Audience: Veterinary World readers represent education, industry and government, including research, teaching, administration, veterinary medicine and technical services in more than 150 countries. Veterinary World is of interest to those in veterinary medicine, infectious diseases, public health, parasitology, food science, epidemiology, immunology, virology, bacteriology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, gynaecology, wildlife.
21. Subchronic toxicity of Nile tilapia with different exposure routes to Microcystis aeruginosa: Histopathology, liver functions, and oxidative stress biomarkers
H. M. R. Abdel-Latif and A. M. Abou Khashaba
Veterinary World, 10(8): 955-963
Background: Toxic cyanobacterial blooms (Microcystis aeruginosa contains microcystins [MCs]) have been reported to induce clinicopathological alterations as well as different oxidative stress in aquatic biota.
Aim: Three-week subchronic exposure experiment was carried out on Nile tilapia, to determine their effects on fish behavior, tissues, liver functions, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation.
Materials and Methods: Fish were exposed to four main treatments; orally fed diet plus toxic cells of M. aeruginosa (containing 3500 μg/g MC-LR), immersion in 500 μg MC-LR/L, intraperitoneal injection of M. aeruginosa MC-LR with a dose of 0.1 ml of extracted toxin at a dose of 200 μg/kg bwt, and the fourth one served as a control group, then the fish were sacrificed at the end of 3rd week of exposure.
Results: The results revealed no recorded mortality with obvious behavioral changes and an enlarged liver with the congested gall bladder. Histopathology demonstrated fragmentation, hyalinization, and necrosis of the subcutaneous musculature marked fatty degeneration, and vacuolation of hepatopancreatic cells with adhesion of the secondary gill lamellae associated with severe leukocytic infiltration. Furthermore, liver functions enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidase, and catalase enzymes) were significantly increased in all treatments starting from the 2nd week as compared to the control levels.
Conclusion: In this context, the study addresses the possible toxicological impacts of toxic M. aeruginosa contain MC-LR to Nile tilapia, and the results investigated that MC-LR is toxic to Nile tilapia in different routes of exposure as well as different doses.
Keywords: catalase, lipid peroxidation, Microcystis aeruginosa, microcystins, Nile tilapia.
20. Beta-lactamase antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella and Enterobacter species isolated from healthy and diarrheic dogs in Andhra Pradesh, India
N. Mohammad Sharif, B. Sreedevi, R. K. Chaitanya and D. Sreenivasulu
Veterinary World, 10(8): 950-954
Aim: The aim of this study was to characterize beta-lactamase antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella and Enterobacter species isolated from healthy and diarrheic dogs in Andhra Pradesh.
Materials and Methods: A total of 136 rectal swabs were collected from healthy (92) and diarrheic (44) dogs, bacteriological cultured for Klebsiella and Enterobacter growth and screened for beta-lactamase antimicrobial resistance phenotypically by disc diffusion method and genotypically by polymerase chain reaction targeting blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA, blaCTX-M Group 1, 2, blaAmpC, blaACC, and blaMOX genes.
Results: A total of 33 Klebsiella and 29 Enterobacter isolates were recovered. Phenotypic beta-lactamase resistance was detected in 66.6% and 25% of Klebsiella and Enterobacter isolates, respectively, from healthy dogs and 66.6% and 60% of Klebsiella and Enterobacter isolates, respectively, from diarrheic dogs. Overall, incidence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype was found to be 21.2% (7/33) in Klebsiella isolates, whereas none of the Enterobacter isolates exhibited ESBL phenotype. Predominant beta-lactamase genes detected in Klebsiella species include blaSHV (84.8%), followed by blaTEM (33.3%), blaCTX-M Group 1 (15.1%), and blaOXA (6.1%) gene. Predominant beta-lactamase genes detected in Enterobacter species include blaSHV (48.2%), followed by blaTEM (24.1%), blaAmpC (13.7%), and blaOXA (10.3%) gene.
Conclusion: The present study highlighted alarming beta-lactamase resistance in Klebsiella and Enterobacter species of canine origin in India with due emphasis as indicators of antimicrobial resistance.
