Saturday, 24 June 2017

Tetracycline resistance phenotypes and genotypes of coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates from bubaline mastitis in Egypt

Research (Published online: 25-06-2017)
21. Tetracycline resistance phenotypes and genotypes of coagulase-negative staphylococcal 
isolates from bubaline mastitis in Egypt
K. A. Abd El-Razik, A. A. Arafa, R. H. Hedia and E. S. Ibrahim
Veterinary World, 10(6): 702-710
Aim: This study was devoted to elucidate the tetracycline resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) derived from normal and subclinical mastitic (SCM) buffaloes' milk in Egypt.
Materials and Methods: A total of 81 milk samples from 46 normal buffalo milk samples and 35 SCM buffalo milk samples at private dairy farms of Egypt were used in this study. CNS were identified using phenotypic and molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]). CNS isolates were tested for tetracycline resistance using routine methods and multiplex PCR targeting tetracycline (tet) resistance genes followed by sequencing of positive PCR products and phylogenetic analysis.
Results: Isolation and identification of 28 (34.5%) CNS from normal and SCM buffaloes' milk, namely, Staphylococcus intermedius (39.2%), Staphylococcus xylosus (25.0%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (10.7%), Staphylococcus hominis (10.7%), and 3.5% to each of Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus hyicus, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, and Staphylococcus simulans. Using nested PCR, all the 28 CNS isolates revealed positive for 16srRNA gene specific for genus staphylococci and negative for thermonuclease (nuc) gene specific for Staphylococcus aureus species. The presence of tetracycline resistance-encoding genes (tetK, tetL, tetM, and tetO) was detected by multiplex PCR. All isolates were negative for tetL, M, and O genes while 14 (50%) CNS isolates were positive for tetK gene, namely, S. lugdunensis (100%), S. hominis (100%), S. epidermidis (66.6%), S. intermedius(45.4%), and S. xylosus (42.8%). Nucleotide sequencing of tetK gene followed by phylogenetic analysis showed the high homology between our CNS isolates genes of tetracycline resistance with S. aureus isolates including Egyptian ones. This proves the transfer of the tetracycline resistance encoding genes between coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp.
Conclusion: CNS isolates have distinguishingly high resistance to tetracycline. Abundant tetracycline usage for mastitis treatment leads to the spread of genetic resistance mechanisms inside CNS strains and among all Staphylococcus spp. Consequently, tetracycline is not effective anymore.
Keywords: buffaloes, coagulase-negative staphylococci, mastitis, tetracycline resistance, tetK gene.

Investigation of avian influenza infection in wild birds in Ismailia and Damietta cities, Egypt

Research (Published online: 25-06-2017)
20. Investigation of avian influenza infection in wild birds in Ismailia and Damietta cities, Egypt
Hanaa Mohamed Fadel and Rabab Afifi
Veterinary World, 10(6): 695-701
Aim: This study was carried out to monitor avian influenza (AI) infection in wild birds in Egypt.
Materials and Methods: A total of 135 wild birds were examined for the presence of H5, H7, and H9 hemagglutination inhibition antibodies. Organs and swab samples of 75 birds were screened by multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) to detect AI subtypes H5, H7, and H9 matrix genes.
Results: The highest seropositive result was recorded in cattle egrets (90.9%) followed by crows (88.6%), semi-captive pigeons (44.8%), and moorhens (39.1%). In cattle egrets, semi-captive pigeons and moorhens, H5 antibodies predominated. In crows, H9 antibodies predominated. Multiple infections with two or three virus subtypes were highest in crows (6/39, 15.4%) followed by cattle egrets (3/30, 10%) and moorhens' (1/9, 11.1%) positive samples. Multiplex RRT-PCR results revealed two positive samples in cattle egrets and moorhens.
Conclusion: The results indicated high seropositive rates against AI virus subtypes H5 and H9 in the examined wild birds. Multiple infections with more than one AI virus (AIV) subtypes were detected in some birds. This requires a collaboration of efforts to monitor AIV infection in wild birds and implement suitable early intervention measures.
Keywords: avian influenza, hemagglutination inhibition, real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, wild birds.

Epidemiological study of tick infestation in buffalo of various regions of district Khairpur, Pakistan

Research (Published online: 24-06-2017)
19. Epidemiological study of tick infestation in buffalo of various regions of district Khairpur, Pakistan
Farzana Abbasi, Imtiaz Hussain Raja Abbasi, Tahmeena Fakhur Nissa, Zohaib Ahmed Bhutto, Muhammed Asif Arain, Rab Nawaz Soomro, Farman Ali Siyal and Sarfraz Ali Fazlani
Veterinary World, 10(6): 688-694
doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.688-694


Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological infestation and identification of Ixodidae and Argasidae ticks species in buffalo of different parts of district Khairpur, Pakistan.

