Thursday, 19 January 2017

Gastrointestinal parasitism of goats in hilly region of Meghalaya, India

Research (Published online: 19-01-2017)
13. Gastrointestinal parasitism of goats in hilly region of Meghalaya, India - Meena Das, R. Laha, A. Goswami and A. Sen
Veterinary World, 10(1): 81-85

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.81-85

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infections in goats of hilly region of Meghalaya.
Materials and Methods: A total of 834 fecal samples of goats were screened for 1 year (2014-2015) using flotation techniques.
Results: The overall prevalence of GI parasitic infections in goats was 28.65%. Season-wise highest infections were recorded during rainy season (34.92%) followed by cool (26.87%), hot (26.62%), and cold (20.39%) seasons. Helminths and protozoa infections were recorded in 63.60% and 23.02% animals, respectively. Among the helminths, Strongyle spp. (32.63%) was recorded highest followed by Trichuris spp. (12.55%), Moniezia spp. (10.04%), and Trichuris spp. (8.36%). Among protozoa, only Eimeria spp. was detected. Seven different species of Eimeria spp. were identified, viz., Eimeria christenseni, Eimeria hirci, Eimeria caprina, Eimeria jolchijevi, Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae, Eimeria arloingi, and Eimeria kocharii for the first time from Meghalaya. Maximum egg per gram and oocyst per gram of feces were recorded in the month of August (932.4) and September (674.05), respectively. Mixed infections were recorded in 13.38% samples. Coproculture of goat fecal samples revealed the presence of Haemonchus contortus (72.16%), Oesophagostomum spp. (14.41%), Strongyloides spp. (8.91%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (4.50%) larvae.
Conclusion: This study indicates that GI helminths and protozoa infections are prevalent in goats of this hilly region of Meghalaya, throughout the year and highly prevalent during rainy season.
Keywords: gastrointestinal parasites, goat, helminths, Meghalaya, protozoa.

Protective effect of rutin in comparison to silymarin against induced hepatotoxicity in rats

Research (Published online: 19-01-2017)
12. Protective effect of rutin in comparison to silymarin against induced hepatotoxicity in rats - M. Kasi Reddy, A. Gopala Reddy, B. Kala Kumar, D. Madhuri, G. Boobalan and M. Anudeep Reddy
Veterinary World, 10(1): 74-80

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.74-80

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of rutin (RTN) in comparison to silymarin (SLM) against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
Materials and Methods: Male Wistar albino rats (n=24) of 3 months age were equally divided into four groups. Group 1 served as normal control. Hepatotoxicity was induced in the remaining three groups with administration of 500 mg/kg po APAP from day 1-3. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were subsequently administered orally with distilled water, 25 mg/kg of SLM, and 20 mg/kg of RTN, respectively, for 11 days. The mean body weights and biomarkers of hepatotoxicity were estimated on day 0, 4 (confirmation of toxicity), and 15 (at the end of treatment). Hematological parameters were evaluated on day 4 and 15. Antioxidant profile and adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) were assessed at the end of the experiment. Liver tissues were subjected to histopathology and transmission electron microscopy after the sacrifice on day 15.
Results: Antioxidant profile, ATPases, and hematological and sero-biochemical parameters were significantly altered, and histopathological changes were noticed in the liver of toxic control group. These changes were reversed in groups 3 and 4 that were administered with SLM and RTN, respectively.
Conclusion: The results of the present investigation enunciated that SLM has potent hepatoprotective activity though the RTN was found superior in restoring the pathological alterations in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats.
Keywords: acetaminophen, hepatotoxicity, rutin, silymarin.

Wednesday, 18 January 2017

Influence of training and competitive sessions on peripheral β-endorphin levels in training show jumping horses

Research (Published online: 18-01-2017)
11. Influence of training and competitive sessions on peripheral β-endorphin levels in training show jumping horses - Cristina Cravana, P. Medica, G. Ragonese and E. Fazio
Veterinary World, 10(1): 67-73