19. Vaccination with Salmonella Typhi recombinant outer membrane protein 28 induces humoral but non-protective immune response in rabbit
Anjani Saxena, Rajesh Kumar and Mumtesh Kumar Saxena
Veterinary World, 10(8): 946-949
Aim: Typhoid is one of the most important food and water borne disease causing millions of deaths over the world. Presently, there is no cost effective vaccine available in India. The outer-membrane proteins (Omps) of Salmonella have been exhibited as a potential candidate for development of subunit vaccine against typhoid. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of recombinant Omp 28 protein for immunization of rabbit to elucidate its protection against virulent Salmonella Typhi.
Materials and Methods: Immune potential of recombinant Omp28 was tested in New Zealand Rabbits. Rabbits were divided into two groups, i.e., control and test group. Control group was injected with phosphate buffer saline with adjuvant while test group were injected with recombinant Omp28 along with adjuvant. Rabbits were bleed and serum was collected from each rabbit. Serum was tested by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for humoral response. Rabbits were challenged with virulent culture to test the protective immunity.
Results: Humoral response was provoked at 15th day and maintained till 30th day. The mean ELISA titer at 15th day was 1 : 28000 (mean titer log 10 : 4.4472) and on the 30th day was 1 : 25866 (mean titer log 10 : 4.4127). Protective immune potential of Omp 28 was assessed by challenge studies in rabbits for which vaccinated and control rabbits were challenged with 109 cells of virulent culture of S. Typhi. In control group, out of six, no rabbit could survive after 48 days while in vaccinated group, three out of six rabbit were survived.
Conclusion: Immunization of rabbit with recombinant Omp 28 induced a strong humoral response which was exhibited by high antibody titer in ELISA. Subsequently, intraperitoneal homologous challenge of the immunized New Zealand rabbit resulted in lack of significant protection. These findings indicate that Omp 28 though provoked the humoral immunity but could not provide the protective immunity in rabbit model.
18. Presence and characterization of Escherichia coli virulence genes isolated from diseased pigs in the central region of Argentina
Fernando A. Bessone, Gabriela Bessone, Sebastian Marini, Maria B. Conde, Fabrisio E. Alustiza and Gustavo Zielinski
Veterinary World, 10(8): 939-945
Background: The main pathogen of neonatal and post weaning diarrhea and edema disease (ED) is Escherichia coli and pathotypes involved are enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, and shiga toxigenic (ETEC, EPEC, and STEC, respectively). Those diseases cause economic loss in pig production.
Aim: The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of strains expressing virulence markers genes and the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of E. coli from clinical cases of post weaning diarrhea and ED in farms in the central area of Argentina.
Materials and Methods: Intensive pig farms from the central region of Argentina were sampled. Intestinal mucosa swabs from pigs with diarrhea were taken, seeded on MacConkey agar plates, biochemically typified and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiograms were made by disk-diffusion method.
Results: A total of 54 strains from clinical cases studied showed PCR findings: 88.88% (48/54) expressed at least one gene coding for a virulence factor. Colonization factors found were: 39.58% of strains had F18, 33.33% were F4 and 31.25% adhesin involved in diffuse adherence-I; 29.17%, 25%, and 2.1% expressed LT, STb, and STa, respectively. 25% were STx and 16.67% were eae positive. Only 2.1% were STx2. The most active antibiotics against most strains were gentamicin and ceftiofur, but resistance profiles against many antibiotics were found.
Conclusion: High circulation of pathogens strains of E. coli among pigs with diarrhea with an extended antibiotic resistance profile.
17. High-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet-photodiode array detection method for aflatoxin B1 in cattle feed supplements
Lazuardi Mochamad and Bambang Hermanto
Veterinary World, 10(8): 932-938
Aim: The objective of the current study is to determine the concentration of aflatoxin B1 using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a photodiode array (PDA) detector.
Materials and Methods: Aflatoxin B1 certified reference grade from Trilogy Analytical Laboratory dissolved acetonitrile (ACN) at 10 μg/mL was used for standard assessment. HPLC instruments such as ultraviolet-PDA detector used a Shimadzu LC-6AD pump with DGU-20A5 degasser, communication module-20A, and PDA detector SPD-M20A with FRC-10A fraction collector. The HPLC was set isocratic method at 354 nm with a reverse-phase ODS C18 column (LiChrospher® 100 RP-18; diameter, 5 μm) under a 20°C controlled column chamber. Rheodyne® sample loops were performed in 20 μL capacities. The mobile phase was performed at fraction 63:26:11 H2O: methanol:ACN at pH 6.8. A total of 1 kg of feed contained 10% bread crumbs and 30% concentrated, 40% forage, and 20% soybean dregs were using commercials samples. Samples were extracted by ACN and separated with solid phase extraction ODS 1 mL than elution with mobile phase to collect at drying samples performed. The samples were ready to use after added 1 mL mobile phase than injected into the system of HPLC.
