sera.

Conclusion: The CP-based dot-ELISA can be useful for field veterinarians for quick and timely isolation of the animals requiring urgent flukicide therapy.

Keywords: bovines, cysteine proteinase, dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Fasciola gigantica.

Wednesday, 4 October 2017

Effect of antioxidants supplementation on the quality of Beetal buck semen stored at 4°C

Research (Published online: 05-10-2017)
5. Effect of antioxidants supplementation on the quality of Beetal buck semen stored at 4°C
Archana Sarangi, Pardeep Singh, Meenakshi Virmani, A. S. Yadav, Subhasish Sahu, H. M. Ajithakumar, Anuradha Kumari and A. P. Rath
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1184-1188
ABSTRACT
Aim: An experiment was designed to evaluate the role of Vitamin E and glutathione in improving the seminal parameters during hypothermic storage of liquid semen at 4°C for 72 h.

Materials and Methods: Thirty-six semen ejaculates were collected by artificial vagina from 6 bucks (Beetal) during the normal reproduction season (September to November) at weekly interval. The samples were centrifuged, and the seminal plasma was removed. The sperm pellet was diluted with Tris-based extender and divided into three groups. Group T1: Control samples without antioxidants, Group T2: Samples supplemented with tocopherol at 3 mM, and Group T3: Samples supplemented with glutathione at 1 mM. The samples were evaluated for progressive motility, percent liveability, percent abnormal spermatozoa, and acrosome integrity after liquid preservation for 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. The level of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes, namely, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated after liquid preservation for 0 and 72 h.

Results: It was observed that, after storage of semen at 4°C up to 72 h, the progressive sperm motility, percent liveability, percent abnormal spermatozoa, and percent intact acrosomes were significantly (p<0.05) higher in group T2 and T3 samples as compared to control. However, the level of lipid peroxidation in T2 and T3 groups was significantly (p<0.05) lower after 72 h of incubation at 4°C. Similarly, GPx and SOD values were significantly (p<0.05) increased in T2 and T3 groups after 72 h of storage at 4°C.

Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that Vitamin E and glutathione supplementation at 3 mM and 1 mM, respectively, while preserving the semen samples at 4°C helped in maintaining the seminal parameters up to 72 h and protected the spermatozoa from oxidative damage.

Keywords: Beetal buck, glutathione and liquid preservation, oxidative stress, semen, seminal parameters, Vitamin E.

Analysis of spatial dynamic of epizootic process of bluetongue and its risk factors

Research (Published online: 04-10-2017)
4. Analysis of spatial dynamic of epizootic process of bluetongue and its risk factors
Fayssal Bouchemla, Olga Mikhailovna Popova and Valerey Alexandrovich Agoltsov
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1173-1183
ABSTRACT
Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the spatial dynamic occurrence and patterns of the global spread of bluetongue (BT) disease for the period from 1996 to 2016, as well as the assessment of the risk of occurrence and its spread in 2017-2018.
Materials and Methods: Outbreaks (serum samples were collected from clinically healthy as well as suspected animals in infected points) were confirmed and reported officially by veterinary departments which represent different geographical regions in the world to World Organization for Animal Health. These reports explained that ELISA and polymerase chain reaction were used to identify the BT disease, taking in the account number of infected, dead animals, and focus of BT infection in all susceptible animals from 1996 to 2016. Once conventional statistical population was defined (an observational study), we had classified data as well as possible to answer to our aim, using descriptive statistics methods, including the test of the relationship between different epizootiological indicators.
Results: The spatial dynamic study of BT's occurrence and its spread in the world over the two past decades was presented by different epizootic indicators. The given analysis includes assessment and measurement of risk factors. It was built too, regression models, and allowed to put different forecasts on the different epizootic indicators in the years 2017-2018 by the extrapolation method. We had also determined that, in 2017, BT continues to spread with the total expectancy of 3.4 focus of infection (number of diseased animals in a single unfavorable point) and mortality of about 26 %; these rates tend to decrease in 2018. At abused points by BT, up to 78.4% of animals are mixed (more than one type) and in 21.6% - uniform. By this way, the relative risk of the incidence of appearance-abused points in mixed households has 3.64, which might be considered higher for the BT dissemination. Moreover, between the enzootic index and other epizootiological indicators had revealed an inverse correlation, i.e., to an increase in the level of enzootic index among the cattle population would be formed population less sensitive to BT. Cluster analysis was done, which had demonstrated the zoning of risk levels in the world and the occurrence of the disease intensity in the period 1996-2016 years. Then, assess connection degree of the dynamic of BT tension with geographical and socioeconomic conditions background 0.66 and 0.68, respectively.
Conclusion: It is important to define a variety of BT risk factors and assess their influence on BT occurrence. However, the most important is to define the overlapping coinfluence between them that cause serious losses. To have an out of BT territory needs to make an emphasis of co-influence of risk factors on this zone. Was predicted a continue hits of disease in the next year with weight moderation through one year. Far from statists, to assess the given forecast may have a serious variety, taken in account problems of actual climate change in the world.
Keywords: bluetongue, extrapolation, outbreaks, regression model, risk factors.

