Tuesday, 25 April 2017

Spatial pattern of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in North Central Nigeria

Research (Published online: 26-04-2017)
13. Spatial pattern of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in North Central Nigeria
Yiltawe Simwal Wungak, Olayinka O. Ishola, Babasola O. Olugasa, David D. Lazarus, David O. Ehizibolo and Hussaini G. Ularamu
Veterinary World, 10(4): 450-456
Aim: This study aimed to determine the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating, the prevalence of FMDV serotypes, and the spatial distribution of FMDV among sedentary and pastoral cattle herds in the North-Central Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken, during which a total of 155 sera that tested positive for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) 3ABC non-structural protein antibodies were selected and screened for FMD structural protein serotypes, A, O, SAT 1, and SAT 2 using a solid-phase competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Epithelial tissue specimens were collected during outbreak investigations which were tested for FMD using an antigen capture ELISA for serotype A, O, SAT 1, and SAT 2.
Results: An overall serotype-specific prevalence of 79.35 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 72.4-85.18) was recorded for serotype O, 65.2% (95% CI: 57.41-72.3) for serotype A, 52.9% (95% CI: 45.03-60.67) for SAT-2, and 33.55% (95% CI: 26.45-41.26) for SAT-1. Evidence of exposure to multiple FMDV serotypes showed that 12.26% of the sera samples had antibodies against four serotypes circulating, 30.97% had antibodies against three serotypes circulating, 22.58% had antibodies against two serotypes, and 17% showed exposure to only one serotype. Clinical specimens (epithelial tissue) collected during outbreak investigations showed that serotype O has the highest proportion of 50% with serotype A - 25%; SAT 2 - 20.8%; and SAT 1 - 4.1%.
Conclusion: The study detected diffuse and co-circulation of serotypes A, O, SAT1, and SAT2 within the study area, and hence the need for the appropriately matched multivalent vaccine is strongly advocated for FMD control in Nigeria.
Keywords: antibodies, endemic, foot-and-mouth disease, multiple, Nigeria, serotypes, spatial.

Monday, 24 April 2017

The importance of timely introduction of vancomycin therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia and severity of MRSA bacteremia at Teaching Hospital, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka

Research (Published online: 25-04-2017)
2The importance of timely introduction of vancomycin therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia and severity of MRSA bacteremia at Teaching Hospital, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka -Jayaweera Arachchige Asela Sampath Jayaweera, Malika Karunarathne and Wikum Widuranga Kumbukgolla
International Journal of One Health, 3: 7-11

  doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2017.7-11


Aim: Worldwide, an estimated 2 billion healthy people carry Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and of these, up to 53 million are thought to carry methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA)MRSA bacteremia patients are more critical to manage and timely introduction of antibiotics is life-saving. The aim of the study was to elucidate the prevalence of MRSA bacteremia in different units of Teaching Hospital, Anuradhapura (THA), Sri Lanka and assess the clinical characteristics and associated mortality related to timely introduction of vancomycin therapy.
Materials and Methods: The data on MRSA bacteremia which were obtained from THA, for the period of March 2012 to December 2013 were statically analyzed emphasizing the unit-wise prevalence, severity, and comorbidity and timely introduction of vancomycin therapy.
Results: The laboratory records of total 13,260 blood cultures were analyzed. Of those, MRSA bacteremia was detected in 61 cultures (9.3%). The highest prevalence of MRSA bacteremia was observed in the nephrology unit. The survival rate of the patients when the vancomycin therapy started before 24 h of receiving the blood culture report was 94.9% and in the instances of the treatment started after 24 h of blood culture report, the survival rate decreased down to 50%. High Pitt Bacteraemia score (PBS) (p<0.05) and initiation of vancomycin therapy after 24 h following the receipt of blood culture report (p<0.05) independently affected the MRSA bacteremic patient’s 7th day mortality. Having comorbidities have not shown significant impact on 7th day mortality.
Conclusion: The start of vancomycin therapy as earlier as possible following arrival of antibacterial susceptibility test reduces the likelihood of mortality.
Keywords: MRSA bacteremia, timing of vancomycin, severity.

