Monday, 23 October 2017

Occurrence, treatment protocols, and outcomes of colic in horses within Nairobi County, Kenya

Research (Published online: 23-10-2017)
15. Occurrence, treatment protocols, and outcomes of colic in horses within Nairobi County, Kenya
Anderson Gitari, James Nguhiu, Vijay Varma and Eddy Mogoa
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1255-1263
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the treatments and their outcomes in horses with colic in Nairobi County, Kenya.

Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study to determine the occurrence, treatments, pain management, and outcomes of colic in horses in Nairobi County. Association between pain management protocols and the outcomes of colic with regard to recovery or death was also determined. Data collected from four equine practitioners were organized manually and given numerical codes as appropriate to facilitate entry into the computer. The coded data were entered into Microsoft Excel 2010 and exported to StatPlus pro 5.9.8 statistical package for analysis. Simple association tests were done between various factors and occurrence of colic.

Results: The incidence of colic for the 11 years was 3.1%, which constituted 68.0% spasmodic colic, 27.8% impaction colic, and 4.2% displacement colic. Flunixin meglumine as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) was used as the only pain management treatment in 85.3% of the cases, flunixin meglumine and butorphanol as NSAID-OPIOD combination in 6.4% of the cases, while buscopan as an antispasmodic was recorded in 5.9% of the cases mainly in spasmodic colic. Univariate analysis revealed simple association between various factors and the type of colic a horse was having. There was an association between the type of colic and the decision-making on the pain management protocol to use, whether single analgesic protocol (χ2=22.5, p<0.001) or use of analgesic combinations (χ2=18.3, p<0.001). The type of colic strongly influenced the decision for performing nasogastric intubation (χ2=265, p<0.001), but performing nasogastric intubation was weakly (χ2=4.9, p=0.03) associated with horse recovery from colic. Type of colic also strongly influenced the need for the use of metabolic stimulants, particularly vitamin B-complex (χ2=99.3, p<0.001). Recovery or death of the horse from colic was strongly associated with the type of colic (χ2=250, p<0.001). The possibility of recurrence of colic was weakly (χ2=4.6, p=0.04) determined by the type of colic, a horse had. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the main cause of death was intestinal displacement and the majority of the horses with intestinal displacement died (β-estimate 2.7, odds ratio=0.07, p=0.007) compared to horses that had impaction colic.

Conclusion: The incidence of colic is 3.1%, and the most common type of colic is spasmodic followed by impaction. The most common pain management protocol for colic is NSAIDs, mainly flunixin meglumine, followed by flunixin-butorphanol combination. Surgery for horses with colic in Nairobi County is not commonly done due to impeding poor prognoses. The horse owners tend to prefer euthanasia for such cases.

Keywords: pain management, colic, incidence, Nairobi, treatment.

Thursday, 19 October 2017

Factors influencing growth hormone levels of Bali cattle in Bali, Nusa Penida, and Sumbawa Islands, Indonesia

Research (Published online: 19-10-2017)
14. Factors influencing growth hormone levels of Bali cattle in Bali, Nusa Penida, and Sumbawa Islands, Indonesia
N. K. Suwiti, I N. K. Besung and G. N. Mahardika
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1250-1254
Aim: Bali cattle (Bos javanicus) are an Indonesian's native cattle breed that distributed in Asia to Australia. The scientific literature on these cattle is scarce. The growth hormone (GH) of Bali cattle is investigated from three separated islands, namely, Bali, Nusa Penida, and Sumbawa.
Materials and Methods: Forty plasma samples were collected from each island, and the GH was measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The data were analyzed based on the origin, sex, and cattle raising practices.
Results: We found that the GH level (bovine GH [BGH]) of animal kept in stall 1.72±0.70 μg/ml was higher than free-grazing animal 1.27±0.81 μg/ml. The GH level was lower in female (1.22±0.62 μg/ml) compared to male animals (1.77±0.83 μg/ml).
Conclusion: We conclude that the level of BGH in Bali cattle was low and statistically equal from all origins. The different level was related to sex and management practices. Further validation is needed through observing the growth rate following BGH administration and discovering the inbreeding coefficient of the animal in Indonesia.
Keywords: Bali cattle, growth hormone, Indonesia.