Tuesday, 3 October 2017

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antimicrobial susceptibility of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from broiler chickens

Research (Published online: 03-10-2017)
3. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antimicrobial susceptibility of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from broiler chickens
Gamal Younis, Amal Awad and Nada Mohamed
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1167-1172
ABSTRACT
Aim: Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is pathogenic strains of E. coli that are responsible for one of the most common bacterial diseases affecting poultry worldwide. This study was designed to determine the occurrence, antibiotic resistance profile, and antibiotic resistance genes of E. coli isolated from diseased and freshly dead broilers.
Materials and Methods: In that context, a total of 200 broilers samples were examined by standard microbiological techniques for isolation of E. coli, and tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 15 antimicrobial agents using disc diffusion method. In addition, E. coli isolates were screened by multiplex polymerase chain reaction for detection of a number of resistance genes including aadA1 gene encodes streptomycin/neomycin, tetA encodes resistance to tetracycline, sul1 encodes sulfonamides, and β-lactamase encoding genes (blaTEM and blaSHV).
Results: A total of 73 (36.5%) isolates were biochemically identified as E. coli strains. O78, O2, and O1 are the most prevalent serotypes detected. E. coli displayed a high resistance against penicillin (100%), followed by cefepime (95.8%) and a low resistance to norfloxacin (36.9%), and chloramphenicol (30%). Depending on the results of PCR, sul1 gene was the most predominant antibiotic resistant gene (87%) followed by blaTEM (78%), tetA genes (60%), and aadA (54%). However, blaSHV had the lowest prevalence (23%).
Conclusion: The obtained results demonstrated the importance of studies on APEC and antibiotic resistance genes in our region which associated with intensive poultry industry, aiming to acquire preventive measures to minimize losses due to APEC and associated multidrug-resistance and resistance genes that of high significance to the rational use of antibiotics in clinical and public health.
Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, broilers, Escherichia coli, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, resistant genes.

Sunday, 1 October 2017

Serological investigation of some important RNA viruses affecting sheep and goats in Giza and Beni-Suef governorates in Egypt

Research (Published online: 02-10-2017)
2. Serological investigation of some important RNA viruses affecting sheep and goats in Giza and Beni-Suef governorates in Egypt
Mohamed Abd El-Fatah Mahmoud, Mohamed Karam Elbayoumy, Doaa Sedky and Sahar Ahmed
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1161-1166
ABSTRACT
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of antibodies against foot and mouth disease (FMD), Peste des Petits ruminants (PPR), and bluetongue (BT) in sheep and goats within Giza and Beni-Suef governorates at the second half of 2016.
Materials and Methods: A total of 300 animals (sheep and goats) randomly selected from small stocks with no history of previous vaccination against FMD virus (FMDV), PPR, or BT viruses (BTV) and examined with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of FMD-non-structural protein, PPR, and BT antibodies.
Results: Seroprevalence analysis revealed that antibodies against FMDV were 40.8% and 37.1% at Giza governorate, while at Beni-Suef governorate, the percent was 36.7% and 50% in sheep and goat, respectively. Antibodies against PPR were 63.8% in sheep and 45.7% in goats at Giza governorate, whereas the results for Beni-Suef governorate were 71.7% in sheep and 45% in goats. Antibodies against BT were 45% and 37% in sheep and goats, respectively, in Giza governorate, whereas the results for Beni-Suef governorate were 80% and 55% in sheep and goats, respectively. The average of BTV antibody prevalence was significantly higher in sheep (45% and 80%) than in goats (37% and 55%) in Giza and Beni-Suef, respectively. Statistical analysis for the three viruses showed the high relation between the two governorates in case of sheep (r=0.85) and in case of goats (r=0.87). In general, a strong positive correlation was observed between the governorates (r=0.93).
Conclusion: Giza and Beni-Suef governorates are endemic with FMDV, PPR, and BTV. Regional plan for characterization and combating FMD, PPR, and BT is recommended to help in the achievement of the most suitable combination of the vaccine regimen.
Keywords: bluetongue, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, foot and mouth disease, goats, Peste des Petits ruminants, sheep.