Results: We found that the retention time of aflatoxin B1 was approximately 10.858 min. Linearity of 0.01-0.08 μg/mL aflatoxin B1 dissolved in mobile phase was obtained at R2=0.9. These results demonstrate that these methods can be used to analyze aflatoxin B1 and gain 89-99% recovery. The limit of detection of this assay was obtained at 3.5 x 10-6 μg/mL.
Conclusion: This method was easy to apply and suitable to analyzing at small concentrations of aflatoxin B1 in formulated product of feed cattle.
16. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium in meat and meat products using multiplex polymerase chain reaction
C. Latha, C. J. Anu, V. J. Ajaykumar and B. Sunil
Veterinary World, 10(8): 927-931
Aim: The objective of the study was to investigate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium in meat and meat products using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.
Materials and Methods: The assay combined an enrichment step in tryptic soy broth with yeast extract formulated for the simultaneous growth of target pathogens, DNA isolation and multiplex PCR. A total of 1134 samples including beef (n=349), chicken (n=325), pork (n=310), chevon (n=50), and meat products (n=100) were collected from different parts of Kerala, India. All the samples were subjected to multiplex PCR analysis and culture-based detection for the four pathogens in parallel.
Results: Overall occurrence of L. monocytogenes was 0.08 % by cultural method. However, no L. monocytogenes was obtained by multiplex PCR method. Yersinia enterocolitica was obtained from beef and pork samples. A high prevalence of S. aureus (46.7%) was found in all types of meat samples tested. None of the samples was positive for S. Typhimurium.
Conclusion: Multiplex PCR assay used in this study can detect more than one pathogen simultaneously by amplifying more than one target gene in a single reaction, which can save time and labor cost.
15. Molecular screening for hemotropic mycoplasmas in captive Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) in southern Brazil
Leonilda C. Santos, Odilon Vidotto, Vivien M. Morikawa, Nelson J. R. Santos, Thallitha S. W. J. Vieira, Ivan R. Barros Filho, Rafael F. C. Vieira and Alexander W. Biondo
Veterinary World, 10(8): 924-926
Aim: This study is part of an active surveillance program for monitoring animal health status in endangered species, and was conducted to screen captive Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) for hemoplasma infection.
Materials and Methods: A total of 12 blood samples were collected, DNA extracted and further tested by a pan-hemoplasma polymerase chain reaction protocol.
Results: Animals were clinically healthy and not infested by ectoparasites. Although housekeeping gene DNA was successfully amplified, all the Barbary sheep samples tested negative for Mycoplasma sp.
Conclusion: Notwithstanding the negative results, molecular pathogen surveys on Barbary sheep and other exotic wild mammals may provide insights regarding infection of endangered species caused by captivity stress in association with exposure to new pathogens worldwide.
14. Serum levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator in healthy dogs and oncologic canine patients
Sofia C. Ramos, Augusto J. de Matos, Joao Niza Ribeiro, Liliana R. Leite-Martins, Rui R. F. Ferreira, Ines Viegas and Andreia A. Santos
Veterinary World, 10(8): 918-923
Aim: Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) has been scarcely studied in veterinary oncology. The aim of this study was to determine the uPA serum concentrations in healthy and oncologic canine patients and to investigate its potential value as a tumor biomarker.
Materials and Methods: Serum uPA concentrations of healthy and oncologic canine patients were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Their relationships with the dogs' health status and tumor characteristics were analyzed through ANOVA and independent t-test.
Results: There were no significant differences between mean serum values (±standard deviation) of healthy dogs (0.19±0.13 ng/ml) and oncologic canine patients (0.22±0.33 ng/ml), or between dogs with benign or malignant tumors, and with or without metastases, although the latter tended to show higher uPA serum levels.
Conclusion: This is the first study describing the uPA serum levels in dogs. Although its results do not support uPA as a tumor biomarker, higher uPA levels in dogs with metastatic neoplasms may reflect the role of the enzyme in tumor progression.