Tuesday, 17 October 2017

Epidemiology of bovine fascioliasis in the Nile Delta region of Egypt: Its prevalence, evaluation of risk factors, and its economic significance

Research (Published online: 18-10-2017)
13. Epidemiology of bovine fascioliasis in the Nile Delta region of Egypt: Its prevalence, evaluation of risk factors, and its economic significance
Abdelgawad S. El-Tahawy, Eman K. Bazh and Reda E. Khalafalla
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1241-1249

Aim: This study focuses on the risk factors associated with the prevalence of Fasciola affecting cattle population in three provinces belonging to the Nile Delta of Egypt and to estimate the economic losses as a result of fascioliasis.

Materials and Methods: From January 2015 to end of December 2015, records of 21 farms (4976 cattle) were analyzed to screen the prevalence of fascioliasis among cattle farms, to identify its associated risk factors and its economic impacts on Nile Delta region of Egypt.

Results: The overall prevalence of fascioliasis in the Nile Delta region of Egypt was 9.77%. The prevalence of fascioliasis was found to be statistically significantly associated with age, sex, breed, and type of farms. The highest prevalence was observed in <2 age group (10.91%), and the lowest was >3 age groups (8.35%). In terms of body condition scores, cattle with medium and poor conditions were associated with fascioliasis more than those with good body condition. Besides, cattle raised in organic farms were associated with lower risk of fascioliasis than those in conventional farms. The prevalence of fascioliasis was noted more prominent in districts with moderate temperatures and with relative humidity (>60%). The annual overall costs for fascioliasis were estimated to be 221.2 USD/cow due to the significant reduction in body weight, reduction in milk production, and the treatment costs for fascioliasis.

Conclusion: The results provided could be helpful for improving the control and preventive strategies.

Keywords: cattle, Egypt, fascioliasis, Nile Delta, prevalence, risk factors.

Monday, 16 October 2017

Organizational leadership perspectives in implementation of the One Health approach: A case of the Zoonotic Disease Unit and core One Health implementers in Kenya

Research (Published online: 17-10-2017)
10. Organizational leadership perspectives in implementation of the One Health approach: A case of the Zoonotic Disease Unit and core One Health implementers in Kenya - Thomas Manyibe Nyariki, Mathew Muturi, Athman Mwatondo, Michael Cheruiyot, Harry Oyas, Vincent Obanda, Francis Gakuya, Rees Murithi Mbabu and Mercy Muthoni Mugambi

International Journal of One Health, 3: 57-65

  doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2017.57-65


This study examined organizational leadership as a cross-sectoral collaboration factor in the implementation of the One Health (OH) approach using Kenya’s Zoonotic Disease Unit and its core OH implementers as an example.

Materials and Method:

The study used a mixed methods research design. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 71 respondents, and key informants were interviewed using an interview guide. All the seven key informants and 53 (74%) of the respondents participated in the study. Data were checked for consistency, coded, entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, and analyzed using descriptive and correlational statistics. Interview data were transcribed and analyzed thematically.

From the analysis, 41/53 (77.2%) of the respondents were senior personnel, 51/53 (85%) of them had worked for 5 years and above in their organizations, and 38/53 (71.7%) had at least a Master’s degree. The study established that although most leaders in the organizations had embraced the OH approach, they were not actively involved in its implementation due to constraints such as inadequate funding. There were moderate and statistically significant positive correlations between participation in leadership roles in implementing the OH approach and the level of awareness (Rs (51)=0.54, p<0.001) as well as level of sensitization (Rs (51)=0.52, p<0.001). Majority (86%) of respondents acknowledged that top government leaders were not well sensitized about the OH approach.


Organizational leadership plays an important role in the implementation of the OH approach. However, sensitization of leaders about the OH approach needs to be enhanced and expanded.


cross-sectoral collaboration, One Health approach, organizational leadership, sensitization.