Saturday, 30 September 2017

Identification of non-cerebral cyst: Zoonotic Taenia multiceps in domestic goat in Bangladesh

Research (Published online: 01-10-2017)
1. Identification of non-cerebral cyst: Zoonotic Taenia multiceps in domestic goat in Bangladesh
Mohammad Omer Faruk, A. M. A. M. Zonaed Siddiki, Md. Shafiqul Islam, Azizunnesa Rekha, Sharmin Chowdhury, Md. Masuduzzaman and Mohammad Alamgir Hossain
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1156-1160
ABSTRACT
Aim: This study was performed to identify the non-cerebral Taenia multiceps cyst through molecular phylogeny of the 12S rRNA gene.
Materials and Methods: Eight cyst samples were collected from 385 examined slaughtered goats during October 2015-September 2016 from three slaughterhouses in Chittagong City Corporation. Cysts were removed from the thigh muscle, and scolices were collected for light microscopic examination and molecular identification. The DNA was extracted and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction using 12S rRNA gene primers. Cyst samples were also preserved in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological study.
Results: T. multiceps non-cerebral cyst is 2.1% prevalent in goat in this area. Under light microscopic examination, scolex was found with four suckers and a rostellum with the double crown of 32 hooks and hooklets. Molecularly, all the samples were amplified with 12S rRNA gene fragments yielded 270 base pair amplicon. Zenker's necrosis with focal to diffuse infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophil was also found around the cyst wall in histopathological examination.
Conclusion: Although the non-cerebral form of the cysts produced by T. multiceps is genetically identical with the cerebral cyst, previously published data indicated that cerebral T. multiceps cyst is predominant in other parts of the world as well as in Bangladesh. This study showed that non-cerebral cyst is also prevalent in this country which is very important for public health concern. This study depicts an idea of non-cerebral form of zoonotic T. multiceps cyst which will be helpful in taenia cyst control and prevention.
Keywords: 12SrRNA, Bangladesh, goat, non-cerebral cyst, phylogeny, Taenia multiceps.

Impact of heat stress and hypercapnia on physiological, hematological, and behavioral profile of Tharparkar and Karan Fries heifers

Research (Published online: 30-09-2017)
22. Impact of heat stress and hypercapnia on physiological, hematological, and behavioral profile of Tharparkar and Karan Fries heifers
Priyanka Pandey, O. K. Hooda and Sunil Kumar
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1149-1155
ABSTRACT
Aim: The present investigation was undertaken to study the impact of heat stress and hypercapnia on physiological, hematological, and behavioral profile of Tharparkar and Karan Fries (KF) heifers.

Materials and Methods: The animals of both the breeds of Tharparkar and KF were exposed at different temperatures and CO2 levels. Exposure conditions of 25°C, 400 ppm CO2 level, and 60% relative humidity (RH) were taken as a control condition. The exposure conditions 40°C with two levels of CO2 500 ppm and 600 ppm with RH 55±5% and exposure conditions 42°C with two levels of CO2 500 ppm and 600 ppm with RH 55±5% were taken as treatments. The exposure period in each condition was 4 h daily for 5 consecutive days.

Results: Physiological responses (respiration rate [RR], pulse rate [PR], and rectal temperature [RT]) were significantly (p<0.01) higher and different during all exposure conditions compared to control condition in both the breeds of cattle. KF heifers had higher RR, PR, and RT than Tharparkar heifers. Hematological parameters, namely, red blood cell, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume were significantly higher and different during all exposure condition than control in both the breeds, whereas no significant changes were observed in total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count. Blood pH increased with increase in temperature and CO2 levels and was significantly higher than control conditions. PCO2 and base excess were significantly (p<0.05) lower, and PO2 was higher during different exposure conditions than control in both breeds. Restlessness and excitement signs were observed in all the exposure conditions as compared to control condition in both the breeds.

Conclusion: Changes in physiological responses, behavioral pattern, and hematological parameters reflect the current functional status of the body system, and it can be used as an index for assessing the adaptation capacity of cattle to predict changes occurring in climate variables due to increasing CO2 levels and environmental temperature.