Materials and Methods: A total of 720 Water buffaloes from three tehsils (subdivisions) were selected randomly and examined from organized and unorganized dairy farms for tick infestation in district Khairpur, Pakistan. This epidemiological survey was conducted during April to September 2015.

Results: The overall mean population and preferred site of tick attachment to infested animals, in Gambat, Sobhodero, and Kot Diji tehsils, were observed on different body parts. The primary body area of infestation by ticks (head, thorax, abdomen, udder, and tail) ranged from highest in tail and udder part compared to lowest in the abdomen, head, and thorax. In all study areas, the infestation was higher (p<0.05) in tail and udder than other parts of the body. In all the study areas, the overall highest population was found in the month of July. In addition, we first time identify four new species of ticks (Hyalomma anatolicum, H. anatolicum excavatum, Hyalomma Ixodes excavatum, and Ixodes ricinus) in district Khairpur, Pakistan.

Conclusion: Results of this study provide additional information of epidemiological tick infestation, and will be helpful for evolving effective control policy for the management of tick infestation in study district.

Keywords: Argasidae, buffalo, identification, Ixodidae, population, prevalence, ticks, tick infestation.

Th1/Th2 balance and humoral immune response to potential antigens as early diagnostic method of equine Strongylus nematode infection

Research (Published online: 24-06-2017)
18. Th1/Th2 balance and humoral immune response to potential antigens as early diagnostic method of equine Strongylus nematode infection
Faten A. M. Abo-Aziza, Seham H. M. Hendawy, Amira H. El Namaky and Heba M. Ashry
Veterinary World, 10(6): 679-687

doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.679-687


Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the early diagnosis of strongyle infection based on early changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokines beside the diagnostic accuracy values and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting profiles using prepared strongyles antigens.

Materials and Methods: A total of 73 donkeys had a mean age of 4-32 years old were parasitologically examined for strongyle infection. The early changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokines were determined, and the diagnostic accuracy values and SDS-PAGE and western blotting profiles were performed using prepared strongyles antigens; crude somatic Strongylus vulgaris (CSS), excretory-secretory S. vulgaris (ESS), crude somatic Cyathostomins (CSC), and excretory-secretory Cyathostomins (ESC).

Results: The results revealed highest 437.04% and lowest 37.81% immunoglobulin G (IgG) in high and low egg shedder groups when using ESC and CSS antigens, respectively. Antibodies index for ESS and CSC were significantly higher in moderate egg shedder group while that for ESS and CSC, ESC was significantly higher in high egg shedder group. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)/interleukin-4 (IL-4) balance in S. vulgaris infected donkeys was approximately equal in apparently healthy, low and high egg shedder groups while TNF-α < IL-4 in moderate egg shedder. In Cyathostomins infected animals, TNF-α/IL-4 balance was approximately equal in apparently healthy group while it was low in moderate and high egg shedder groups. The diagnostic accuracy showed that the higher specificity (46.6%) and prevalence (95.40%) were recorded by CSS and ESC antigens, respectively. However, SDS-PAGE and western blotting profiling proved that the band at molecular weight 25 kDa is exhibited by CSS antigen.

Conclusion: Combination of detecting level of TNF-α/IL-4 balance, CSS antigen and IgG concentration is good tool for appropriate diagnosis of such infection. More advancement research must be done concerning Th1/Th2 balance and cross-reactivity of S. vulgaris and Cyathostomins spp. at the base of serological and molecular investigation.

Keywords: cytokines, interleukin-4, Strongylus, Th1, Th2, tumor necrosis factor alpha.

Monday, 19 June 2017

Effect of different concentrations of soybean lecithin and virgin coconut oil in Tris-based extender on the quality of chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen

Research (Published online: 20-06-2017)
17. Effect of different concentrations of soybean lecithin and virgin coconut oil in Tris-based extender on the quality of chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen
A. A. Tarig, H. Wahid, Y. Rosnina, N. Yimer, Y. M. Goh, F. H. Baiee, A. M. Khumran, H. Salman, M. A. Assi and M. Ebrahimi
Veterinary World, 10(6): 672-678


Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of soybean lecithin (SL) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) in Tris-based extender on chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen quality parameters.