Saturday, 22 April 2017

Molecular detection of Taenia spp. in dogs' feces in Zanjan Province, Northwest of Iran

Research (Published online: 23-04-2017)
12. Molecular detection of Taenia spp. in dogs' feces in Zanjan Province, Northwest of Iran
Mohammad Hasan Kohansal, Abbasali Nourian, Ali Haniloo and Asghar Fazaeli
Veterinary World, 10(4): 445-449
Aim: Echinococcus and Taenia spp. are important but neglected zoonotic helminths of dogs. Dogs as the most relevant definitive hosts harbor several species of Taenia and Echinococcus simultaneously in their gastrointestinal lumen which are morphologically indistinguishable. In this study, we used a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to identify Taeniid infections which seem to be highly distributed in the study region.
Materials and Methods: A total of 450 dog fecal samples were collected from eight different areas of Zanjan province, northwest of Iran, and examined using a flotation method followed by multiplex PCR for detection and identification of parasites' eggs.
Results: Gastrointestinal parasites were found in 86 out of 450 fecal samples (19.1%) by microscopic examination. Taeniid eggs were observed in 5.6% of samples, containing 0.45%, 3.8%, and 1.3% Echinococcus granulosusTaenia spp., and mix infection of both E. granulosus and Taenia spp., respectively. Echinococcus multilocularis was absent in the samples.
Conclusion: A relatively low rate of E. granulosus (1.8%) was observed in this study. However, risks of this parasite should not be overlooked, and control programs need to be extended for this species and other Taeniid spp. In particular, dogs are recommended to be dewormed more frequently.
Keywords: dog, Echinococcus spp., eggs, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, Taenia spp.

Friday, 21 April 2017

Pathotypic characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolated from vaccinated chicken in West Java, Indonesia

Research (Published online: 22-04-2017)
11. Pathotypic characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolated from vaccinated chicken in West Java, Indonesia
Dwi Desmiyeni Putri, Ekowati Handharyani, Retno Damajanti Soejoedono, Agus Setiyono, Ni Luh Putu Ika Mayasari and Okti Nadia Poetri
Veterinary World, 10(4): 438-444
Aim: This research was conducted to differentiate and characterize eight Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates collected from vaccinated chicken at commercial flocks in West Java, Indonesia, in 2011, 2014 and 2015 by pathotype specific primers.
Materials and Methods: A total of eight NDV isolates collected from clinical outbreaks among commercial vaccinated flocks in West Java, Indonesia, in 2011, 2014, and 2015 were used in this study. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect and differentiate virulence of NDV strains, using three sets of primers targeting their M and F gene. First primers were universal primers to detect NDV targeting matrix (M) gene. Other two sets of primers were specific for the fusion (F) gene cleavage site sequence of virulent and avirulent NDV strains.
Results: Our results showed that three isolates belong to NDV virulent strains, and other five isolates belong to NDV avirulent strains. The nucleotide sequence of the F protein cleavage site showed 112K/R-R-Q/R-K-R/G-F117 on NDV virulent strains and 112G-K/R-Q-G-R-L117 on NDV avirulent strain.
Conclusion: Result from the current study suggested that NDV virulent strain were circulating among vaccinated chickens in West Java, Indonesia; this might possess a risk of causing ND outbreaks and causing economic losses within the poultry industry.
Keywords: F gene, M gene, molecular pathotyping, Newcastle disease virus, vaccinated chickens, virulence.

Thursday, 20 April 2017

Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

Review (Published online: 21-04-2017)
10. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review
Yasir Afzal Beigh, Abdul Majeed Ganai and Haidar Ali Ahmad
Veterinary World, 10(4): 424-437
Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.
Keywords: benefits, complete feed, concept, feeding, ruminants.

Wednesday, 19 April 2017

A reducing trend of fasciolosis in slaughtered animals based on abattoir data in South of Iran

Research (Published online: 20-04-2017)
9. A reducing trend of fasciolosis in slaughtered animals based on abattoir data in South of Iran
Manoochehr Shabani Kordshooli, Kavous Solhjoo, Belal Armand, Hamidreza Dowlatkhah and Masoud Esmi Jahromi
Veterinary World, 10(4): 418-423
Aim: Fascioliasis is a zoonosis infection caused by the liver trematodes (Fasciola spp.) which have been considered to be an important disease in livestock. After several large outbreaks, fascioliasis remains one of the serious health concerns of Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and possible trends of fascioliasis in slaughtered animals in South of Iran based on abattoir data during a period of 5 years.
Materials and Methods: The daily records for cattle, sheep, and goats slaughtered in the abattoir were extracted from the archived documents of the recent 5 years (2011-2015) and used as the source of data. The collected data were statistically analyzed for finding any probable correlation between the various factors associated with fasciolosis.
Results: Our results showed that 3.44% of all slaughtered animals during 2011-2015 were infected with Fasciola spp. The mean prevalence of fasciolosis for cattle, sheep, and goat was 11.15%, 5.22%, and 2.15%, respectively. In addition, the highest infection rate was in winter (4.02%), and the lowest were entered in summer (2.86%).
Conclusion: Our findings showed a reducing trend during the 5 years. Improving the animal husbandry and increasing the awareness through fasciolosis may be a logical explanation for this trend. Since there have been suggested numerous factors associated with the epidemiology of fasciolosis, further studies seem essential for better clarifying the various aspects of fasciolosis in areas.
Keywords: fasciolosis, livestock, prevalence, south of Iran, trend.