Saturday, 30 December 2017

Isolation, culture, characterization, and osteogenic differentiation of canine endometrial mesenchymal stem cell

Research (Published online: 30-12-2017)
19. Isolation, culture, characterization, and osteogenic differentiation of canine endometrial mesenchymal stem cell
A. K. Sahoo, J. K. Das and S. Nayak
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1533-1541
ABSTRACT
Aim: In this study, the canine endometrium tissue is characterized for its stem cell properties such as adherence to tissue culture plate (plasticity), short population doubling time, serial clonal passaging, long-term culturing properties, stem cell marker expression, and multilineage differentiation potential.
Materials and Methods: The present work describes a novel isolation protocol for obtaining mesenchymal stem cells from the uterine endometrium and is compared with cells derived from umbilical cord matrix as a positive control. These cells are clonogenic, can undergo several population doublings in vitro, and can be differentiated to the osteocytes in mature mesenchymal tissues when grown in osteogenic differentiation media as detected by Alizarin Red-S staining.
Results: It is reported for the first time that the cells derived from the canine endometrium (e-multipotent stem cells [MSCs]) were able to differentiate into a heterologous cell type: Osteocytes, thus demonstrating the presence of MSCs. Thus, the endometrium may be told as a potential source of MSCs which can be used for various therapeutic purposes.
Conclusion: The endometrium can be used as a potential source of MSCs, which can be used for various therapeutic purposes.
Keywords: Alizarin Red-S staining, endometrium, mesenchymal stem cell, multipotent stem cells marker, osteogenic differentiation media.

Friday, 29 December 2017

Insights into bovine endometritis with special reference to phytotherapy

Review (Published online: 29-12-2017)
18. Insights into bovine endometritis with special reference to phytotherapy
Ritika Mandhwani, Anavil Bhardwaz, Sudarshan Kumar, Madhu Shivhare and Ranjit Aich
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1529-1532
ABSTRACT
Postpartum reproductive disorders cause heavy economic losses in dairy sector. Uterine infections include endometritis, metritis, mucometra, and pyometra. Postpartum endometritis in dairy cows has been defined as inflammation of endometrium occurring 21 days or more after parturition without systemic signs of illness. The treatment of endometritis with antimicrobials has met with varying degrees of success, inconsistent recovery rate, high cost of treatment, milk disposal, emergence of microbial resistance, and reduced phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes In our country, around 20,000 medicinal plant species have been recorded, but more than 500 traditional communities use about 800 plant species for curing different diseases. Many herbs such as garlic, neem, ashwagandha, and turmeric have been tried for the treatment of endometritis in cows with a good success.
Keywords: ashwagandha, bovine, endometritis, garlic, neem, phytotherapy, tulsi, turmeric.

Wednesday, 27 December 2017

Studies on reconstruction of large skin defects following mammary tumor excision in dogs

Research (Published online: 27-12-2017)
17. Studies on reconstruction of large skin defects following mammary tumor excision in dogs
Sabarish Babu Malli Sadhasivan, Mohamed Shafiuzama, Mala Shammi, Ganne Venkata Sudhakar Rao, Nitin J D Souza, Hemalatha Senthilnayagam, Ravi Sundar George and P. Manoj Prabhakar
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1521-1528
ABSTRACT
Aim: The main objective of the study was to describe the use of skin fold advancement flaps (SFAFs) and other reconstructive techniques for closure of large skin defects following mammary tumor excision in dogs.
Materials and Methods: Twelve dogs underwent reconstruction of large ventral skin defects following mammary tumor excision with wide margins. Skin fold flaps (flank fold flap and elbow fold flap) were elevated from the flank and elbow region, respectively, and transposed and sutured onto the large ventral skin defect following mastectomy in all the dogs. In addition to the skin fold flaps, other reconstructive techniques such as undermining, walking sutures, and tension-relieving suture techniques were followed during surgery in the closure of large skin defects without skin tension and compromising limb mobility. The skin flap viability was assessed subjectively by gross observation of the flap such as color, temperature, capillary perfusion, and cosmetic appearance, and scoring (1-4) was done. Tissue samples were collected from a surgical site on days 3, 6, and 12 post-operatively for histopathological evaluation and healing status of the skin flap.
Results: All the surgical wounds healed primarily, without any major complications and the skin flap remained healthy throughout the healing process post-operatively. Distal flap necrosis was noticed in one case and necrosis of skin flap between two suture lines was noticed in another case in which the necrotized distal portion healed by secondary intention after 7 days. The mean survival of subdermal plexus flap in the above cases was 98% which was a subjective evaluation based on surface area of the skin defect measured by Image 'J software and the flap dimensions. The average healing of skin flap in days was 14.91±0.86.
Conclusion: The SFAFs along with other reconstructive techniques help in the reconstruction of large ventral skin defects following mastectomy in dogs without much compromising limb mobility.
Keywords: canine, histopathology, mammary tumors, reconstruction, skin fold flaps.