Materials and Methods: A total of 24 ejaculates were collected from four bulls via an electroejaculator. Semen samples were diluted with 2% VCO in Tris-based extender which consists of various concentrations of SL (1, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75%). A 20% egg yolk in Tris used as a positive control (C+). The diluted semen samples were divided into two fractions; one for chilling which were stored at 4°C for 24, 72, and 144 h before evaluated for semen quality parameters. The second fraction used for freezing was chilled for 3 h at 4°C, packed into 0.25 mL straws and then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. The samples were then evaluated after 7 and 14 days. Chilled and frozen semen samples were thawed at 37°C and assessed for general motility using computer-assisted semen analysis, viability, acrosome integrity and morphology (eosin-nigrosin stain), membrane integrity, and lipid peroxidation using thiobarbituric acid reaction test.

Results: The results showed that all the quality parameters assessed were significantly (p<0.05) improved at 1.5% SL concentration in chilled semen. Treatment groups of 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75% SL were higher in quality parameters than the control group (C+) in chilled semen. However, all the quality parameters in frozen-thawed semen were significantly higher in the C+ than the treated groups.

Conclusion: In conclusion, supplementation of 1.5% SL in 2% VCO Tris-based extender enhanced the chilled bull semen. However, there was no marked improvement in the frozen-thawed quality parameters after treatment.

Keywords: bull semen, cryopreservation, quality parameters, soybean lecithin, virgin coconut oil.

Sunday, 18 June 2017

Coxiellosis in domestic livestock of Puducherry and Tamil Nadu: Detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA by polymerase chain reaction in slaughtered ruminants

Research (Published online: 19-06-2017)
16. Coxiellosis in domestic livestock of Puducherry and Tamil Nadu: Detection of 
Coxiella burnetii DNA by polymerase chain reaction in slaughtered ruminants
Jothimani Pradeep, Selvaraj Stephen, Pratheesh Pooja, Anbalagan Akshayavardhini, Balakrishnan Sangeetha and Prabakar Xavier Antony
Veterinary World, 10(6): 667-671
Background and Aim: In the course of our Indian Council of Medical Research project on coxiellosis in Puducherry and Tamil Nadu, 5.64% goat, 1.85% sheep, 1.06% buffaloes, and 0.97% cattle were positive for Coxiella burnetii antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit (IDEXX, Liebefeld, Switzerland). In this preliminary study, we have proceeded to look for C. burnetii DNA in those antibody positive specimens employing an imported commercial C. burnetii polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected during slaughtering. All 15 blood samples of antibody positive ruminants and three antibody negative samples were subjected to conventional Trans-PCR assay with a commercial PCR kit (Genekam Biotechnology AG, Duisburg, Germany). An in-house Trans-PCR was included in the study for comparison.
Results: A total of 15 antibody positive and three antibody-negative serum samples belonging to 11 goat, 4 sheep, 1 cattle, and 2 buffaloes were tested in duplicate for the presence of C. burnetii DNA by the commercial agar gel PCR kit and an in-house Trans-PCR. Only one buffalo serum sample was positive for C. burnetii with a band at 243 bp in in-house Trans-PCR.
Discussion: Seropositivity for C. burnetii need not necessarily translate into infectivity status of the animal. Conversely, seronegative ruminants can shed C. burnetii. Rapid disintegration of C. burnetii DNA during the storage period is an important impediment in QF-PCR research. This is the first time the performance of this commercial PCR kit is being validated in India.
Conclusion: Commercial PCR kit, Genekam did not identify any positive sample, probably because it targeted a larger amplicon of 687 bp.
Keywords: Coxiella burnetii DNA, coxiellosis, Trans-polymerase chain reaction.

Saturday, 17 June 2017

Changes in histopathology and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 expression in skin graft with different time on Indonesian local cats