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.67-73

Aim: To investigate the effects of training sessions on circulating β-endorphin changes in sport horses before and after competition and to ascertain whether competition would affect this response.
Materials and Methods: A total of 24 trained jumping horses were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: Group A (competing) and Group B (not competing). To determined plasma β-endorphin concentrations, two pre- and postcompetition training weeks at aerobic workout and two competitive show jumping event days at anaerobic workout were measured before, 5 and 30 min after exercise. Exercise intensity is described using lactate concentrations and heart rate. The circuit design, intensity, and duration of training sessions were the same for both groups.
Results: In Group A, one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures (RM-ANOVA) showed significant effects of exercise on β-endorphin changes (F=14.41; p<0.001), only in the post-competition training sessions, while in Group B showed no significant effects. Two-way RM-ANOVA showed, after post-competition training sessions, a significant difference between Group A and Group B (F=6.235; p=0.023), with higher β-endorphin changes in Group A, compared to Group B. During the competitive show jumping sessions, one-way RM ANOVA showed significant effects of exercise on β-endorphin changes (F=51.10; p<0.001). The statistical analysis, in Group A, showed a significant difference between postcompetition training and competitive exercise (F=6.32; p=0.024) with higher β-endorphin values in competitive sessions compared to those of post-competition training.
Conclusion: Lactate concentrations seem to be the main factors being correlated with the raise of β-endorphin during anaerobic exercise of competitive events. Exercise of low intensity, as well as that one of training sessions, does not appear to stimulate a significant increased release of β-endorphin and it may depend on the duration of the exercise program. Moreover, the responses during exercise in the course of post-competition training sessions seem to be significantly different from those the pre-competition training. These data show that the preliminary competitive stress induced additional significant changes of β-endorphin pattern. It would reflect the need of a long-lasting modulation of fatigue and pain perception related to the effect of an additional physical and mental effort for the consecutive competitive and training sessions.
Keywords: β-endorphin, competition, horse, show jumping, training.

Tuesday, 17 January 2017

Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitism in small ruminants in western zone of Punjab, India

Research (Published online: 17-01-2017)
10. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitism in small ruminants in western zone of Punjab, India - E. Singh, P. Kaur, L. D. Singla and
M. S. Bal
Veterinary World, 10(1): 61-66

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.61-66

Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitism in small ruminants in relation to various risk factors in the western zone of Punjab.
Materials and Methods: During the study, 603 fecal samples (391 of sheep and 212 of goats) were examined qualitatively by floatation and sedimentation techniques, and quantitatively by McMaster technique.
Results: Out of the 603 fecal (391 sheep and 212 goats) samples examined, 501 were found positive for endoparasitic infection with an overall prevalence of 83.08%, consisting of 85.16% and 79.24% in sheep and goats, respectively. Egg per gram in sheep was apparently more 1441.88±77.72 than goats 1168.57±78.31. The associated risk factors with the prevalence of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) parasites showed that females (85.97%) were significantly more susceptible than males (69.23%). Age wise the adults (>6 months) were significantly more prone to parasitic infection as compared to young ones (<6 months). Seasonal variation was recorded throughout the year and was significantly highest during monsoon (90.10%), followed by winter (83.84%) and summer (78.35%).
Conclusion: The study revealed an overall prevalence of 83.08% of GIT parasitic infections in small ruminants constituting 85.16% in sheep and 79.24% in goats in the western zone of Punjab. The most relevant risk factors for the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitism in ruminants were sex, age, and season.
Keywords: gastrointestinal parasitism, goat, prevalence, Punjab, sheep, western zone.

Veterinary World reviewer acknowledgment 2016

Reviewer Acknowledgment (Published online: 17-01-2017)
9. Veterinary World reviewer acknowledgment 2016 - A. V. Sherasiya and Nazir
Veterinary World, 10(1): 56-60

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.56-60

Friday, 13 January 2017

Transcriptomic comparison of primary bovine horn core carcinoma culture and parental tissue at early stage

Research (Published online: 13-01-2017)
8. Transcriptomic comparison of primary bovine horn core carcinoma culture and parental tissue at early stage - Sharadindu Shil, R. S. Joshi, C. G. Joshi, A. K. Patel, Ravi K. Shah, Namrata Patel, Subhash J. Jakhesara, Sumana Kundu, Bhaskar Reddy, P. G. Koringa and D. N. Rank
Veterinary World, 10(1): 38-55

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.38-55

Aim: Squamous cell carcinoma or SCC of horn in bovines (bovine horn core carcinoma) frequently observed in Bos indicus affecting almost 1% of cattle population. Freshly isolated primary epithelial cells may be closely related to the malignant epithelial cells of the tumor. Comparison of gene expression in between horn’s SCC tissue and its early passage primary culture using next generation sequencing was the aim of this study.
Materials and Methods: Whole transcriptome sequencing of horn’s SCC tissue and its early passage cells using Ion Torrent PGM were done. Comparative expression and analysis of different genes and pathways related to cancer and biological processes associated with malignancy, proliferating capacity, differentiation, apoptosis, senescence, adhesion, cohesion, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and metabolic pathways were identified.
Results: Up-regulated genes in SCC of horn’s early passage cells were involved in transporter activity, catalytic activity, nucleic acid binding transcription factor activity, biogenesis, cellular processes, biological regulation and localization and the down-regulated genes mainly were involved in focal adhesion, extracellular matrix receptor interaction and spliceosome activity.
Conclusion: The experiment revealed similar transcriptomic nature of horn’s SCC tissue and its early passage cells.
Keywords: cummerbund, gene ontology, primary culture, RNA-sequencing, squamous cell carcinoma of horn, transcriptome profiling.