13. Prevalence of fascioliasis (liver flukes) infection in cattle and buffaloes slaughtered at the municipal abattoir of El-Kharga, Egypt
Nagwa T. Elshraway and Wafaa G. Mahmoud
Veterinary World, 10(8): 914-917
Aim: The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of fascioliasis infections in cattle and buffaloes, slaughtered in El-Kharga city slaughterhouse at New Valley Governorate.
Materials and Methods: The slaughtered animals were daily inspected for liver fascioliasis allover 2016. Macroscopic fascioliasis was detected from a total of 2251 basing on animals specie, sex, season, and Fasciolaspp. in addition to microscopic examination of blood, fecal samples which collected from female cattle and buffalo (50 each).
Results: The total prevalence rate of Fasciola spp. infection occurs in the study area were about 695/2251 (30.88%) from the total cattle and bovine slaughtered carcasses. The incidence of fascioliasis was 4/12 (33.33%) and 678/2200 (30.82%) for females and males cattle carcasses, respectively, while the infection rate in buffalo carcasses was 1/4 (25.00%) and 12/35 (34.29%) for females and males buffalo carcasses, respectively.
Conclusion: The moderate fasciolosis infection in cattle and buffaloes slaughtered at the municipal abattoir of El-Kharga, Egypt. The highest fascioliasis infection was recorded during winter and autumn. It constitutes a major cause of economic losses at El-Kharga abattoir and threat public health.
12. Seroprevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus in crossbred dairy cattle in Bangladesh
Mohammed Arif Uddin, A. S. M. Lutful Ahasan, Kamrul Islam, Md. Zohorul Islam, Altaf Mahmood, Ariful Islam, Kazi Muhammad Fakhrul Islam and Abdul Ahad
Veterinary World, 10(8): 906-913
ABSTRACT Aim: The study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and hematological features in crossbred dairy cattle in Chittagong, Bangladesh.
Materials and Methods: The antibody against BVDV in crossbred dairy cattle serum was detected by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The association of different categorical variables in the prevalence of BVDV has been studied. Blood samples were collected and analyzed to know the hematological variations in the study population.
Results: The overall seroprevalence of BVDV in the study area was 51.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.5-61.5). Among different physiological stages of animals, the highest 57.1% (95% CI, 42.2-71.2) prevalence was in case of non-pregnant animals. Aborted cows were found to be significantly (p<0.05) more seropositive 77.8% (95% CI, 52.4-93.6) than the non-aborted cows (77.8%, 95% CI, 52.4-93.6, compared to 44.7%, 95% CI, 33.3-56.6, respectively). Cows having the history of retained placenta were found more positive than without the history of retained placenta (63.2%, 95% CI, 38.4-83.7, compared to 54.7%, 95% CI, 40.4-68.4, respectively). Among the animals of different age groups, BVDV seroprevalence was higher 61.3% (95% CI, 42.2-78.2) in animals of more than 3 years up to 5 years, whereas 32% was in case of 0-1-year-old. Significant variation found in different geographical areas of the study area. Hematological analyses have shown variation between the BVDV positive and negative animals.
Conclusion: Seroprevalence of BVDV found to be high in the study area is also economically important and cause significant damage to the production industry. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct effective control measures to reduce the burden of BVDV.
11. Effects of body conformation and udder morphology on milk yield of zebu cows in North region of Cameroon
Kilekoung Jean-Pierre Mingoas, Julius Awah-Ndukum, Houinga Dakyang and Pagnah Andre Zoli
Veterinary World, 10(8): 901-905
ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of udder morphological characteristics on milk yield in zebu cows of Cameroon.
Materials and Methods: The diameter and height of the udder, length and diameter of the teat, and the milk yield were measured in 29 Djafun (Red Mbororo) and 19 Aku (White Fulani) cows in Lougguere zootechnical station in the North region of Cameroon.
Results: Overall, strong positive correlation (rp=0.60) between the diameter (240.21±28.58 mm) and height (131.12±23.64 mm) of udders (p<0.001) and between length (39.51±6.44 mm) and diameter (19.85±3.08 mm) of teats (rp=0.78) were found in the zebu cows. Udder morphologic characteristics varied significantly (p<0.005) according to breed, lactation stage and parity, and height at whiters. There was significant (p<0.001) correlations between udder diameter (rp=0.541) and height (rp=0.549) with milk yield.