Research (Published online: 18-06-2017)
15. Changes in histopathology and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 expression in skin graft with 
different time on Indonesian local cats
Erwin, Etriwati, Gunanti, Ekowati Handharyani and Deni Noviana
Veterinary World, 10(6): 662-666
Aim: A good skin graft histopathology is followed by formation of hair follicle, sweat gland, sebaceous gland, blood vessel, lightly dense connective tissue, epidermis, and dermis layer. This research aimed to observe histopathology feature and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 expression on cat skin post skin grafting within a different period of time.
Materials and Methods: Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old weighing 3-4 kg were separated into three groups. First surgery created defect wound of 2 cm x 2 cm in size to whole groups. The wounds were left alone for several days, differing in interval between each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days), Group II (for 4 days), and Group III (for 6 days). The second surgery was done to each group which harvested skin of thoracic area and applied it on recipient wound bed. On day 24th post skin graft was an examination of histopathology and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 immunohistochemistry.
Results: Group I donor skin's epidermis layer had not formed completely whereas epidermis of donor skin of Groups II and III had completely formed. In all group hair follicle, sweat gland, sebaceous gland, and neovascularization were found. The density of connective tissue in Group I was very solid than other groups. Cytokeratin AE1/AE3 expression was found on donor skin's epithelial cell in epidermis and dermis layer with very brown intensity for Group II, brown intensity for Group II, and lightly brown for Group I.
Conclusion: Histopathological structure and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 expression post skin graft are better in Groups II and III compared to Group I.
Keywords: cats, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, histopathology, skin graft.

Hemogram responses in goats toward challenged with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and its immunogen mycolic acids

14. Hemogram responses in goats toward challenged with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and its immunogen mycolic acids
Mohammed Naji Odhah, Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah, Abd Wahid Haron, Mohd. Azmi Mohd. Lila, Mohd. Zamri-Saad, Zaid Khuder, Idris Umar Hambali, Muhammed Umar and Wessam Monther Saleh
Veterinary World, 10(6): 655-661

doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.655-661


Aim: This study was conducted to analyze the changes in blood profile of goats inoculated with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and its immunogen mycolic acid (MA) extract.

Materials and Methods: A total of 12 clinically healthy crossbred Boer female goats were divided into three groups; A, B and C (4 goats each per group). Group A was inoculated with 2 ml sterile phosphate buffered saline via intradermal route as the negative control group whilst Group B was inoculated with 2 ml of MA extract (1 g/ml) intradermally and Group C was then inoculated with 2 ml (1x109) colony forming unit of active C. pseudotuberculosis intradermally. Blood sample was collected aseptically from the jugular vein periodically for complete blood count (CBC) analysis throughout the experimental period (3 months).

Results: A significant decrease (p<0.05) was observed in red blood cells, hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular Hb concentration in Groups B and C as compared to the control while WBCs, neutrophil, lymphocyte and basophil showed a significant increase (p<0.05) as compared to the control.

Conclusion: The inoculation of C. pseudotuberculosis and MA resulted in a significant change in the CBC, thereby, indicating that MA has a role in caseous lymphadenitis pathogenesis.

Keywords: complete blood count, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, goat, hematology, mycolic acid.

Thursday, 15 June 2017

Effect of season on physiological, biochemical, hormonal, and oxidative stress parameters of indigenous sheep

Research (Published online: 16-06-2017)
13. Effect of season on physiological, biochemical, hormonal, and oxidative stress parameters of indigenous sheep
Sawankumar D. Rathwa, A. A. Vasava, M. M. Pathan, S. P. Madhira, Y. G. Patel and A. M. Pande
Veterinary World, 10(6): 650-654
Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of summer and winter season on physiological, biochemical, hormonal, and antioxidant parameters in Indigenous sheep.
Materials and Methods: The research was carried out during summer and winter season. 8 adult apparently healthy female sheep (aged 2-4 years) of similar physiological status were selected. Daily ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded to calculate the temperature-humidity index (THI). The THI value of summer and winter season were 82.55 and 59.36, respectively, which indicate extreme hot condition during summer season and extreme cold condition during winter season. Physiological parameters were recorded daily during the experimental periods. Blood samples were collected at weekly interval and analyzed for biochemical, hormonal, and antioxidant parameters. The results were analyzed using completely randomized design.
Results: From data obtained in this study, we found that higher THI during summer have significant effect over various physiological, biochemical, hormonal, and enzymatic indices of indigenous sheep. The physiological response such as rectal temperature, respiration rate (RR), pulse rate (PR), and skin temperature (ST) was increased significantly. We also found a significant increase in some biochemical parameters such as blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, creatinine (Cr), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), sodium (Na), and potassium (K). The level of cortisol hormone and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and lipid peroxidase (LPO) antioxidants increased significantly during summer. Whereas, some parameters such as glucose, cholesterol, calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus (IP), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) were decreased significantly during summer season.
Conclusion: It was concluded that the THI is a sensitive indicator of heat stress and is impacted by ambient temperature more than the relative humidity in Indigenous sheep. Higher THI is associated with significant increase in RT, RR, PR, ST, BUN, uric acid, Cr, ALT, AST, Na, K, cortisol, SOD, GPx, and LPO and with a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol, Ca, IP, T3 and T4.
Keywords: biochemical, indigenous sheep, physiological, temperature humidity index.