Sunday, 15 October 2017

Occurrence of virulent and antibiotic-resistant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in some food products and human stool in Egypt

Research (Published online: 15-10-2017)
12. Occurrence of virulent and antibiotic-resistant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in some food products and human stool in Egypt
Osman Mohamed Hamed, Maha Ahmed Sabry, Nawal A. Hassanain, Eman Hamza, Ahmed G. Hegazi and Marwa Badawy Salman
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1233-1240
Aim: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) represent a severe public health issue worldwide, causing life-threatening diseases in the human gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of virulent and antibiotic-resistant STEC in retail meat and milk products and human stool samples and to characterize the genes encoding for virulence and antibiotic resistance among the identified STEC isolates.
Materials and Methods: A total of 260 food samples were randomly collected from retail markets in different localities of El Giza Governorate, Egypt. 50 stool specimens were obtained from children that had diarrhea at Embaba Fever Hospital. All collected samples were initially subjected to bacteriological examination and serotyping, and then subsequently, the isolates were exposed to polymerase chain reaction application and sequencing for the identification of the virulence-related genes. Finally, the virulent STEC isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility.
Results: Serotyping of the 76 biochemically identified isolates showed that 18 were STEC with a predominance of non- O157 (16) while 2 O157:K-serotype was detected only in one food and one human isolate. Molecular identification of the virulence genes illustrated that the minced meat showed the highest prevalence of STEC (8%) as compared to the other food products. In the humans, the O157 was the only serotype that expresses the Shiga toxin-associated gene (eaeA). Antibiotic susceptibility test displayed that 13 of the 17 food and human isolates (76.47%) were resistant to cephalothin (KF30). 9 of the 13 cephalothin-resistant isolates harbor the β lactamase (blaTEM)-resistant gene. All isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and gentamicin. DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the stx2-positive minced meat isolate revealed a high genetic relatedness with beef minced meat from the USA and Australia.
Conclusion: This study showed the predominance of non-O157 among the identified isolates. Minced meat showed the highest prevalence of STEC as compared to the other food products, and this work illustrates the necessity to consider the food products as a potential source of the non-O157 STEC serotypes. DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed a high genetic relatedness with beef minced meat from the USA and Australia. This highlights the high probability of worldwide spread of such serotypes, signifying the importance of the one world concept.
Keywords: antibiotic resistance bacteria, cheese, DNA sequencing, human stool, meat, polymerase chain reaction, serotyping, shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

Saturday, 14 October 2017

Clinicopathological alterations in naturally occurring Babesia gibsoni infection in dogs of Middle-South Gujarat, India

Research (Published online: 14-10-2017)
11. Clinicopathological alterations in naturally occurring Babesia gibsoni infection in dogs of Middle-South Gujarat, India
Avinash K. Bilwal, Ghanshyam C. Mandali and Falguni B. Tandel
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1227-1232

Aim: The present research work was undertaken to describe various clinical signs and hematobiochemical alterations in dogs affected with Babesia gibsoni.

Materials and Methods: Blood smears from a total of 79 suspected dogs of Anand region as well as Surat region of Gujarat state (India) were screened for detection of intraerythrocytic piroplasm of small form of Babesia. Diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical signs and demonstration of B. gibsoni organism in Giemsa-stained thin blood smears. The clinical signs were recorded at the time of presentation, and blood samples were subjected to estimation of hematobiochemical parameters by auto hematology analyzers at College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand. Statistical analysis, interpretation, and comparison of hematobiochemical changes with scientific literature were carried out to understand the pathophysiology of the disease.

Results: Out of 79 dogs, 16 were positive for naturally occurring babesiosis based on the presence of intraerythrocytic piroplasm of small form of Babesia in blood smears. The clinical cases were manifested by wide variety of non-specific clinical signs. The hematological evaluation revealed that the mean values of hemoglobin and total erythrocyte counts in dogs with babesiosis decreased significantly (p<0.01) in comparison to healthy dogs. Among differential leukocyte count, mean values of neutrophils and eosinophils increased while lymphocytes decreased (p<0.01) in dogs with babesiosis in comparison to healthy dogs. Serum biochemistry revealed increase (p<0.01) value of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and globulin as well as decrease in albumin levels (p<0.05) in dogs with babesiosis as compared to healthy dogs.

Conclusion: B. gibsoni is having multisystemic effects with atypical hematobiochemical changes in dog are discussed here, which would aid new insights in diagnosis of disease.

Keywords: babesiosis, clinicopathological changes, dogs, intraerythrocytic piroplasm.