Conclusion: This study ascertained udder morphological characteristics values in local zebu cows, and showed that udder size is strong and positively correlated to milk yield. The findings are useful in genetic improvement programs of zebu cows.
10. Effects of intramammary infusion of sage (Salvia officinalis) essential oil on milk somatic cell count, milk composition parameters and selected hematology and serum biochemical parameters in Awassi sheep with subclinical mastitis
Myassar O. Alekish, Zuhair B. Ismail, Mofleh S. Awawdeh and Shoroq Shatnawi
Veterinary World, 10(8): 895-900
Aim: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of intramammary infusion of sage (Salvia officinalis) essential oil (EO) on milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk composition parameters and selected hematology and serum biochemical parameters in 20 Awassi ewes affected with subclinical mastitis.
Materials and Methods: The dried leaves of sage were used to extract the EO by hydrodistillation. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of sage EO against Staphylococcus aureus were determined by the broth dilution method. Ewes were divided randomly into three main groups and received one of the following treatments; Group 1 (n=5): Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) alone (5 ml; 0.2 ml of DMSO in 4.8 ml of saline), Group 2 (n=5): Amoxicillin alone (3 ml), and Group 3 (n=10): Sage EO (5 ml of sage EO solution [0.2 ml DMSO+1 ml EO+3.8 ml sterile saline]). All treatments were administered by intramammary infusion into each teat twice per day for 3 consecutive days. Milk samples for SCC and milk components determination and whole blood samples for hematology and serum biochemical analyses were collected before treatment (T0) and at 24 (T24) and 48 (T48) h after the last treatment.
Results: The MIC and MBC of sage EO against S. aureus were 12.5% and 6.1%, respectively. SCC was decreased significantly (p<0.05) at T24 and T48 h in sage EO and amoxicillin treated groups. Milk fat and lactose were increased significantly (p<0.05) in sage EO and amoxicillin treated ewes while no significant changes were observed in the percentages of solids-not-fat, protein and total solids. No significant effects of sage EO treatment on any of the hematology or serum biochemical parameters were observed. There were no local or systemic side effects observed in any of the treated ewes. However, further clinical trials are warranted to determine safety and possible withdrawal times in milk before its recommendation for use in organic operations.
Conclusion: In this study, the intramammary infusion of sage EO to ewes affected with subclinical mastitis resulted in a significant decrease in SCC 24 h and 48 h posttreatment. In addition, milk fat and lactose were increased in animals that received the EO as well as in those treated with the antibiotic.
Keywords: antibiotics, alternative treatment, Awassi sheep, mastitis.
9. Cortisol concentration, pain and sedation scale in free roaming dogs treated with carprofen after ovariohysterectomy
Katarina Nenadovic, Marijana Vucinic, Brana Radenkovic-Damnjanovic, Ljiljana Jankovic, Radislava Teodorovic, Eva Voslarova and Zsolt Becskei
Veterinary World, 10(8): 888-894
ABSTRACT Background and Aim: One of the topic issues in animal welfare activities is the free roaming dog welfare especially in developing countries such as Serbia. The way of controlling population of free roaming dogs is their reproduction with the method of "Catch-Neuter-Release." This complex process consists of capturing free roaming dogs in public areas, sterilizing, and returning them to the public area from which they were temporarily removed. Ovariohysterectomy present the period with a high intensity of stress reaction since many veterinarians in Serbia do not use analgesia for this group of dogs. The aim of this study was to compare the serum cortisol concentration before and after ovariohysterectomy and the level of post-operative pain and sedation in a group of free roaming female dogs treated with carprofen after surgical intervention and in a group with no treatment.
Materials and Methods: The study was performed on a total of 20 female dogs under the program for free roaming dog control. Free-roaming dogs were captured in public areas by the communal animal hygiene service and were transported between 30 and 45 min to the clinic of a veterinary practice. Treatment began at 10:00 h on the next day and the bitches were kept in cages until they were returned to public locations from which they were temporarily removed to be sterilized. The G2 group received before closing the incision line carprofen in one dosage of 4 mg/kg given by subcutaneous injection into the scruff. Rescue protocol with carprofen was provided for G1 after 24 h following ovariohysterectomy same dosage as G2. Blood (2 ml) was collected from the cephalic vein of each dog in disposable plastic syringes, containing heparin (1:1000) 4 times: Before ovariohysterectomy, 30, 120 min and 24 h following ovariohysterectomy. Cortisol concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The multifactorial pain and sedation scale were used for the assessment of pain and sedation.