Wednesday, 14 June 2017

Induced pluripotent stem cell: A headway in reprogramming with promising approach in regenerative biology

Review (Published online: 14-06-2017)
12. Induced pluripotent stem cell: A headway in reprogramming with promising approach in regenerative biology
N. Rawat and M. K. Singh
Veterinary World, 10(6): 640-649
Since the embryonic stem cells have knocked the doorsteps, they have proved themselves in the field of science, research, and medicines, but the hovered restrictions confine their application in human welfare. Alternate approaches used to reprogram the cells to the pluripotent state were not up to par, but the innovation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) paved a new hope for the researchers. Soon after the discovery, iPSCs technology is undergoing renaissance day by day, i.e., from the use of genetic material to recombinant proteins and now only chemicals are employed to convert somatic cells to iPSCs. Thus, this technique is moving straightforward and productive at an astonishing pace. Here, we provide a brief introduction to iPSCs, the mechanism and methods for their generation, their prevailing and prospective applications and the future opportunities that can be expected from them.
Keywords: cellular reprogramming, embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, stem cells.

Monday, 12 June 2017

Seroprevalence of antibodies to astrovirus in chickens in Grenada, West Indies

Research (Published online: 13-06-2017)
11. Seroprevalence of antibodies to astrovirus in chickens in Grenada, West Indies
Ravindra Nath Sharma, Romane Dufayet, Thomas Maufras, Kathryn O' Connell and Keshaw Tiwari
Veterinary World, 10(6): 636-639
Aim: Chicken astroviruses (CAstV) are known to cause mild gastroenteritis, growth depression, and even mortality in poultry, especially in chickens, turkeys, and ducks. To the best our knowledge, there is no published information on CAstV in Grenada. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of astrovirus in chickens in Grenada.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples from 366 indigenous chickens and 92 commercial chicken layers were collected from all parishes of the island and tested for antibodies against CAstV using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: The seroprevalence of antibodies against astrovirus was 57.6% (95%, Confidence interval [CI]: 47.4-67.2) in commercial layers and 61.5% (95%, CI: 56.4-66.3) in indigenous chickens. The results show the presence of infection throughout the island.
Conclusion: The results show the infection with CAstV in approximately half of the chicken population in Grenada. This is the first report on the prevalence of CAstV in chickens in Grenada and the Caribbean region.
Keywords: Astrovirus, chicken astroviruses, chickens, Grenada, seroprevalence.

Saturday, 10 June 2017

Enhancing the growth performance of replacement female breeder goats through modification of feeding program

Research (Published online: 11-06-2017)
10. Enhancing the growth performance of replacement female breeder goats through modification 
of feeding program
A. A. A. Ghani, M. S. Shahudin, M. Zamri-Saad, A. B. Zuki, H. Wahid, A. Kasim, M. S. Salisi and 
Hasliza Abu Hassim
Veterinary World, 10(6): 630-635
Aim: The study was conducted at a smallholder goat farm located in Labu, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of proper feeding program on growth performances of replacement breeder goats.
Materials and Methods: A total of 30 healthy female boer cross goats at the age of 4 months old with average initial live body weight (BW) of 20.05±0.5 kg were used for on-farm feeding trial to evaluate the growth performance as preparation for breeding purposes. The experimental goats were divided into two groups of 15 animals each labeled as control and treatment groups, which were kept under intensive farming system. Goats in control group were fed with normal routine feeding protocol practiced by the farmer, while goats in the treatment group were fed with new feed formulation. Throughout the experimental period, on-farm monitoring and data collection were carried out. Initial BW and body condition score (BCS) were recorded before the start of the experiment while final BW and BCS were gained after 7 months of the experimental period. Average daily gain (ADG) was calculated after the experiment end. Data on BW, ADG, and BCS were recorded from both groups for every 2 weeks and reported monthly. The feed intake for the control group was 2.8 kg/animal/day which practiced by the farmer and 3.2 kg/animal/day as new feed formulation for the treatment group.
Results: After 7 months of the experimental period, final BW shows an improvement in treatment group (39.1±1.53 kg) compared with control group (32.3±1.23 kg). The ADG in treatment group also gives promising result when comparing with control group. Goats in treatment group significantly attained better ADG than control group which were 126.7 g/day and 83.3 g/day, respectively. For the BCS, goats in the treatment group had shown an improvement where 86.67% (13 out of 15) of the group had BCS≥3 (1-5 scoring scale) and only 66.67% (10 out of 15) of the control group had BCS≥3.
Conclusion: Therefore, it was concluded that implementation of proper feeding program as shown in treatment group give promising result to improve the growth performance of replacement breeder goats which can be adopted by the farmers to improve farm productivity.
Keywords: feeding, goat, growth performance, replacement breeder.