Keywords: behavior, hematological, hypercapnia, hyperthermia, Tharparkar.

Thursday, 28 September 2017

Congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome caused by Akabane virus in newborn calves of Basrah Governorate, Iraq

Research (Published online: 29-09-2017)
21. Congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome caused by Akabane virus in newborn calves of Basrah Governorate, Iraq
K. M. Alsaad, H. H. N. Alautaish and M. A. Y. Alamery
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1143-1148
Aim: The study was conducted in Basrah, Iraq, to diagnose congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome caused by Akabane virus (AKAV) in calves.
Materials and Methods: Affected animals (42 calves) are about 2-27 days old from both sexes show signs of arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly. Eight clinically healthy newborn calves were considered as controls. Diagnosis of AKAV was confirmed using a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test.
Results: Results show that all affected calves were found seropositive. Furthermore, a significant increase in total leukocyte count in diseased calves due to a significant increase in the absolute lymphocyte number indicated in affected calves than in controls. Moreover, a significant increase in sedimentation rate of erythrocytes was also encountered in diseased calves than in controls. In addition, a significant increase in haptoglobin level and fibrinogen was also detected.
Conclusion: Diagnosis of AKAV infection of Basrah Governorate, Iraq, will provide useful epidemiological information for cattle and other domesticated animals. Therefore, abortion could be prevented and controlled.
Keywords: Akabane virus, arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly, calves, Iraq.

Wednesday, 27 September 2017

Prevalence of Corynosoma caspicum infection in Gasterosteus aculeatus fish in Caspian Sea, Northern Iran

Research (Published online: 27-09-2017)
20. Prevalence of Corynosoma caspicum infection in Gasterosteus aculeatus fish in Caspian Sea, Northern Iran
Bahman Rahimi-Esboei, Mahdi Najm, Morad Shaker, Mahdi Fakhar and Iraj Mobedi
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1139-1142
ABSTRACT
Aim: There is little information about the prevalence of Corynosoma caspicum in fish particularly Gasterosteus aculeatus in Iran and the world. The aim of the present study was to find out the prevalence of acanthocephalan infection in Babolsar district, southern coastal of Caspian Sea, Northern Iran.

Materials and Methods: Between September 2012 and August 2014, a total of 360 G. aculeatus fishes were randomly collected by drift nets from coastal regions in Babolsar and then examined the intestine and body cavity for worm infections.

Results: A total of 360 G. aculeatus fishes, 109 (30.3%) were found infected with at least one Corynosoma capsicum, and there was no significant association between genders and the prevalence infection of acanthocephalan. Moreover, there was a significant difference in infected rate between summer (79%, 86/109) and spring (21%, 23/109) (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The high occurrence of Corynosoma infection in G. aculeatus indicates the enzootic constancy status of the infection in the southern coastal of Caspian Sea, Northern Iran.

Keywords: Acanthocephalosis, Caspian Sea, Corynosoma caspicum, Gasterosteus aculeatus.

Monday, 25 September 2017

Epidemiological features and pathological study of avian leukosis in turkeys' flocks

Research (Published online: 26-09-2017)
19. Epidemiological features and pathological study of avian leukosis in turkeys' flocks
Mourad Zeghdoudi, Leila Aoun, Latifa Merdaci and Nardjes Bouzidi
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1135-1138
ABSTRACT
Aim: The purpose of this study was focused on the identification of tumor diseases in turkeys on the basis of a detailed description of epidemiological features, clinical signs, lesions, and histopathological changes.
Materials and Methods: Outbreak of a tumor disease in turkeys was investigated in various regions of Eastern Algeria. Four turkeys' flocks aged from 17 weeks were affected, resulting to mortality often over 10%, on a period of 15 days. The main epidemiological characters, clinical signs, and lesions were observed throughout all the course of the disease. Serum samples were collected from affected turkeys in each flock to detect p27 antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test to diagnose avian leukosis virus (ALV). Portions of sciatic nerves and livers are taken from dead turkeys for microscopic examination.
Results: The disease was characterized by clinical signs such as anorexia, weakness, and diarrhea. Necropsy of the dead birds showed hepatomegaly and gross splenomegaly with neoplastic nodules or gray foci and diffuse infiltration in the myocardium and lungs. ALV antigen test using ELISA confirmed the presence of virus leukosis. Histopathological sections of the liver had proliferations of lymphoblastoid cells and absence of any modifications or lymphocytic infiltration in peripheral nerves.
Conclusion: The present study confirms that this disease condition is caused by lymphoid leukosis.
Keywords: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, epidemiological features, histopathology, lesions, leukosis, turkeys.