Results: In both groups, the lowest values of serum cortisol concentration were obtained before ovariohysterectomy. Cortisol levels in both groups were significantly higher (p<0.01) 30 and 120 min after ovariohysterectomy and showed a decreasing trend toward the end of the observation period (24 h). The results obtained 15 and 30 min after the surgical intervention have revealed a statistically significant difference between the groups (p<0.05) showing that female dogs treated with carprofen had a lower value on the pain scale and a higher value on the sedation scale compared to the group with no treatment.
Conclusion: Carprofen provides both a restful consequence of sedation and a rapid return to a more normal physiological and behavioral state in dogs after ovariohysterectomy.
8. Influence of microclimatic ammonia levels on productive performance of different broilers' breeds estimated with univariate and multivariate approaches
Essam S. Soliman, Sherif A. Moawed and Rania A. Hassan
Veterinary World, 10(8): 880-887
Background and Aim: Birds litter contains unutilized nitrogen in the form of uric acid that is converted into ammonia; a fact that does not only affect poultry performance but also has a negative effect on people's health around the farm and contributes in the environmental degradation. The influence of microclimatic ammonia emissions on Ross and Hubbard broilers reared in different housing systems at two consecutive seasons (fall and winter) was evaluated using a discriminant function analysis to differentiate between Ross and Hubbard breeds.
Materials and Methods: A total number of 400 air samples were collected and analyzed for ammonia levels during the experimental period. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Results: Ammonia levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) in the Ross compared to the Hubbard breed farm, although no significant differences (p>0.05) were found between the two farms in body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and performance index (PI) of broilers. Body weight; weight gain and PI had increased values (p<0.01) during fall compared to winter irrespective of broiler breed. Ammonia emissions were positively (although weekly) correlated with the ambient relative humidity (r=0.383; p<0.01), but not with the ambient temperature (r=-0.045; p>0.05). Test of significance of discriminant function analysis did not show a classification based on the studied traits suggesting that they cannot been used as predictor variables. The percentage of correct classification was 52% and it was improved after deletion of highly correlated traits to 57%. Conclusion: The study revealed that broiler's growth was negatively affected by increased microclimatic ammonia concentrations and recommended the analysis of broilers' growth performance parameters data using multivariate discriminant function analysis. Keywords: ammonia, broiler, discriminant function analysis, growth performance parameters, humidity, temperature.
7. A 3-year prospective study of the incidence of gastric ulcers in pigs slaughtered at Base Abattoir in Rwanda
Borden Mushonga, Bernard Yabaragiye, Erick Kandiwa, Gervais Habarugira and Alaster Samkange
Veterinary World, 10(8): 873-879.
Aim: Determination of the incidence of gastric ulcers in pigs slaughtered at Base Abattoir in Rwanda.
Materials and Methods: Stomachs from all 5040 pigs that were slaughtered at Base Abattoir in Rwanda from August 2012 to August 2015 were examined for the presence and location of gastric ulcers. The results of the inspections were recorded and analyzed. Statistical analysis for Chi-square values was performed using the Software Package for Social Sciences version 16.0. The Z test for comparison of proportions was used and p<0.05 was considered significant.
Results: Overall as well as per district, significantly more male pigs than female pigs were slaughtered (p<0.05). The incidence of gastric ulcers in slaughter pigs was 12.86%. The incidence of gastric ulcers in males (13.36%) was not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in female pigs (12.84%) in all three districts. A significantly greater proportion of these ulcers (69.03%) was located in the esophageal region than in the glandular region of the stomach (30.97%) in slaughtered males (p<0.05). A significantly greater proportion of these ulcers (79.59%) was located in the esophageal region than in the glandular region of the stomach (20.41%) in slaughtered females (p<0.05). The overall incidence of esophageal ulcers (9.44%) in the slaughtered pigs was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of glandular region ulcers (3.41%). Pigs with carcass weight over 60 kg showed a significantly (p<0.05) higher (44.44%) incidence of ulcers than those between 40 and 60 kg (33.33%) and those below 40 kg (22.22%).
Conclusion: It was concluded that the incidence of gastric ulceration in slaughter pigs at Base Abattoir was not associated with source (district) or sex of pigs but was associated with the carcass weight.
Keywords: Base Abattoir, gastric ulcers, pigs, Rwanda.