Study of morphology, chemical, and amino acid composition of red deer meat

Research (Published online: 10-06-2017)
9. Study of morphology, chemical, and amino acid composition of red deer meat
Eleonora Okuskhanova, Bahytkul Assenova, Maksim Rebezov, Kumarbek Amirkhanov, Zhanibek Yessimbekov, 
Farida Smolnikova, Almagul Nurgazezova, Gulnur Nurymkhan and Marilyne Stuart
Veterinary World, 10(6): 623-629
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate red deer (maral) meat quality based on chemical composition, pH, water-binding capacity (WBC), and amino acid content.
Materials and Methods: Maral meat surface morphology measurements were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Active acidity (pH) was determined by potentiometry. Samples were analyzed for WBC by exudation of moisture to a filter paper by the application of pressure. Chemical composition (moisture, protein, fat, and ash fractions) was obtained by drying at 150°C and by extraction, using ethylic ether, and ashing at 500-600°C. The amino acid composition was obtained by liquid chromatography.
Results: Maral meat, with a pH of 5.85 and an average moisture content of 76.82%, was found to be low in fat (2.26%). Its protein content was 18.71% while its ash content was 2.21%. The amino acid composition showed that lysine (9.85 g/100 g), threonine (5.38 g/100 g), and valine (5.84 g/100 g) predominated in maral meat, while phenylalanine (4.08 g/100 g), methionine (3.29 g/100 g), and tryptophan (0.94 g/100 g) were relatively low in maral meat compared to other meats. The average WBC was found to be 65.82% and WBC was found to inversely correlate with moisture content.
Conclusion: Low-fat content, high mineral content, and balanced amino-acid composition qualify maral meat as a worthy dietary and functional food.
Keywords: amino acid, composition, maral, red deer meat, quality, water-binding capacity.

Friday, 9 June 2017

Effect of high and low roughage total mixed ration diets on rumen metabolites and enzymatic profiles in crossbred cattle and buffaloes

Research (Published online: 09-06-2017)
8. Effect of high and low roughage total mixed ration diets on rumen metabolites and enzymatic profiles in crossbred cattle and buffaloes
S. K. Sinha, V. B. Chaturvedi, Putan Singh, L. C. Chaudhary, Mayukh Ghosh and Swati Shivani
Veterinary World, 10(6): 616-622

doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.616-622


Aim: A comparative study was conducted on crossbred cattle and buffaloes to investigate the effect of feeding high and low roughage total mixed ration (TMR) diets on rumen metabolites and enzymatic profiles.

Materials and Methods: Three rumen-fistulated crossbred cattle and buffalo were randomly assigned as per 3x3 switch over design for 21-days. Three TMR diets consisting of concentrate mixture, wheat straw and green maize fodder in the ratios of (T1) 60:20:20, (T2) 40:30:30, and (T3) 20:40:40, respectively, were fed to the animals ad libitum. Rumen liquor samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h post feeding for the estimation of rumen biochemical parameters on 2 consecutive days in each trial.

Results: The lactic acid concentration and pH value were comparable in both species and treatments. Feed intake (99.77±2.51 g/kg body weight), ruminal ammonia nitrogen, and total nitrogen were significantly (p<0.05) higher in buffalo and in treatment group fed with high concentrate diet. Production of total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was non-significant (p>0.05) among treatments and significantly (p<0.05) greater in crossbred cattle than buffaloes. Molar proportions of individual VFAs propionate (C3), propionate:butyrate (C3:C4), and (acetate+butyrate):propionate ([C2+C4]:C3) ratio in both crossbred cattle and buffalo were not affected by high or low roughage diet, but percentage of acetate and butyrate varied significantly (p<0.05) among treatment groups. Activities of microbial enzymes were comparable among species and different treatment groups. A total number of rumen protozoa were significantly (p<0.05) higher in crossbred cattle than buffaloes along with significantly (p<0.05) higher population in animal fed with high concentrate diet (T1).

Conclusion: Rumen microbial population and fermentation depend on constituents of the treatment diet. However, microbial enzyme activity remains similar among species and different treatments. High concentrate diet increases number of rumen protozoa, and the number is higher in crossbred cattle than buffaloes.