Repertoire of noncoding RNAs in corpus luteum of early pregnancy in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

Research (Published online: 25-09-2017)
18. Repertoire of noncoding RNAs in corpus luteum of early pregnancy in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)
A. Jerome, S. M. K. Thirumaran and S. N. Kala
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1129-1134
ABSTRACT
Aim: The present study was designed to identify other noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the corpus luteum (CL) during early pregnancy in buffalo.
Materials and Methods: For this study, CL (n=2) from two buffalo gravid uteri, obtained from the slaughter house, was transported to laboratory after snap freezing in liquid nitrogen (-196°C). The stage of pregnancy was determined by measuring the crown-rump region of the fetus. This was followed by isolation of RNA and deep sequencing. Post-deep sequencing, the obtained reads were checked and aligned against various ncRNA databases (GtRNA, RFAM, and deep guide). Various parameters, namely, frequency of specific ncRNAs, length, mismatch, and genomic location target in several model species were deciphered.
Results: Frequency of piwi-interacting RNAs (piwi-RNAs), having target location in rodents and human genomes, were significantly higher compared to other piwi-RNAs and ncRNAs. Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) deduced had nucleotides (nts) ranging from 17 to 50 nts, but the occurrence of small length rRNAs was more than lengthier fragments. The target on 16S rRNA species confirms the conservation of 16S rRNA across species. With respect to transfer RNA (tRNA), the abundantly occurring tRNAs were unique with no duplication. Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), identified in this study, showed a strong tendency for coding box C/D snoRNAs in comparison to H/ACA snoRNAs. Regulatory and evolutionary implications of these identified ncRNAs are yet to be delineated in many species, including buffaloes.
Conclusion: This is the first report of identification of other ncRNAs in CL of early pregnancy in buffalo.
Keywords: buffalo, corpus luteum, noncoding RNA, pregnancy.

Sunday, 24 September 2017

Characterization and zoonotic impact of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli in some wild bird species

Research (Published online: 24-09-2017)
17. Characterization and zoonotic impact of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli in some wild bird species
Hanaa Mohamed Fadel, Rabab Afifi and Dheyazan Mohammed Al-Qabili
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1118-1128
ABSTRACT
Aim: Wild birds are considered silent vectors of some zoonotic water and food borne pathogens of public health significance. Owing to the importance of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) as the most pathogenic among the emerging diarrheagenic E. coli groups that can infect man; the present study was designed to detect the occurrence of STEC among wild birds in Egypt.
Materials and Methods: A total of 177 intestinal content swab samples originating from five wild bird species were investigated for the presence of E. coli and STEC by standard culture methods. Suspect STEC isolates were further characterized by serotyping, random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD PCR), antimicrobial resistance pattern and PCR detection of stx1stx2, and eae genes.
Results: A total of 30 suspect STEC isolates from 30 positive birds' samples were detected and identified on STEC CHROMagar (semi-captive pigeons, 15; house crows, 8; cattle egrets, 3; moorhens, 2; and house teals, 2). 25 isolates were grouped into 13 serogroups (O:20, O:25, O:26, O:27, O:63, O:78, O:111, O:114, O:125, O:128, O:142, O:153, and O:158), while five were rough strains. The distribution of STEC virulence genes among wild birds was as follows: 16 birds carried stx1 gene only (nine pigeons [28.1%], six crows [7.1%], and one cattle egret [5.6%]). stx1 and stx2 genes together were detected in four birds (one cattle egret [5.6%], two moorhens [6.1%], and one house teal, [10%]). Only one pigeon (3.1%) possessed the three alleles. Disk diffusion test results showed that cefixime was the most effective against STEC serotypes with (93.3%) sensitivity, followed by gentamycin (56.7%), and amoxicillin (50%). On the other hand, all the recovered STEC isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, doxycycline, cephalothin, and sulfisoxazole. RAPD fingerprinting using primers OPA-2 and OPA-9 showed that STEC isolates were heterogeneous; they yielded 30 and 27 different clusters, respectively.
Conclusion: Wild birds carry STEC and may add to the contamination of the surrounding environment.
Keywords: antibiotic, eae, random-amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction, Shiga toxin producing Escherichia colistx1stx2, wild birds.