6. Therapeutic uses of epicatechin in diabetes and cancer
Layth Abdulmajeed Abdulkhaleq, Mohammed Abdulrazzaq Assi, Mohd Hezmee Mohd Noor, Rasedee Abdullah, Mohd Zamri Saad and Yun Hin Taufiq-Yap
Veterinary World, 10(8): 869-872
Epicatechin is a natural flavonoid found in green tea. It has been reported to possess an immense antioxidant effect which contributes to its therapeutic effect against a handful of ailments. In this review, we discuss its therapeutic role in the management of two of the most important human diseases; diabetes and cancer. The consumption of epicatechin has been shown to reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic patients, while is anticancer effect was attributed to its antioxidant properties, antiangiogenic and direct cytotoxicity to cancer cells. Although the exact mechanism of action of epicatechin is still being explored, there is no doubt that it is a promising candidate as an alternative. The significance of this review is to highlight the importance of the usage of natural products (in this case, epicatechin) as an alternative for the treatment of two potentially fatal diseases which is diabetes and cancer. The aim of this review is to educate the scientific community on the role of epicatechin in ameliorating the effects of diabetes and cancers on human while understanding the potential mechanisms of these aforementioned effects.
5. Effect of Calotropis procera (madar) and amprolium supplementation on parasitological parameters of broilers during mixed Eimeria species infection
Sakshi Chauhan, V. S. Singh and Vipul Thakur
Veterinary World, 10(8): 864-868
Aim: An experiment was conducted on day old 168 broiler chicks to study the effect of 0.4% as well as 0.2% Calotropis procera (madar) leaf powder and 0.0125% amprolium supplementation on parasitological parameters of broilers during mixed Eimeria species infection.
Materials and Methods: Chicks were randomly divided into seven groups (I-VII) each with two replicates of 12 chicks. On 15th day of experiment, broilers of Group II, IV, VI, and VII were infected with 50,000 sporulated oocysts of mixed Eimeria species. To evaluate the anticoccidial effect of different feed supplements percent fecal score, percent survival, percent weight gain, performance index (PI), average oocyst production, and percent reduction in oocyst production were calculated.
Results: It was observed that amprolium supplementation had maximum anticoccidial effect as it gave the best efficacy in terms of all parameters, whereas supplementation of 0.4% madar leaf powder showed nonsignificant difference with amprolium for some parameters such as percent survival, percent weight gain, and PI.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that madar (C. procera) leaf powder and amprolium had comparable activity against coccidiosis. Hence, madar leaf powder may be used for the prevention and control of mixed Eimeriaspp. infection prevalent in field conditions.
4. Prevalence of enteropathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in puppies with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis
A. Kokila Priya, M. Balagangatharathilagar, D. Chandrasekaran, M. Parthiban and S. Prathaban
Veterinary World, 10(8): 859-863
Aim: Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE) ranging from mild to severe forms is commonly encountered in puppies. The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of common enteropathogens and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern in puppies reported with HGE.
Materials and Methods: The canine HGE activity index, with little modification, was adopted to identify Grade III/ severely affected puppies below 6 months of age. Fecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was employed to screen and compare the enteropathogens in puppies with hemorrhagic diarrhea and healthy control.
Results: Canine parvovirus 2b was identified in 90.3% of the diarrheic and 10% of the non-diarrheic healthy puppies. Clostridium difficile was identified in all the diarrheic puppies and in 80% of the healthy puppies. Among the diarrheic puppies, 17.7% were positive for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, 9.7% were positive for C. perfringens alpha toxin, 6.4% were positive for Escherichia coli shiga toxin, 6.4% were positive for E. coli enterotoxin (LT), and 3.2% were positive for canine distemper virus. Whereas, none of the healthy puppies were positive for these bacteria and toxins. Fecal antibiotic sensitivity test pattern revealed gentamicin to be sensitive in 95% of the cases, azithromycin in 50%, enrofloxacin in 25%, cefotaxime in 20%, and tetracycline in 5% of the cases.
Conclusion: Parvoviral enteritis is predominant among puppies. Yet, bacteria and their toxins also play an important role in HGE. Gentamicin has higher sensitivity against the enteropathogens associated with the condition.