Keywords: buffalo, crossbred cattle, rumen ecology, rumen metabolites.

Thursday, 8 June 2017

Using real-time polymerase chain reaction as an alternative rapid method for enumeration of colony count in live Brucella vaccines

Research (Published online: 08-06-2017)
7. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction as an alternative rapid method for enumeration 
of colony count in live Brucella vaccines
Waleed S. Shell, Mahmoud L. Sayed, A. A. Samy, Ghada Mohamed Al-Sadek, Gina Mohamed Mohamed 
Abd El-Hamid and Abde Hakam M. Ali
Veterinary World, 10(6): 610-615
Aim: Brucellosis is a major bacterial zoonosis of global importance affecting a range of animal species and man worldwide. It has economic, public health, and bio-risk importance. Control and prevention of animal brucellosis mainly depend on accurate diagnostic tools and implementation of effective and safe animal vaccination program. There are three types of animal Brucella live vaccines - Brucella melitensis Rev-1 vaccine, Brucella abortus S19, and B. abortus RB51. Evaluation of these vaccines depends mainly on enumeration of Brucella viable count. At present, used colony count method is time consuming, costly and requires especial skills. Hence, the aim of this study is to use and standardize real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as an alternative, quantitative, sensitive, and rapid method to detect the colony count of Brucella in live Brucellavaccine.
Materials and Methods: Four batches of different live Brucella vaccines were evaluated using of conventional bacterial count and RT-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) using BSCP31 gene specific primers and probe. Standard curve was generated from DNA template extracted from 10-fold serial dilution of living B. abortus RB51 vaccine to evaluate the sensitivity of RT-qPCR.
Results: Results revealed that three batches of living Brucella vaccines were acceptable for Brucella colony count when traditional bacterial enumeration method was used. Results of RT-qPCR were identical to that of conventional bacterial count.
Conclusion: Results concluded that RT-qPCR was relatively sensitive compared to traditional bacterial colony count of these vaccines.
Keywords: Brucella, colony count, RB51, Rev-1, real-time polymerase chain reaction, S19, vaccines.

Tuesday, 6 June 2017

Cytological endometritis and its agreement with ultrasound examination in postpartum beef cows

Research (Published online: 07-06-2017)
6. Cytological endometritis and its agreement with ultrasound examination in postpartum beef cows
N. Salah and N. Yimer
Veterinary World, 10(6): 605-609

N. Salah: Department of Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Department of Obstetrics and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Diyala, Baquba, 00964, Iraq.
N. Yimer: Department of Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.605-609

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Article history: Received: 18-02-2017, Accepted: 13-04-2017, Published online: 07-06-2017

Corresponding author: N. Yimer


Citation: Salah N, Yimer N (2017) Cytological endometritis and its agreement with ultrasound examination in postpartum beef cows, Veterinary World, 10(6): 605-609.


Background: Endometritis, which is one of the most common diseases in dairy cows postpartum, causes severe economic losses, including increased open days, calving intervals, and numbers of services to achieve conception.

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the ultrasound method and its agreement with the endometrium cytology method, which is used to diagnose cytological endometritis in beef cows. Moreover, we determined which method has higher sensitivity and specificity at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted 20-35 days postpartum. A total of 53 clinically healthy beef cows (28 Brangus and 25 Kedah-Kelantan breeds) from three beef farms were obtained. All cows were evaluated at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum, using ultrasound and cytobrush endometrial examination methods to diagnose cytological endometritis.

Results: Endometrial cytology result showed that 11.3% (6/53) and 9.4% (5/53) of the cows exhibited cytological endometritis 4 and 5 weeks postpartum, respectively. A weak-to-moderate agreement found between the diagnostic methods (k=0.29 - 0.50; p<0.01 and k=0.38 - 0.49) at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum respectively.

Conclusion: The percentage of beef cows that were positive to cytological endometritis was low (polymorphonuclear cells, =8%) at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum. Results showed that the ultrasound method is useful and practical for diagnosing endometritis 4 and 5 weeks postpartum. This method exhibited 60% sensitivity, 93.8% specificity, and a 0.50 kappa value, especially when presence of intrauterine fluids and measurement of cervix diameter used in combination.

Keywords: beef cows, cytology, endometritis, polymorphonuclear cells, ultrasound.