Tuesday, 26 December 2017

Isolation and identification of a cellulolytic Enterobacter from rumen of Aceh cattle

Research (Published online: 26-12-2017)
16. Isolation and identification of a cellulolytic Enterobacter from rumen of Aceh cattle
Wenny Novita Sari, Safika, Darmawi and Yudha Fahrimal
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1515-1520
ABSTRACT
Aim: The aim of this study was to isolate and identify a cellulolytic bacterium from the rumen fluid of Aceh's cattle. Biodegradation by cellulolytic rumen bacteria can be used as a source of cellulolytic bacteria that act to degrade feed fibrous material so as to improve the quality of nutrients and digestibility of feed ingredients at a cheaper price than the use of commercial cellulase enzymes.
Materials and Methods: Samples were collected from rumen fluid of Aceh's cattle in Abattoirs (RPH) of Banda Aceh city, Indonesia, isolation, and screening of cellulolytic bacteria were done in Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia.
Results: The S1 isolates showed ±2.5 cm of clear zone diameter. Microscopically, this strain was found to be a Gram-negative, Bacillus. Homology and phylogenetic tree analysis of 16S rRNA showed that S1 isolate has 91% of sequence similarity with that of Enterobacter cloacae. 91% sequence homology shown in this study proved that the S1 isolate is probably either a new species or another genus of Enterobacteriaceae.
Conclusion: Current study suggests that cellulose hydrolytic bacteria isolated from rumen fluid of Aceh cattle on Bushnell Haas medium-carboxymethylcellulose agar, and some potent cellulose degrading bacteria have been identified.
Keywords: Aceh cattle, cellulose, cellulolytic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, rumen.

Monday, 25 December 2017

Level of knowledge of small-scale milk producers on bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in selected parts of Chongwe district

Research (Published online: 25-12-2017)
13. Level of knowledge of small-scale milk producers on bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in selected parts of Chongwe district - Emmanuel Chileshe
International Journal of One Health, 3: 83-86


Abstract

Aim: This study was intended to establish the level of knowledge of small-scale milk producers on bovine tuberculosis (BTB), one of the neglected zoonotic diseases.

Materials and Methods: In this study, a descriptive cross-sectional survey design was used. A total of 369 small-scale milk producers were interviewed using a pretested interviewer questionnaire. Using a computer, data obtained from the operator-administered questionnaires were entered in Epidata® and exported to Stata 10.0® for analysis with which descriptive statistics were generated for analysis. The level of knowledge on BTB for both male and female small-scale milk producers was analyzed in relation to membership to cooperative, frequency of TB tests in cattle, availability of extension services, and milk handling and utilization practices. The relationships between the different hypothesized confounders and the binary outcome (BTB testing) were investigated with Pearson’s Chi-squared test for association. Logistic regression model describing the BTB cattle testing among the farmers controlling for hypothesized confounders was finalized using likelihood ratio testing to screen the significance of posited confounders in the model. To ensure validity and eliminate bias of data, the interviews were limited to three interviewers. The questionnaires were pre-tested for clarity as well as to avoid confounding questions.

Results: Majority (95%) of the small-scale milk producers across the study had heard about BTB. The proportion of those who knew that it is transmittable to humans was low (43.8%). The proportion of those who knew its mode of transmission to humans was also low (32.4%). However, it was high in milk producers belonging to dairy cooperatives followed by producers in livestock cooperatives. It was noted that a small proportion of small-scale milk producers ensured that their cattle were tested for BTB. Logistic regression showed that there was 73 times likelihood that small-scale milk producers belonging to dairy cooperatives will have their cattle tested for BTB.

Conclusion: The study established a low level of knowledge on BTB transmission and prevention. It also concluded that few cattle in the small-scale milk production sector get tested for BTB and that the level of knowledge of the milk producers on BTB, in this sector, is associated with this.

Keywords: bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, veterinary extension.

Effect of probiotic supplementation on organic feed to alternative antibiotic growth promoter on production performance and economics analysis of quail

Research (Published online: 25-12-2017)
15. Effect of probiotic supplementation on organic feed to alternative antibiotic growth promoter on production performance and economics analysis of quail
W. P. Lokapirnasari, A. R. Dewi, A. Fathinah, S. Hidanah, N. Harijani, Soeharsono, B. Karimah and A. D. Andriani
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1508-1514
ABSTRACT
Aim: The purpose of this study was to know the production performance and economic analysis in quail which use probiotic supplementation to alternate antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) to feed consumption, water consumption, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion, and feed efficiency.
Materials and Methods: About 240 quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) at 14 weeks of age were completely randomized into four treatments, each treatment consisted of six replications and each replication consisted by 10 heads. The treatment was T0 (organic feed without AGP and without probiotic), T1 (organic feed + 0.001% AGP), T2 (organic feed + 0.005% probiotic in feed), and T3 (organic feed + 0.005% probiotic in drinking water). The probiotic consist of 1.2x105 CFU/g of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus.
Results: The results showed that the probiotic supplementation both in feed and water give a significant impact to feed consumption, water intake, feed conversion, feed efficiency, and quail day production, but no statistical difference of egg mass. The T3 also show the most profitable business analysis, which has the best result in income, profit, break-even point, return cost ratio, benefit-cost ratio, and return on investment.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that giving 0.005% probiotic in drinking water to get the best egg production and profit.
Keywords: antibiotic growth promoter, economic analysis, probiotic, production performance, quail.