Aim: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) has potential economic effects to both animal products and human health. A vaccine to protect livestock against CE can be effective in reducing economic costs and increasing the livestock products. Protoscolex tegumental surface antigens (PSTSA) used to induce the production of specific antibodies against Echinococcus granulosus in sheep. The tegumental antigens were extracted from viable protoscolices by solubilization in sterile phosphate-buffered saline containing decanoyl-N-methylglucamine.
Materials and Methods: Ten lambs which were infected with CE (positive control), 10 negative control, and 10 test groups of sheep were included in the study. 300 μg emulsion of purified-PSTSA was injected intramuscularly in a two-step immunization on the first and 30 days. Sera were collected immediately before immunization and 6 times with 10-day intervals until 60 days post immunization. Thereafter, the sera were tested for antibodies by indirect hemagglutination test in microtiter plate.
Results: After two immunizations, all the infected animals in test group showed substantial increases in antibody titer. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the titer obtained in the test and negative control groups in both phases of immunization (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The results showed that the PSTSA is a promising immunogenic compound for immunization of sheep against CE.
2. Preparation and evaluation of Salmonella Enteritidis antigen conjugated with nanogold for screening of poultry flocks
Hazem Mohammed Ibrahim, Rafik Hamed Sayed, Wafaa Ragab Abdel-Aziz and Rafik Tawfik Soliman
Veterinary World, 10(8): 848-853
Aim: The present work aimed to develop lateral flow immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test for detection of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) specific antibodies in chicken sera.
Materials and Methods: A rapid lateral flow immunochromatographic test (LFIT) has been developed, in which SE Group D antigen labeled with the gold chloride molecules laid on the conjugate pad. Staphylococcus aureus protein A was used as capture antibody at the test line (T) of a nitrocellulose (NC) membrane and anti-SE antigen-specific rabbit antibodies were used as capture antibody at the control line (C) of the NC strip in the lateral flow layout device.
Results: Using the developed LFIT, the minimal amount of SE-specific antibodies that can be detected in chicken serum sample was 1427 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) unit/100 μl that was equal to 0.1 μg (Ab)/100 μl sample. 100 suspected serum samples collected from a poultry flock were tested with the prepared SE-LFIT kits and the locally prepared stained Salmonella antigen, and the results were compared with those obtained from examination of these samples with Salmonella Group D antibody ELISA kit as the gold standard test. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the prepared SE-LFIT antigen kits were 94.4%, 90%, and 94%, respectively, while those obtained with stained Salmonella antigen were 88.8%, 90%, and 89%, respectively.
Conclusion: The developed test is a simple field rapid test of high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy that can improve and facilitates rapid field surveillance of salmonellosis among chickens.
1. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxigenic strains in bovine raw milk by reversed passive latex agglutination and multiplex polymerase chain reaction
Asmaa Samy Mansour, Gad El-Said Wagih, Sabry D. Morgan, Mahmoud Elhariri, Mona A. El-Shabrawy, Azza S. M. Abuelnaga and E. A. Elgabry
Veterinary World, 10(8): 843-847
Aim: This review gives an outline of the assessment of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus tainting levels in raw milk from different sources in Egypt and characterization of enterotoxigenic strains utilizing a technique in light of PCR to identify genes coding for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE). The obtained data were compared with results from the application of the reversed passive latex.
Materials and Methods: Multiplex PCR and reversed passive latex agglutination (RPLA) were used. A total of 141 samples of raw milk (cow's milk=33, buffalo's milk=58, and bulk tank milk=50) were investigated for S. aureus contamination and tested for enterotoxin genes presence and toxin production.
Results:S. aureus was detected in 23 (16.3%) samples phenotypically and genotypically by amplification of nuc gene. The S. aureus isolates were investigated for SEs genes (sea to see) by multiplex PCR and the toxin production by these isolates was screened by RPLA. SEs genes were detected in six isolates (26.1%) molecularly; see was the most observed gene where detected in all isolates, two isolates harbored seb, and two isolates harbored sec. According to RPLA, three isolates produced SEB and SEC.
Conclusion: The study revealed the widespread of S. aureus strains caring genes coding for toxins. The real significance of the presence of these strains or its toxins in raw milk and their possible impact a potential hazard for staphylococcal food poisoning by raw milk consumption. Therefore, detection of enterotoxigenic S. aureus strains in raw milk is necessary for consumer safety.
Keywords: enterotoxin genes, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, reversed passive latex agglutination, raw milk, S. aureus.