Characterization of hemagglutination activity of emerging Newcastle disease virus in Bangladesh

Research (Published online: 06-06-2017)
5. Characterization of hemagglutination activity of emerging Newcastle disease virus in Bangladesh - Helal Uddin, Kamrul Islam, Mukti Barua, Shariful Islam and Abdul Ahad
International Journal of One Health, 3: 28-35

  doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2017.28-35


Aim: Newcastle disease (ND) is an important viral disease for poultry caused by avian paramyxovirus which can be identified by its nature of agglutination activity with red blood cell (RBC) of different species. The study was aimed to characterize the hemagglutinating (HA) activity of ND virus (NDV) at three different temperatures using RBC of five avian species, six mammalian species, and eight different human blood groups.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from January to December 2014 at Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University. Five avian and six different mammalian species were selected for the study. In each species, two blood samples were collected aseptically. Eight different blood groups (A+, A−, B+, B−, AB+, AB−, O+, and O−) were studied in human. HA test was performed using two virus strains ND lasota and field isolate of very virulent NDV (VVNDV) with mentioned species of RBC at chilling (4°C), incubating (37°C), and room temperature (24°C).
Results: Avian RBC requires less time for agglutination than mammalian RBC. Incubation temperature (37°C) requires lowest time and chilling temperature requires highest time for agglutination of RBC. Duck RBC requires lowest time (17.81 min) while chicken RBC needs highest (57.5 min) time for HA at incubation temperature and at chilling temperature, respectively, against ND lasota virus and with field strain. Goat RBC requires significantly higher time for HA (184.68 min) at chilling temperature than other mammalian species. Human RBC requires almost similar time but O+ and O− blood group do not show any HA activity.
Conclusion: ND is considered as an economically significant disease which is highly contagious in nature infecting many avian species. The threat of ND outbreak to poultry industry necessitates effective control measures to reduce the burden in commercial and backyard farming in Bangladesh.
Keywords: chilling temperature, hemagglutination, incubation temperature, Newcastle disease virus, Newcastle disease virus lasota strain, very virulent Newcastle disease virus strain.

Monday, 5 June 2017

Molecular characterization of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from livestock (bovine and swine)

Research (Published online: 05-06-2017)
5. Molecular characterization of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from livestock 
(bovine and swine)
Asima Zehra, Randhir Singh, Simranpreet Kaur and J. P. S. Gill
Veterinary World, 10(6): 598-604

Aim: The aim of this study was to figure the prevalence, phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance (AR) pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine and swine nares.

Materials and Methods: Colonies with typical morphology on Baird-Parker agar supplemented with egg-yolk tellurite emulsion were selected and biochemically/genotypically identified as S. aureus. These strains were further subjected to epsilometer test for their sensitivity to various clinically important antibiotics and antibiotic susceptibility testing for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and double-disk diffusion testing was performed by the standard disc diffusion method following CLSI guidelines. S. aureus strains were also tested for the presence of AR genes, viz., blaZ, mecA, aacA-aphD, 
erm (ermA, ermB, ermC), tet (efflux genes tetK and tetL, tetM and tetO of the ribosomal protection family), and vanA.

Results: The nasal cavities of 17 out of 47 randomly selected bovine and 20 out of 28 randomly selected swine were positive for S. aureus, representing the prevalence of 36.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22.5-49.9) and 71.4% (95% CI: 54.7-88.1), respectively. Most of the S. aureus strains showed higher resistance to penicillin (94.6%, minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC] =1.5 μg/ml) followed by ciprofloxacin (56.7%, MIC =32 μg/ml) and tetracycline (18.9%, MIC =32 μg/ml). About 10-15% of the strains were resistant to gentamicin (MIC 16 μg/ml) and oxacillin (MIC 6-8 μg/ml). None of the strains were resistant to vancomycin (MIC 0.25-1.5 μg/ml). In this study, 32.4% strains were resistant to three or more than three antibiotics and prevalence of this multi-drug resistant S. aureus 
was 45% (95% CI: 26.6-63.4) and 17.6% (95% CI: 6.7- 28.5) in swine and bovine nasal samples, respectively. Four strains from pigs were borderline oxacillin-resistant S. aureus MIC 6-8 μg/ml, but none were mecA positive. Two of these strains were β-lactamase hyperproducers. Among the resistance genes blaZ, tetK, tetL, tetM, ermB, and aacA-aphD were found.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrated the absence of mecA and pvl gene, but the presence of multi-drug resistant S. aureus in the nares of healthy animals which has a potential to spread in a community.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance genes, epsilometer test, livestock nasal swabs, multidrug resistance, Staphylococcus aureus.